“Bringing the world into focus
through the lens of Scripture”

frosty@khouseafrica.com

 

 

 

K-House Africa

 

Banking Details

 

Radio 66/40

 

 

 

 Africa news

 

THE STRUGGLE FOR JERUSALEM

 

 

The Rise Of Islam

 

 

THE DECLINE OF THE USA

 

 

GLOBAL RELIGION

 

 

GLOBAL PESTILENCE

 

 

Global Government

 

 

THE RISE OF THE FAR EAST

 

 

THE RISE OF THE EUROPEAN SUPER STATE

 

 

WEAPONS PROLIFERATION

 

 

THE MAGOG INVASION

 

 

Space & Science

Classics

 

 

UNDERSTAND THE TIMES

 

 

 

Articles

 

DVD PRICELIST

 

Price List

 

 Kings High Way Briefing Packs

 

Topical Teachings

DVD Briefing Back

Packs

 

Audio CD

 

Audio MP3 Collections

 

DVD

 Commentaries

 

Strategic Trends

 

Verse By Verse Commentaries

 

Old Testament Study Notes

 

New Testament Study Notes

 

Personal Update

 

Donations

 

New Product Notice

 

FAQ

 

Contact US

 

K-House USA

 

Comment Line

 

Time Traveller

 

Other Links

 

DEVOTIONAL

 

Words in Red

 

Prophecy News Watch

 

The Coming Prince

 

THE WITNESS 1 Audio MP3

 

THE WITNESS 2 Audio MP3

 

hawk warrior

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTERNATIONAL NEWS FEEDS


 In The News provided by Koinonia House


Best viewed with Internet Explorer.


 

 

This page is dedicated to My Grandson Brandon.

(Branstein)

***IN STOCK***
 HOLOGRAPHIC

UNIVERSE

by Chuck Missler

DVD

PRICE R 159.00

 

 

 

 

This DVD includes notes in PDF format and M4A files.


This briefing pack contains 2 hours of teachings

Available in the following formats

Session 1

• Epistemology 101: How do we “know”?

– Scientific Myths of the Past

– Scientific Myths of the Present

• The Macrocosm: The Plasma Universe: Gravitational Presumption?

• The Microcosm: The Planck Wall

• The Metacosm: Fracture of Hyperspace?

Session 2


• The Holographic Model: David Bohm

• GEO 600 “Noise”

• The Black Hole Paradox

– String Theorists examine the elephant

• A Holographic Universe:

– Distances are synthetic (virtual) images

– A Geocentric Cosmology?

– Some Scriptural Perspective(s)

 

 

“One can’t believe impossible things,”

Alice laughed.

“I daresay you haven’t had much practice,”

said the Queen.

“When I was your age, I always did it for

half-an-hour a day.

Why, sometimes I’ve believed as many

as six impossible things before breakfast.”

Through the Looking Glass

Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson)
 

DVD:

1 Disc
2 M4A Files
Color, Fullscreen 16:9, Dolby Digital 2.0 stereo, Region  This DVD will be viewable in other countries WITH the proper DVD player and television set.)
 

M4A File Video

Can be burned to disc and played on MP4 compatible DVD players.
Playable on iPod, iPhone, iPod Touch
Playable on any MP4 player
1 PDF Notes File
2 MP3 Files


 

 

 

 

 

 

Featured Briefing

A Holographic Universe?

by Dr. Chuck Missler

Are we actually living in a holographic universe? Are the distant galaxies only a virtual illusion? In a hologram, distances are synthetic! How does this impact our concepts of time and space?

There seems to be growing evidence to suggest that our world and everything in it may be only ghostly images, projections from a level of reality so beyond our own that the real reality is literally beyond both space and time.1

The Cosmos As a Super-Hologram?

An initiating architect of this astonishing idea was one of the world’s most eminent thinkers: University of London physicist David Bohm, a protégé of Einstein’s and one of the world’s most respected quantum physicists. Bohm’s work in plasma physics in the 1950s is considered a landmark. Earlier, at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, he noticed that in plasmas (ionized gases) the particles stopped behaving as individuals and started behaving as if they were part of a larger and interconnected whole. Moving to Princeton University in 1947, there, too, he continued his work in the behavior of oceans of ionized particles, noting their highly organized overall effects and their behavior, as if they knew what each of the untold trillions of individual particles was doing.

One of the implications of Bohm’s view has to do with the nature of location. Bohm’s interpretation of quantum physics indicated that at the subquantum level location ceased to exist. All points in space become equal to all other points in space, and it was meaningless to speak of anything as being separate from anything else. Physicists call this property “nonlocality”. The web of subatomic particles that compose our physical universe—the very fabric of “reality” itself—possesses what appears to be an undeniable “holographic” property. Paul Davis of the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, England, observed that since all particles are continually interacting and separating, “the nonlocal aspects of quantum systems is therefore a general property of nature.”2

The Nature of Reality

One of Bohm’s most startling suggestions was that the tangible reality of our everyday lives is really a kind of illusion, like a holographic image. Underlying it is a deeper order of existence, a vast and more primary level of reality that gives birth to all the objects and appearances of our physical world in much the same way that a piece of holographic film gives birth to a hologram. Bohm calls this deeper level of reality the implicate (“enfolded”) order and he refers to our level of existence the explicate (unfolded) order.3 This view is not inconsistent with the Biblical presentation of the physical (“explicate”) world as being subordinate to the spiritual (“implicate”) world as the superior reality.4

The Search for Gravity Waves

Gravitational waves are extremely small ripples in the structure of spacetime caused by astrophysical events like supernovae or coalescing massive binaries (neutron stars, black holes). They had been predicted by Albert Einstein in 1916, but not yet directly observed.

GEO 600 is a gravitational wave detector located near Sarstedt, Germany, which seeks to detect gravitational waves by means of a laser interferometer of 600 meter arms’ length. This instrument, and its sister interferometric detectors, are some of the most sensitive gravitational wave detectors ever designed. They are designed to detect relative changes in distance of the order of 10-21, about the size of a single atom compared to the distance from the Earth to the Sun! Construction on the project began in 1995.

Mystery Noise

On January 15, 2009, it was reported in New Scientist that some yet unidentified noise that was present in the GEO 600 detector measurements might be because the instrument is sensitive to extremely small quantum fluctuations of space-time affecting the positions of parts of the detector. This claim was made by Craig Hogan, a scientist from Fermilab, on the basis of his theory of how such fluctuations should occur motivated by the holographic principle.5 Apparently, the gravitational wave detector in Hannover may have detected evidence for a holographic Universe!

Gravitational Wave Observatories Join Forces

A number of major projects will now pool their data to analyze it, jointly boosting their chances of spotting a faint signal that might otherwise be hidden by detector noise. Using lasers, they measure the length between mirrored test masses hung inside tunnels at right angles to each other. Gravitational waves decrease the distance between the masses in one tunnel and increase it in the other by a tiny, but detectable amount. Combining the data will also make it possible to triangulate to find the source of any gravitational waves detected. These include: Laser Interferometer Gravitational Observatory based in Hanford, Washington and Livingston, Louisiana; Virgo Observatory, Pisa Italy; and, of course, the GEO 600 Observatory near Hanover, Germany.

The most ambitious of them is the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), a joint mission between NASA and the European Space Agency to develop and operate a space-based gravitational wave detector sensitive at frequencies between 0.03 mHz and 0.1 Hz. LISA seeks to detect gravitational-wave induced strains in space-time by measuring changes of the separation between fiducial masses in three spacecraft 5 million kilometers apart.

Cosmic Implications

Are we actually living in a holographic universe? Are the distant galaxies only a virtual illusion? In a hologram, distances are synthetic! How does this impact our concepts of time and space?

It gets even worse: Could our universe be geocentric? The implications are too staggering to embrace. The holographic paradigm is still a developing concept and riddled with controversies. For decades, science has chosen to ignore evidences that do not fit their standard theories. However, the volume of evidence has now reached the point that denial is no longer a viable option.

Clearly, 20th-century science has discovered that our “macrocosm”—studies of largeness—is finite, not infinite. Our universe is finite and had a beginning, and that’s what has led to the “big bang” speculations. We also realize that gravity is dramatically eclipsed by electromagnetic considerations when dealing with galaxies, etc. The plasma physicists have been trying to tell astronomers that for decades but no one was listening.

What is even more shocking has been the discoveries in the “microcosm”—studies of smallness—that run up against the “Planck Wall” of the non-location of subatomic particles, and the many strange paradoxes of quantum physics. We now discover that we are in a virtual reality that is a digital, simulated environment. The bizarre realization that the “constants” of physics are changing indicates that our “reality” is “but a shadow of a larger reality,”6 and that’s what the Bible has maintained all along!7

The Bible is, of course, unique in that it has always presented a universe of more than three dimensions,8 and revealed a Creator that is transcendent over His creation. It is the only “holy book” that demonstrates these contemporary insights. It’s time for us to spend more time with the handbook that the Creator has handed to us. It is the ultimate adventure, indeed!

For background information on the Holographic Universe, see our briefing series, The Beyond Collection, available on DVD and other formats, in the Christmas catalog insert in this issue.


Notes

  1. We explore the limitations of the Macrocosm, the Microcosm, and the super-embracing “Metacosm” in our Beyond Series.
  2. Paul Davis, Superforce, Simon & Schuster, New York, 1948, p.48.
  3. This is reminiscent of the Red King’s dream in Through the Looking Glass, in which Alice finds herself in deep metaphysical waters when the Tweedle brothers defend the view that all material objects, including ourselves, are only “sorts of things” in the mind of God.
  4. 2 Corinthians 4:18.
  5. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. (Craig Hogan was then put in charge…)
  6. Scientific American, June 2005, “The Inconstancy of Constants”.
  7. Hebrews 11:3; John 1:1-3; et al.
  8. Ephesians 3:18. Nachmonides, writing in the 13th century, concluded, from his studies of the Genesis texts, that our universe has ten dimensions, of which only four are directly “knowable”.
 
 
Space News from SpaceDaily.com
Space News From SpaceDaily.Com
 
 

Ride Shotgun With NASA Saucer As It Flies to Near Space

 
‎13 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎02:32:24 AMGo to full article
Washington DC (SPX) Aug 13, 2014
NASA's Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) project successfully flew a rocket-powered, saucer-shaped test vehicle into near-space in late June from the U.S. Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility on Kauai, Hawaii. The goal of this experimental flight test, the first of three planned for the project, was to determine if the balloon-launched, rocket-powered, saucer-shaped, design could
 

New Horizons Spies Charon Orbiting Pluto

 
‎13 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎02:32:24 AMGo to full article
Laurel MD (SPX) Aug 13, 2014
Like explorers of old peering through a shipboard telescope for a faint glimpse of their destination, NASA's New Horizons spacecraft is taking a distant look at the Pluto system - in preparation for its historic encounter with the planet and its moons next summer. "Filmed" with New Horizons' best onboard telescope - the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) - this movie covers Pluto and
 

Ten-year study highlights sleep issues in space

 
‎13 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎02:32:24 AMGo to full article
Boston MA (SPX) Aug 13, 2014
In an extensive study of sleep monitoring and sleeping pill use in astronauts, researchers from Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Harvard Medical School, and the University of Colorado found that astronauts suffer considerable sleep deficiency in the weeks leading up to and during space flight. The research also highlights widespread use of sleeping me
 

Last European cargo ship docks with space station

 
‎13 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎02:32:24 AMGo to full article
Paris (AFP) Aug 12, 2014
Europe turned a page in its space flight history on Tuesday when it delivered supplies to the International Space Station for the last time. An automated cargo ship successfully docked with the ISS as scheduled in a precision manoeuvre broadcast live on the web. The Georges Lemaitre automated transfer vehicle (ATV), named after the father of the Big Bang theory of how the Universe was
 

US Suppliers Could Lose Global Space Market Share Over Sanctions

 
‎13 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎02:32:24 AMGo to full article
Moscow (RIA Novosti) Aug 13, 2014
US companies producing space-qualified components could lose some of their global market share due to Washington's sanctions, which prevent them from trading with Russia, the head of Russia's United Rocket and Space Corporation (URSC), Igor Komarov, said. "There's growing discontent in Russia, as well as globally, with the fact that the overwhelming majority... of radiation-resistant compo
 

Triangulum galaxy snapped by VST

 
‎13 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎02:32:24 AMGo to full article
Paris (SPX) Aug 13, 2014
Messier 33, otherwise known as NGC 598, is located about three million light-years away in the small northern constellation of Triangulum (The Triangle). Often known as the Triangulum Galaxy it was observed by the French comet hunter Charles Messier in August 1764, who listed it as number 33 in his famous list of prominent nebulae and star clusters. However, he was not the first to record
 

Study Compiles Data on Problem of Sleep Deprivation in Astronauts

 
‎13 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎02:32:24 AMGo to full article
Washington DC (SPX) Aug 13, 2014
After a long, hard day, who doesn't long for the comfort of a soft mattress and the embrace of a good night's sleep? Still, for many people, a full-night's rest is a rather elusive thing. Factors ranging from stress to competing priorities often prevent us from going to bed early enough to get the proper amount of sleep we need. This reality also is true for astronauts living and working in spac
 

Astrophysicists Detect Destruction of Three Stars by Black Holes

 
‎13 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎02:32:24 AMGo to full article
Moscow, Russia (SPX) Aug 13, 2014
Researchers from MIPT and the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences have reported registering three possible occasions of thetidal destruction of stars by supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies. Details are given in an article by Ildar Khabibullin and Sergei Sazonov, accepted for publication by the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society journal(a pre
 

Payload Integration Begins For Next Arianespace Soyuz Galileo Launch

 
‎13 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎02:32:24 AMGo to full article
Paris (SPX) Aug 13, 2014
The first of two Galileo navigation satellites to be orbited on Arianespace's August 21 Soyuz flight has been integrated on its payload dispenser system, marking a key step as preparations advance for this medium-lift mission from French Guiana. Named "Doresa," the spacecraft was installed this month during activity inside the Spaceport's S5A integration hall. It is to be joined on the dis
 

White dwarfs crashing into neutron stars explain loneliest supernovae

 
‎13 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎02:32:24 AMGo to full article
Coventry, UK (SPX) Aug 13, 2014
A research team led by astronomers and astrophysicists at the University of Warwick have found that some of the Universe's loneliest supernovae are likely created by the collisions of white dwarf stars into neutron stars. Dr Joseph Lyman from the University of Warwick is the lead researcher on the paper, The progenitors of calcium-rich transients are not formed in situ, published today by
 

Cassini Prepares For Its Biggest Remaining Burn

 
‎13 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎02:32:24 AMGo to full article
Pasadena CA (JPL) Aug 13, 2014
NASA's Cassini spacecraft will execute the largest planned maneuver of the spacecraft's remaining mission on Saturday, Aug. 9. The maneuver will target Cassini toward an Aug. 21 encounter with Saturn's largest moon, Titan. The main engine firing will last about a minute and will provide a change in velocity of 41 feet per second (12.5 meters per second). This is the largest maneuver
 

Violent solar system history uncovered by WA meteorite

 
‎13 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎02:32:24 AMGo to full article
Perth, Australia (SPX) Aug 13, 2014
Curtin University planetary scientists have shed some light on the bombardment history of our solar system by studying a unique volcanic meteorite recovered in Western Australia. Captured on camera seven years ago falling on the WA side of the Nullarbor Plain, the Bunburra Rockhole Meterorite has unique characteristics that suggest it came from a large asteroid that has never before been i
 

Hubble Finds Supernova Star System Linked To "Zombie Star"

 
‎13 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎02:32:24 AMGo to full article
Washington DC (SPX) Aug 13, 2014
Using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, a team of astronomers has spotted a star system that could have left behind a "zombie star" after an unusually weak supernova explosion. A supernova typically obliterates the exploding white dwarf, or dying star. On this occasion, scientists believe this faint supernova may have left behind a surviving portion of the dwarf star - a sort of zombie star.
 

Aerojet Completes CST-100 Work for Commercial Crew Work

 
‎13 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎02:32:24 AMGo to full article
Sacramento CA (SPX) Aug 13, 2014
Aerojet Rocketdyne, a GenCorp (GY) company, completed its Commercial Crew Integrated Capability (CCiCap) commitment in support of Boeing's CST-100 spacecraft that will help open a new era of spaceflight and carry people to low-Earth orbit from American soil once again. A CST-100 partner and team member since 2010, Aerojet Rocketdyne's CCiCap work continued the development of the service mo
 

ADS will bid for USAF order for commercial satellite bandwidth

 
‎13 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎02:32:24 AMGo to full article
Paris (SPX) Aug 13, 2014
Airbus Defense and Space has ben awarded an indefinite-delivery, indefinite- quantiy (IDIQ) contract o provide services related to hosting United States Air Force communications systems onboard commercialy operated satelites. Worth up to $50 milion, this contract pre-qualifes Airbus Defense and Space to bid on oportunites for hosted payloads - a busines model that alows government customer
 

American Spaceports

 
‎12 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:26:42 AMGo to full article
Bethesda MD (SPX) Aug 12, 2014
Most people are not aware that the world is awash with spaceports. However, the popular ones are well-known. For example, the Cape Canaveral Area of Florida is the home of the most famous launch facilities. Both NASA and the US Air Force have launch pads and complex support infrastructures at the NASA's Kennedy Space Center and at the adjacent Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on the Sunshine Sta
 

NASA's 3-D Study of Comets Reveals Chemical Factory at Work

 
‎12 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:26:42 AMGo to full article
Greenbelt MD (SPX) Aug 12, 2014
A NASA-led team of scientists has created detailed 3-D maps of the atmospheres surrounding comets, identifying several gases and mapping their spread at the highest resolution ever achieved. "We achieved truly first-of-a-kind mapping of important molecules that help us understand the nature of comets," said Martin Cordiner, a researcher working in the Goddard Center for Astrobiology at NAS
 

Red Dwarf Stars Might Be Best Places to Discover Alien Life

 
‎12 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:26:42 AMGo to full article
Moffet Field CA (NASA) Aug 12, 2014
Red dwarfs are the most common type of star in the universe, and nearly every one of these stars may have a planet located in its habitable zone where life has the best chance of existing, a new study concludes. This discovery may increase the chances that alien life could exist elsewhere in the cosmos, researchers say. They detailed their findings in the International Journal of Astrobiol
 

China Sends Remote-Sensing Satellite into Orbit

 
‎12 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:26:42 AMGo to full article
Moscow (RIA Novosti) Aug 12, 2014
China on Saturday successfully launched a Long March 4C carrier rocket with the Yaogan XX satellite, Xinhua news agency reported. The carrier lifted off at 1:45 p.m. local time (05:45 GMT) from the launch pad at Jiuquan Satellite Launch Centre in the country's northwestern Gobi desert. The satellite is expected "to conduct scientific experiments, carry out land surveys, monitor crop
 

NASA Engineers Begin Testing for SLS Liquid Oxygen Feed System

 
‎12 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:26:42 AMGo to full article
Huntsville AL (SPX) Aug 12, 2014
Let's be honest - geysers are really cool. You've got an eruption of water and vapor that can burst to heights of 185 feet. What's not to like about that? When building propellant tanks for the world's most powerful rocket, NASA engineers want to make sure Old Faithful stays in Yellowstone. So beginning Aug. 5, anti-geyser testing is underway at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Hunt
 

Galileo's initial two Full Operational Capability satellites are fueled for launch

 
‎12 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:26:42 AMGo to full article
Paris (SPX) Aug 12, 2014
The latest two satellites to be launched by Arianespace for Europe's Galileo navigation system are being fueled at the Spaceport in French Guiana, readying them for this month's Soyuz mission. Named "Doresa" and "Milena," both spacecraft are in the Spaceport's S5 payload preparation building, where they are being "topped off" with the onboard fuel load. Their liftoff is scheduled for Augus
 

Introducing this year's underground astronauts

 
‎12 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:26:42 AMGo to full article
Paris (ESA) Aug 12, 2014
Each year, ESA sends up to six astronauts down into the caves of Sardinia, Italy, for two weeks on a simulated space mission. New and experienced astronauts from different space agencies are invited on underground ventures to improve their exploration skills and learn from each other in a multicultural team. This year will see an underground reunion for ESA astronaut Luca Parmitano and cos
 

On the frontiers of cyborg science

 
‎12 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:26:42 AMGo to full article
San Francisco CA (SPX) Aug 12, 2014
No longer just fantastical fodder for sci-fi buffs, cyborg technology is bringing us tangible progress toward real-life electronic skin, prosthetics and ultraflexible circuits. Now taking this human-machine concept to an unprecedented level, pioneering scientists are working on the seamless marriage between electronics and brain signaling with the potential to transform our understanding of how
 

China to test recoverable moon orbiter

 
‎12 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:26:42 AMGo to full article
Beijing (XNA) Aug 12, 2014
China is preparing for the launch of an experimental recoverable moon orbiter, said the State Administration of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defence on Sunday. The orbiter arrived in Xichang via air in southwest China's Sichuan Province on Sunday and then transported to the Xichang Satellite Launch Center, according to a statement from the administration. The launch
 

ESA's cargo vessel ready for space delivery

 
‎12 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:26:42 AMGo to full article
Paris (ESA) Aug 12, 2014
ESA's latest Automated Transfer Vehicle is set to dock with the International Space Station on Tuesday, delivering more than six tonnes of crucial supplies and scientific experiments to the orbiting research base. ATV Georges Lemaitre will rendezvous with the Station at about 410 km altitude at 09:21 GMT (11:21 CEST) and complete a fully automated docking with the aft port of Russia's Zvezda mod
 

Communications system used in Afghanistan gets Northrop support

 
‎12 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:26:42 AMGo to full article
San Diego (UPI) Aug 7, 2014
The U.S. Air Force has exercised a contract option with Northrop Grumman for operational support of a battlefield communications system. The system is BACN, or the Battlefield Airborne Communications Node, a high-altitude, airborne communications and information system that connects air and ground forces. BACN distributes voice communications, video, imagery and other battlespace
 

Association of satellite operators joins program for space safety

 
‎12 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:26:42 AMGo to full article
Isle Of Man, Isle Of Man (UPI) Aug 11, 2013
An international association of satellite operators has joined a U.S. Department of Defense program for data sharing for situational awareness and space safety. The Space Data Association said the agreement with the U.S. military represents a critical milestone for the organization and underlines the importance of collaboration to enhance space situational awareness. "This agreem
 

A protecting umbrella against oxygen

 
‎12 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:26:42 AMGo to full article
Bochum, Germany (SPX) Aug 07, 2014
In the development of fuel cells the effort of generations of scientist and engineers have led to efficient and stable catalysts based on noble metals. These catalysts have reached the required threshold in terms of performance for applications such as electric cars. However, the high costs of the scarce noble metals render their widespread application economically less viable. In a
 

New Method Reveals Nanoscale Details Of Battery Materials

 
‎12 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:26:42 AMGo to full article
Upton NY (SPX) Aug 06, 2014
Using a new method to track the electrochemical reactions in a common electric vehicle battery material under operating conditions, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory have revealed new insight into why fast charging inhibits this material's performance. The study also provides the first direct experimental evidence to support a particular model of
 

Used-cigarette butts offer energy storage solution

 
‎12 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:26:42 AMGo to full article
Washington DC (SPX) Aug 07, 2014
A group of scientists from South Korea have converted used-cigarette butts into a high-performing material that could be integrated into computers, handheld devices, electrical vehicles and wind turbines to store energy. Presenting their findings in IOP Publishing's journal Nanotechnology, the researchers have demonstrated the material's superior performance compared to commercially availa
 

More Tasks for China's Moon Mission

 
‎11 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎05:20:35 AMGo to full article
Sydney, Australia (SPX) Aug 11, 2014
Later this year, China will launch a robotic spacecraft to the Moon and back. We have known about this mission for some time, and we know roughly what the mission hopes to achieve. A bell-shaped re-entry capsule will be carried by a boxy spacecraft out to the Moon, and it will then return for a soft landing on Earth. This is intended as a test of technology to be used on a future Chinese m
 

USN Moderates CubeSat RF Communications Standards Meeting

 
‎11 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎05:20:35 AMGo to full article
Logan UT (SPX) Aug 11, 2014
Universal Space Network (USN) moderated a meeting Tuesday of 20 CubeSat industry leaders from academia, industry and government in an effort to develop a standardized communications package. "Today, the ground infrastructure supporting SmallSat/CubeSat communications is not guided by any standard," said USN CEO John Williams, who provided opening comments to the meeting. "This result
 

Russia to Decide on Future of Sea Launch Project by End of 2014

 
‎11 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎05:20:35 AMGo to full article
Moscow (RIA Novosti) Aug 11, 2014
Russia will decide on the future of the Sea Launch project, which uses Russian-Ukrainian Zenit-SL rockets to put commercial cargo into orbit, by the end of the year, the head of Russia's United Rocket and Space Corporation Igor Komarov said Thursday. "The unique Sea Launch project faces serious risks as certain parts of Zenit carrier rockets are produced in Ukraine and the floating platfor
 

NASA Selects Proposals for Advanced Energy Storage Systems

 
‎11 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎05:20:35 AMGo to full article
Washington DC (SPX) Aug 11, 2014
NASA has selected four proposals for advanced energy storage technologies that may be used to power the agency's future space missions. Development of these new energy storage devices will help enable NASA's future robotic and human-exploration missions and aligns with conclusions presented in the National Research Council's "NASA Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities," which calls for
 

Step closer to birth of the sun

 
‎11 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎05:20:35 AMGo to full article
Melbourne, Australia (SPX) Aug 11, 2014
Researchers are a step closer to understanding the birth of the sun. Published in Science, the team led by Dr Maria Lugaro and Professor Alexander Heger, from Monash University, have investigated the solar system's prehistoric phase and the events that led to the birth of the sun. Dr Lugaro, from the Monash Centre for Astrophysics, said the team used radioactivity to date the last time tha
 

Opportunity Heads to 'Marathon Valley'

 
‎11 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎05:20:35 AMGo to full article
Pasadena CA (JPL) Aug 11, 2014
Opportunity is moving south along the west rim of Endeavour Crater heading towards 'Marathon Valley,' a notch observed from orbit to have an abundant clay mineral signature. On Sol 3739 (July 31, 2014), the rover made an approach to a surface target of interest with a 26-feet (8-meter) drive. At the end of the sol, Opportunity collected some Panoramic Camera (Pancam) imagery and performed
 

Russia to Draft Import Substitution Program for Space Industry

 
‎11 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎05:20:35 AMGo to full article
Moscow (RIA Novosti) Aug 11, 2014
An import substitution program for Russian space companies will be ready by the end of 2014, the head of the United Rocket and Space Corporation said Thursday. Igor Komarov told a news conference in Moscow that the Western sanctions "have certainly affected Russia's space industry, prompting serious efforts" to find domestic substitutions for banned foreign products, "especially electronic
 

Rotation of Planets Influences Habitability

 
‎11 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎05:20:35 AMGo to full article
Moffet Field CA (NASA) Aug 11, 2014
There are currently almost 2,000 extrasolar planets known to us, but most are inhospitable gas giants. Thanks to NASA's Kepler mission, a handful of smaller, rockier planets have been discovered within the habitable zones of their stars that could provide a niche for alien life. The habitable zone of a star is typically defined as the range from a star where temperatures would allow liqu
 

Soviet-Era Satellite Burns Up in Atmosphere After 34 Years of Service

 
‎11 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎05:20:35 AMGo to full article
Moscow (RIA Novosti) Aug 11, 2014
The Kosmos-1151, a Soviet-era satellite appears to have burned up upon reentry into the Earth's atmosphere, Russian Aerospace Defense Forces spokesman Colonel Alexei Zolotukhin said Tuesday. "The data analysis ... has proven that the Kosmos-1151 spacecraft left its orbit," Zolotukhin said. According to experts, parts of the satellite burned up in the dense layers of atmosphere over t
 

Canadian astronaut Chris Hadfield visits EIAST

 
‎11 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎05:20:35 AMGo to full article
Dubai, UAE (SPX) Aug 11, 2014
Canadian astronaut and former commander of the International Space Station, Chris Hadfield, visited the Emirates Institution for Advanced Science and Technology (EIAST), and met with a group of executives headed by H.E. Yousuf Al Shaibani, Director General of EIAST. During the visit, the parties discussed several aspects of space science and Hadfield explored the successful achievements of
 

Watching Schrodinger's cat die (or come to life)

 
‎11 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎05:20:35 AMGo to full article
Berkeley CA (SPX) Aug 01, 2014
One of the famous examples of the weirdness of quantum mechanics is the paradox of Schrodinger's cat. If you put a cat inside an opaque box and make his life dependent on a random event, when does the cat die? When the random event occurs, or when you open the box? Though common sense suggests the former, quantum mechanics - or at least the most common "Copenhagen" interpretation enunciate
 

Spin Diagnostics

 
‎11 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎05:20:35 AMGo to full article
College Park MD (SPX) Aug 05, 2014
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is the medical application of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, is a powerful diagnostic tool. MRI works by resonantly exciting hydrogen atoms and measuring the relaxation time - different materials return to equilibrium at different rates; this is how contrast develops (i.e. between soft and hard tissue). By comparing the measurements to a k
 

Finding quantum lines of desire

 
‎11 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎05:20:35 AMGo to full article
St. Louis MO (SPX) Aug 01, 2014
Groundskeepers and landscapers hate them, but there is no fighting them. Called desire paths, social trails or goat tracks, they are the unofficial shortcuts people create between two locations when the purpose-built path doesn't take them where they want to go. There's a similar concept in classical physics called the "path of least action." If you throw a softball to a friend, the ball t
 

'Wetting' a battery's appetite for renewable energy storage

 
‎11 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎05:20:35 AMGo to full article
Richland WA (SPX) Aug 05, 2014
Sun, wind and other renewable energy sources could make up a larger portion of the electricity America consumes if better batteries could be built to store the intermittent energy for cloudy, windless days. Now a new material could allow more utilities to store large amounts of renewable energy and make the nation's power system more reliable and resilient. A paper published in Nature Comm
 

On-chip topological light

 
‎11 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎05:20:35 AMGo to full article
College Park MD (SPX) Aug 05, 2014
Topological transport of light is the photonic analog of topological electron flow in certain semiconductors. In the electron case, the current flows around the edge of the material but not through the bulk. It is "topological" in that even if electrons encounter impurities in the material the electrons will continue to flow without losing energy. In the photonic equivalent, light flows no
 

US looks to Japan space program to close Pacific communications gap

 
‎08 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎07:38:14 PMGo to full article
Moscow (Voice of Russia) Aug 07, 2014
Tokyo's space initiative, set for launch in 2019, is turning into an effort to enhance ties with Washington in the cosmos. The US, shifting its military strategy to the Asia-Pacific, is looking for partners to extend its satellite links in the region. The program would start as a means for protecting communication and surveillance satellites from thousands of pieces of space junk, includin
 

SpaceX to build world's first commercial rocket launch site in south Texas

 
‎08 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎07:38:14 PMGo to full article
Moscow (Voice of Russia) Aug 08, 2014
SpaceX has announced it will build the world's first commercial launchpad for orbital rockets in the south of Texas. The facility, which is expected to drag the area out of an economic hole, might become operational in 2016. The exact location chosen for the new launchpad is Boca Chica Beach east of Brownsville, near the US-Mexico border. The area, which has mostly been associated with smu
 

NASA Upgrades Its 3-D Spacecraft App

 
‎08 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎07:38:14 PMGo to full article
Pasadena CA (JPL) Aug 08, 2014
A new-and-improved version of NASA's Spacecraft 3D app for mobile devices is launching to coincide with the second anniversary of the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover's landing on Mars. In addition, content from the updated app is integrated with a new book of images, published by National Geographic, that chronicles the rover's journey. The app is available for download from a hre
 

Robonaut Upgrades, Spacewalk Preps and Cargo Ops for ISS Crew

 
‎08 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎07:38:14 PMGo to full article
Washington DC (SPX) Aug 08, 2014
Spacewalk and visiting vehicle preparations, materials research, telerobotics and upgrades for the International Space Station's mechanical crew member were the focus of the Expedition 40 crew's workday Thursday. Expedition 40 Commander Steve Swanson of NASA and his team of five flight engineers began the day with the usual 2 a.m. EDT reveille, followed by a daily planning conference with
 

Russia to Give 'Tough' Response to Western Sanctions Soon

 
‎08 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎07:38:14 PMGo to full article
Moscow (RIA Novosti) Aug 08, 2014
Russia will soon unveil a series of protective economic measures - including in the sensitive space industry - aimed at taking the edge off recent Western sanctions, Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin said Wednesday. "All our measures will be aimed, primarily, at protecting our economy," Rogozin, who oversees the defense and space industry, told reporters during his visit to the Energia

 

 
News About Time And Space
 

Watching Schrodinger's cat die (or come to life)

 
‎11 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:03:12 AMGo to full article
Berkeley CA (SPX) Aug 01, 2014 - One of the famous examples of the weirdness of quantum mechanics is the paradox of Schrodinger's cat. If you put a cat inside an opaque box and make his life dependent on a random event, when does the cat die? When the random event occurs, or when you open the box?

Though common sense suggests the former, quantum mechanics - or at least the most common "Copenhagen" interpretation enunciated by Danish physicist Neils Bohr in the 1920s - says it's the latter. Someone has to observe the result before it becomes final. Until then, paradoxically, the cat is both dead and alive at the same time.

University of California, Berkeley, physicists have for the first time showed that, in fact, it's possible to follow the metaphorical cat through the whole process, whether he lives or dies in the end.

"Gently recording the cat's paw prints both makes it die, or come to life, as the case may be, and allows us to reconstruct its life history," said Irfan Siddiqi, UC Berkeley associate professor of physics, who is senior author of a cover article describing the result in the July 31 issue of the journal Nature.

The Schrodinger's cat paradox is a critical issue in quantum computers, where the input is an entanglement of states - like the cat's entangled life and death- yet the answer to whether the animal is dead or alive has to be definite.

"To Bohr and others, the process was instantaneous - when you opened the box, the entangled system collapsed into a definite, classical state. This postulate stirred debate in quantum mechanics," Siddiqi said.

"But real-time tracking of a quantum system shows that it's a continuous process, and that we can constantly extract information from the system as it goes from quantum to classical. This level of detail was never considered accessible by the original founders of quantum theory."

For quantum computers, this would allow continuous error correction. The real world, everything from light and heat to vibration, can knock a quantum system out of its quantum state into a real-world, so-called classical state, like opening the box to look at the cat and forcing it to be either dead or alive. A big question regarding quantum computers, Siddiqi said, is whether you can extract information without destroying the quantum system entirely.

"This gets around that fundamental problem in a very natural way," he said. "We can continuously probe a system very gently to get a little bit of information and continuously correct it, nudging it back into line, toward the ultimate goal."

Being two opposing things at the same time
In the world of quantum physics, a system can be in two superposed states at the same time, as long as no one is observing. An observation perturbs the system and forces it into one or the other. Physicists say that the original entangled wave functions collapsed into a classical state.

In the past 10 years, theorists such as Andrew N. Jordan, professor of physics at the University of Rochester and coauthor of the Nature paper, have developed theories predicting the most likely way in which a quantum system will collapse.

"The Rochester team developed new mathematics to predict the most likely path with high accuracy, in the same way one would use Newtown's equations to predict the least cumbersome path of a ball rolling down a mountain," Siddiqi said.

"The implications are significant, as now we can design control sequences to steer a system along a certain trajectory. For example, in chemistry one could use this to prefer certain products of a reaction over others."

Lead researcher Steve Weber, a graduate student in Siddiqi's group, and Siddiqi's former postdoctoral fellow Kater Murch, now an assistant professor of physics at Washington University in St. Louis, proved Jordan correct.

They measured the trajectory of the wave function of a quantum circuit - a qubit, analogous to the bit in a normal computer - as it changed. The circuit, a superconducting pendulum, could be in two different energy states and was coupled to a second circuit to read out the final voltage, corresponding to the pendulum's frequency.

"If you did this experiment many, many times, measuring the road the system took each time and the states it went through, we could determine what the most likely path is," Siddiqi said. "Then we could design a control sequence to take the road we want to take for a given quantum evolution."

If you probed a chemical reaction in detail, for example, you could find the most likely path the reaction would take and design a way to steer the reaction to the products you want, not the most likely, Siddiqi said.

"The experiment demonstrates that, for any choice of final quantum state, the most likely or 'optimal path' connecting them in a given time can be found and predicted," Jordan said. "This verifies the theory and opens the way for active quantum control techniques."

 

 

Spin Diagnostics

 
‎11 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:03:12 AMGo to full article
College Park MD (SPX) Aug 05, 2014 - Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is the medical application of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, is a powerful diagnostic tool. MRI works by resonantly exciting hydrogen atoms and measuring the relaxation time -- different materials return to equilibrium at different rates; this is how contrast develops (i.e. between soft and hard tissue).

By comparing the measurements to a known spectrum of relaxation times, medical professionals can determine whether the imaged tissue is muscle, bone, or even a cancerous growth.

At its heart, MRI operates by quantum principles, and the underlying spectroscopic techniques translate to other quantum systems.

Recently physicists at the Joint Quantum Institute* led by JQI Fellow Christopher Monroe have executed an MRI-like diagnostic on a crystal of interacting quantum spins. The technique reveals many features of their system, such as the spin-spin interaction strengths and the energies of various spin configurations.

The protocol was published recently in the journal Science (DOI:10.1126/science.1251422). Previously, such methods existed for an array of only three spins--here, the JQI team performed proof-of-principle experiments with up to 18 spins. They predict that their method is scalable and may be useful for validating experiments with much larger ensembles of interacting spins.

'Spin' models are a vital mathematical representation of numerous physical phenomena including magnetism. Here, the team implements an Ising spin model, which has two central features. The spins themselves have only two options for orientation ("up" or "down"), and the interactions happen between pairs of spins, much like the interaction between bar magnets.

The Ising model can be generalized to many seemingly disparate systems where there are binary choices. For instance, this model was used to study how ideas spread through social networks.

In this application, spin-spin interactions represented connections between people in a network, analogous to interaction energies between magnetic spins. Here, the extent of the human connection affected how opinions spread through a social network population.

Back in the quantum laboratory, physicists have the ability to precisely study and calculate everything about a single or a small collection of essentially "textbook" spin particles within various physical platforms.

Yet gaining a complete understanding of the behavior of many interacting spins is a daunting task, for both experimentalists and theorists. Ion traps are a leader in experimental studies of quantum physics, and thus well-poised for tackling this challenge.

The sheer numbers involved in large spin systems give insight into the difficulty of studying them. Consider that for N number of particles there are N(N-1)/2 two-body interactions. The interactions give rise to an energy spectrum containing 2N individual spin configurations. Here, the team does a complete analysis with 5 spins, and so there are 10 two-body interactions and 32 different spin chain configurations.

Conventional computers can work with these modest numbers, but for as few as 30 spins the number of states pushes past a billion, which begins to be prohibitively complicated, particularly when the 435 separate interactions are all distinct. Physicists hope that quantum simulators can help bridge this gap.

The Ion Trap Quantum Spin Simulator
Quantum Simulation is a term that broadly describes the use of one controllable quantum system to study a second analogous, but less experimentally feasible quantum phenomenon. A full-scale quantum computer does not yet exist and classical computers often cannot solve large-scale quantum problems, thus a "quantum simulator" presents an attractive alternative for gaining insight into complex problems.

In the experiment described here, laser-cooled ytterbium atoms confined inside an ion trap are configured to simulate an array of spins. Each spin is made from two of the ion's internal energy levels that are separated by a microwave frequency of 12.642819 GHz (billion vibrations/second).

When radiation having this frequency interacts with the ion, its spin flip-flops between the two spin states, "up" and "down".

The ions also have a vibrational frequency determined by the trap that confines them--typically around 1 MHz or 1 million vibrations/second. In the quantum regime, the quanta of vibration called a phonon can be controllably added and removed from the system with precisely controlled external laser forces. These phonons act as communication channels for the spins, and when combined with the gigahertz radiation, are used to generate a rich variety of interactions.

The simulation begins with the spins initialized into a well-known spin configuration (e.g. all of the spins in the "up" configuration). Then, the physicists apply a probe, which is a tiny oscillating electromagnetic field generated from the laser.

They scan this probe to find the special "resonant" frequencies that cause the spin crystal to undergo transitions to different configurations (see Figure 1 in gallery). This energy/frequency is directly related to how the spins are interacting with each other. If the spins are interacting weakly, with only their nearest neighbors, then the transition energy will be different than when the interactions are more extended.

To assemble a complete energy spectrum and measure all configurations the team must repeatedly probe the ion spins over a range of frequencies. A crucial component of this protocol is the imaging system, which allows the team to directly measure each individual ion spin in the crystal for every probe frequency.

The JQI team hopes this new tool will ease the way towards simulating larger systems and possibly other spin models.

Says Crystal Senko, JQI graduate student and lead author of this work, "Quantum simulation experiments will eventually be studying physics questions that can't be answered in any other way, so we might not know how to tell if the experiment isn't doing quite what we expected. That means it will be important to have many diagnostics, so that when we see something strange and interesting we can be confident that it's interesting physics instead of just a bug in the experiment."

Significantly, this protocol is not limited to trapped ions, and can be tailored to different simulation platforms. Just as MRI is an indispensable tool in modern medicine, this new verification technique may prove essential to the realm of quantum simulation.

 

 

Finding quantum lines of desire

 
‎11 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:03:12 AMGo to full article
St. Louis MO (SPX) Aug 01, 2014 - Groundskeepers and landscapers hate them, but there is no fighting them. Called desire paths, social trails or goat tracks, they are the unofficial shortcuts people create between two locations when the purpose-built path doesn't take them where they want to go.

There's a similar concept in classical physics called the "path of least action." If you throw a softball to a friend, the ball traces a parabola through space. It doesn't follow a serpentine path or loop the loop because those paths have higher "actions" than the true path.

But what paths do quantum particles, such as atoms or photons, follow? For these particles, the laws of classical physics cease to apply, and quantum physics and its counterintuitive effects takes over.

Quantum particles can exist in a superposition of states, yet as soon as quantum particles are "touched" by the outside world, they lose this quantum strangeness and collapse to a classically permitted state. Because of this evasiveness, it wasn't possible until recently to observe them in their quantum state.

But in the past 20 years, physicists have devised devices that isolate quantum systems from the environment and allow them to be probed so gently that they don't immediately collapse. With these devices, scientists can at long last follow quantum systems into quantum territory, or state space.

Kater Murch, PhD, an assistant professor of physics at Washington University in St. Louis, and collaborators Steven Weber and Irfan Siddiqui of the Quantum Nanoelectronics Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley, have used a superconducting quantum device to continuously record the tremulous paths a quantum system took between a superposition of states to one of two classically permitted states.

Because even gentle probing makes each quantum trajectory noisy, Murch's team repeated the experiment a million times and examined which paths were most common. The quantum equivalent of the classical "least action" path - or the quantum device's path of desire - emerged from the resulting cobweb of many paths, just as pedestrian desire paths gradually emerge after new sod is laid.

The experiments, the first continuous measurements of the trajectories of a quantum system between two points, are described in the cover article of the July 31 issue of Nature.

"We are working with the simplest possible quantum system," Murch said. "But the understanding of quantum interactions we are gaining might eventually be useful for the quantum control of biological and chemical systems.

"Chemistry at its most basic level is described by quantum mechanics," he said.

"In the past 20 years, chemists have developed a technique called quantum control, where shaped laser pulses are used to drive chemical reactions - that is, to drive them between two quantum states. The chemists control the quantum field from the laser, and that field controls the dynamics of a reaction," he said.

"Eventually, we'll be able to control the dynamics of chemical reactions with lasers instead of just mixing reactant 1 with reactant 2 and letting the reaction evolve on its own," he said.

An artificial atom The device Murch uses to explore quantum space is a simple superconducting circuit. Because it has quantized energy levels, or states, like an atom, it is sometimes called an artificial atom. Murch's team uses the bottom two energy levels, the ground state and an excited state, as their model quantum system.

Between these two states, there are an infinite number of quantum states that are superpositions, or combinations, of the ground and excited states. In the past, these states would have been invisible to physicists because attempts to measure them would have caused the system to immediately collapse.

But Murch's device allows the system's state to be probed many times before it becomes an effectively classical system. The quantum state of the circuit is detected by putting it inside a microwave box. A very small number of microwave photons are sent into the box where their quantum fields interact with the superconducting circuit.

The microwaves are so far off resonance with the circuit that they cannot drive it between its ground and its excited state. So instead of being absorbed, they leave the box bearing information about the quantum system in the form of a phase shift (the position of the troughs and peaks of the photons' wavefunctions).

Although there is information about the quantum system in the exiting microwaves, it is only a small amount of information.

"Every time we nudge the system, something different happens," Murch said. "That's because the photons we use to measure the quantum system are quantum mechanical as well and exhibit quantum fluctuations. So it takes many of these measurements to distinguish the system's signal from the quantum fluctuations of the photons probing it." Or, as physicists put it, these are weak measurements.

Murch compares these experiments to soccer matches, which are ultimately experiments to determine which team is better. But because so few goals are scored in soccer, and these are often lucky shots, the less skilled team has a good chance of winning. Or as Murch might put it, one soccer match is such a weak measurement of a team's skill that it can't be used to draw a statistically reliable conclusion about which team is more skilled.

Each time a team scores a goal, it becomes somewhat more likely that that team is the better team, but the teams would have to play many games or play for a very long time to know for sure. These fluctuations are what make soccer matches so exciting.

Murch is in essence able to observe millions of these matches, and from all the matches where team B wins, he can determine the most likely way a game that ends with a victory for team B will develop.

A line of desire
So what is the most likely path for a quantum system slowly collapsing from a superposition of states to one of two final states?

"Before we started this experiment," Murch said, " I asked everybody in the lab what they thought the most likely path between quantum states would be. I drew a couple of options on the board: a straight line, a convex curve, a concave curve, a squiggly line . . . I took a poll, and we all guessed different options. Here we were, a bunch of quantum experts, and we had absolutely no intuition about the most likely path."

Andrew N. Jordan of the University of Rochester and his students Areeya Chantasri and Justin Dressel inspired the study by devising a theory to predict the likely path. Their theory predicted that a convex curve Murch had drawn on the white board would be the correct path.

"When we looked at the data, we saw that the theorists were right. Our very clever collaborators had devised a 'principle of least action' that works in the quantum case," Murch said.

They had found the quantum system's line of desire mathematically and by calculation before many microwave photons trampled out the path in Murch's lab.

But as the famous physicist Richard Feynman once said, "It doesn't matter how beautiful your theory is, it doesn't matter how smart you are. If it doesn't agree with experiment, it's wrong." And he was a theoretician.

 

 

Baby universe picture brought closer to theory

 
‎11 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:03:12 AMGo to full article
Lausanne, Switzerland (SPX) Aug 07, 2014 - Last year, the Planck Telescope revealed the most detailed picture of the cosmic microwave background, the relic radiation from the Big Bang. But this map contains features that challenge the standard model of cosmology, the theory that describes our entire Universe from early on.

Who is right, the map or the theory? Scientists from EPFL (Switzerland) and CEA (France) have shown that several of these enigmatic features disappear from the map by processing Planck telescope's data differently and including other effects, such as the motion of the Milky Way. The findings are published in the August 4th, 2014 edition of the Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics.

Our eyes see what is called visible light. But there is a lot of light that we can't see, like ultraviolet and microwave radiation. It turns out that a weak glow of microwave radiation fills the entire sky, in regions between stars. But where does this glow come from?

According to our current understanding of the Big Bang, this glow of microwave radiation is relic light emitted by the Universe when it was a mere 380 000 years old. Before that, the Universe was completely opaque, since light was trapped by a hot plasma. But as the Universe expanded and cooled, electrons and protons combined to form stable atoms, and light was free to propagate for the first time.

In principle, this first light has traveled through time and is reaching us now in the form of microwave radiation. Slight variations in this background radiation indicate the seeds of current structure in the Universe, from planets, solar systems, and galaxies all the way to clusters of galaxies, clusters of clusters.

The European Space Agency set out to map this radiation to unprecedented resolution by launching the Planck space telescope. Scientists collected information from the telescope and processed it to remove unwanted foreground light, like from stars and galaxies. The information was then assembled together to give the most detailed map of microwave radiation of cosmic origin - a microwave photograph of the early Universe.

The Cold Spot: a few tens of millionths of a degree, a big problem for the theory
While the map is generally in agreement with our current theory of the Big Bang, it also contains unexpected features at large-scales, called anomalies. For example, the famous "cold-spot". On Planck's map, this region of the universe is characterized by its unusually low temperature.

It is just a matter of a few tens of millionths of a degree difference in temperature, which might seem negligible, but it is enough for the map to no longer entirely fit the theory.

Cosmologists are at odds over the source of these anomalies. Do these large-scale features reveal phenomena that require new physics? Or does the information gathered by the Planck space telescope need to be processed differently?

Tuning the data
A recent European study led by EPFL cosmologist Anais Rassat indicates that several of the anomalies disappear if the data from the Planck satellite are processed in a new way. "Using new techniques to separate the foreground light from the background, and taking into account effects like the motion of our Galaxy, we found that most of the claimed anomalies we studied, like the cold spot, stop being problematic," explains Rassat.

Previous methods were left with some regions of unwanted light that needed to be masked in the analysis. Instead, Rassat and her partners from CEA in France, studied a map that avoided masking techniques altogether, giving access to the whole sky.

Next, they corrected the data by taking into account the way our Galaxy moves. They also adjusted the data for distortions in the relic light itself as it traveled through moving charged particles in an expanding Universe as well as other known gravitational effects.

Still room for new physics
While Rassat and her collaborators have shown that several anomalies were no longer problematic, others may nevertheless persist in the data. For Rassat, this work is just a first step towards systematically going through all of the possible large-scale irregularities and trying to explain their origin. Until then, there is still room for new physics.

 

 

Mapping the optimal route between 2 quantum states

 
‎11 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:03:12 AMGo to full article
Rochester NY (SPX) Aug 01, 2014 - As a quantum state collapses from a quantum superposition to a classical state or a different superposition, it will follow a path known as a quantum trajectory.

For each start and end state there is an optimal or "most likely" path, but it is not as easy to predict the path or track it experimentally as a straight-line between two points would be in our everyday, classical world.

In a new paper featured this week on the cover of Nature, scientists from the University of Rochester, University of California at Berkeley and Washington University in St. Louis have shown that it is possible to track these quantum trajectories and compare them to a recently developed theory for predicting the most likely path a system will take between two states.

Andrew N. Jordan, professor of physics at the University of Rochester and one of the authors of the paper, and his group had developed this new theory in an earlier paper. The results published this week show good agreement between theory and experiment.

For their experiment, the Berkeley and Washington University teams devised a superconducting qubit with exceptional coherence properties, permitting it to remain in a quantum superposition during the continuous monitoring. The experiment actually exploited the fact that any measurement will perturb a quantum system.

This means that the optimal path will come about as a result of the continuous measurement and how the system is being driven from one quantum state to another.

Kater Murch, co-author and assistant professor at Washington University in St. Louis, explained that a key part of the experiment was being able to measure each of these trajectories while the system was changing, something that had not been possible until now.

Jordan compares the experiment to watching butterflies make their way one by one from a cage to nearby trees. "Each butterfly's path is like a single run of the experiment," said Jordan.

"They are all starting from the same cage, the initial state, and ending in one of the trees, each being a different end state."

By watching the quantum equivalent of a million butterflies make the journey from cage to tree, the researchers were in effect able to predict the most likely path a butterfly took by observing which tree it landed on (known as post-selection in quantum physics measurements), despite the presence of a wind, or any disturbance that affects how it flies (which is similar to the effect measuring has on the system).

"The experiment demonstrates that for any choice of final quantum state, the most likely or 'optimal path' connecting them in a given time can be found and predicted," said Jordan. "This verifies the theory and opens the way for active quantum control techniques." He explained that only if you know the most likely path is it possible to set up the system to be in the desired state at a specific time.

 

 

Scientists separate a particle from its properties

 
‎11 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:03:12 AMGo to full article
Grenoble, France (SPX) Jul 31, 2014 - Researchers from the Vienna University of Technology have performed the first separation of a particle from one of its properties. The study, carried out at the Institute Laue-Langevin (ILL) and published in Nature Communications, showed that in an interferometer a neutron's magnetic moment could be measured independently of the neutron itself, thereby marking the first experimental observation of a new quantum paradox known as the 'Cheshire Cat'.

The new technique, which can be applied to any property of any quantum object, could be used to remove disturbance and improve the resolution of high precision measurements.

The idea of a Quantum Cheshire Cat was proposed theoretically last year. It is based on the well known character from Alice in Wonderland who can vanish leaving his smile behind. In quantum physics, the term refers to an object whose properties can be separated from its physical location so that the two can be measured at different places.

While this is clearly not possible in our everyday experience, where objects are spatially linked to their properties, the laws of Quantum Mechanics allow it to be achieved.

Quantum mechanics already tells us that particles can be in different physical states at the same time, a phenomenon known as superposition. For example if a neutron beam is divided in two using a crystal, individual neutrons do not have to decide which of the two paths to take. Instead, they can travel along both paths at the same time in a quantum superposition.

"This experimental technique is called neutron interferometry", says Professor Yuji Hasegawa from the Vienna University of Technology. "It was invented here at the Atominstitut in the 1970s, and it has turned out to be the perfect tool to investigate the foundations of quantum mechanics."

To see if the same technique could separate the properties of a particle from the particle itself, Yuji Hasegawa brought together a team including colleagues Tobis Denkmayr, Hermann Geppert and Stephan Sponar from Vienna, together with Alexandre Matzkin from CNRS in France, Professor Jeff Tollaksen from Chapman University in California, and Hartmut Lemmel from the Institut Laue-Langevin to develop a brand new quantum experiment.

Their aim was to get neutrons at the ILL to travel along a different path from its magnetic moment - a property describing the particle's coupling strength to an external magnetic field. The neutron's magnetic moment has a directional preference, a property called spin.

In the experiment the neutron beam was split into two paths with different spin directions. The upper beam path had a spin parallel to the neutrons' direction of flight whilst the spin of the lower beam pointed in the opposite direction.

After the two beams were recombined the experimental detector was set up so that only neutrons with spin parallel to the direction of motion - implying that those travelling along the upper path - are detected. "This is called postselection", says Hermann Geppert. "The beam contains neutrons of both spin directions, but we only detect a selection of the neutrons."

The team then introduced a filter, which absorbs some of the neutrons, in the lower beam path. This did not change the number of detected particles. However, when the very same filter was introduced in the upper beam path, the number of detected neutrons was reduced.

Things get tricky, when the location of the neutron spin is measured: the spin can be slightly changed using a magnetic field. When the two beams are recombined appropriately, they can amplify or cancel each other.

This is exactly what can be seen in the measurement, if the magnetic field is applied at the lower beam - but that is the path, which the neutrons are actually never supposed to take. A magnetic field applied to the upper beam, on the other hand, does not have any effect.

"By preparing the neutrons in a special initial state and then postselecting them, we can achieve a situation in which both possible paths in the interferometer are important for the experiment, but in very different ways", says Tobias Denkmayr.

"Along one of the paths, only an interaction with the particles themselves has an effect, but the other path is only sensitive to a magnetic spin coupling. The system behaves as if the particles were spatially separated from their properties."

The success of this unique type of quantum experiment was dependent on making so called 'weak measurements' to avoid the collapse of the superposition in accordance with the laws of quantum mechanics.

"These weak measurements give you less information," explains Hartmut Lemmel, instrument leader on S18, the ILL's crystal thermal neutron interferometer on which the Cheshire Cat was observed.

"As a result you need to do lots of observations to achieve any sort of certainty that you have seen what you think you have seen. This was only possible due the strength of the neutron source available at the ILL which can uniquely provide the numbers of neutrons required to run these repeat experiments."

With their landmark observation suitably vindicated, questions turn to the potential impact of their fundamental discovery. One application might high precision measurements of quantum systems which are often affected by disturbance.

"Consider a quantum system that has two properties: you want to measure the first one very precisely but the second makes the system prone to perturbations. The two can be separated using a Quantum Cheshire Cat, and possibly the perturbation can be minimized", says Stephan Sponar.

 

 

The Quantum Cheshire Cat: Scientists separate a particle from its properties

 
‎11 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:03:12 AMGo to full article
Orange CA (SPX) Jul 31, 2014 - The Quantum Cheshire Cat: Can a particle be separated from its properties? On July 29, the prestigious journal, Nature Communications, published the results of the first Cheshire Cat experiment, separating a neutron from its magnetic field, conducted by Chapman University in Orange, CA, and Vienna University of Technology.

"Well! I've often seen a cat without a grin," thought Alice in Wonderland, "but a grin without a cat! It's the most curious thing I ever saw in my life!" Alice's surprise stems from her experience that an object and its property cannot exist independently. It seems to be impossible to find a grin without a cat.

However, the strange laws of quantum mechanics (the theory which governs the microscopic world of atoms; and the most successful theory in history) tell us that it is indeed possible to separate a particle from its properties-a phenomenon which is strikingly analogous to the Cheshire Cat story.

The quantum Cheshire Cat is the latest example of how strange quantum mechanics becomes when viewed through the lens of one of Aharonov's fundamental discoveries called the "weak measurement."

The idea of the Quantum Cheshire Cat was first discovered by Chapman's Prof. Yakir Aharonov and first published by Aharonov's collaborator, Prof. Jeff Tollaksen (also at Chapman University), in 2001. Aharonov's team, including Sandu Popescu (University of Bristol and Chapman's Institute for Quantum Studies) and Daniel Rorhlich (Ben Gurion University), continued to develop the Cheshire Cat theory in more recent publications.

Nature Communications published the first Cheshire Cat experiment conducted by a group of experimental physicists led by Prof. Yuji Hasegawa at the Vienna University of Technology who worked with theorist Prof. Tollaksen.

They conducted an experiment involving neutrons which travel along a different path than one of their properties - their magnetic moment. Prof. Tollaksen stated "This experiment and the theory behind it will help us better understand the strangeness of the microscopic realm."

At Different Places at Once
According to the law of quantum physics, particles can be in different physical states at the same time. If, for example, a beam of neutrons is divided into two beams using a silicon crystal, it can be shown that the individual neutrons do not have to decide which of the two possible paths they choose. Instead, they can travel along both paths at the same time in a quantum superposition.

"This experimental technique is called neutron interferometry," says Professor Yuji Hasegawa from the Vienna University of Technology. "It was invented here at our institute in the 1970s, and it has turned out to be the perfect tool to investigate fundamental quantum mechanics."

To see if the same technique could separate the properties of a particle from the particle itself, Dr. Hasegawa brought together a team including Tobis Denkmayr, Hermann Geppert and Stephan Sponar, together with Alexandre Matzkin from Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modelisation (CNRS), Professor Jeff Tollaksen from Chapman University in California and Hartmut Lemmel from the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL)to develop a brand new quantum experiment.

The experiment was done at the neutron source at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) in Grenoble, where a unique kind of measuring station is operated by the Viennese team, supported by Hartmut Lemmel from ILL.

Where is the Cat...?
Neutrons are not electrically charged, but they carry a magnetic moment. They have a magnetic direction, the neutron spin, which can be influenced by external magnetic fields.

First, a neutron beam is split into two parts in a neutron interferometer. Then the spins of the two beams are shifted into different directions: the upper neutron beam has a spin parallel to the neutrons' trajectory, the spin of the lower beam points in the opposite direction. After the two beams have been recombined, only those neutrons are chosen, which have a spin parallel to their direction of motion. All the others are just ignored.

These neutrons, which are found to have a spin parallel to its direction of motion, must clearly have traveled along the upper path - only there, the neutrons have this spin state. This can be shown in the experiment.

If the lower beam is sent through a filter which absorbs some of the neutrons, then the number of the neutrons with spin parallel to their trajectory stays the same. If the upper beam is sent through a filter, than the number of these neutrons is reduced.

...and Where is the Grin?
Things get tricky, when the system is used to measure where the neutron spin is located: the spin can be slightly changed using a magnetic field. When the two beams are recombined appropriately, they can amplify or cancel each other.

This is exactly what can be seen in the measurement if the magnetic field is applied at the lower beam - but that is the path which the neutrons considered in the experiment are actually never supposed to take. A magnetic field applied to the upper beam, on the other hand, does not have any effect.

"By preparing the neurons in a special initial state and then post selecting another state, we can achieve a situation in which both the possible paths in the interferometer are important for the experiment, but in very different ways," says Tobias Denkmayr.

"Along one of the paths, the particles themselves couple to our measurement device, but only the other path is sensitive to magnetic spin coupling. The system behaves as if the particles were spatially separated from their properties."

Many popularized articles about the new effect have also appeared in major magazines, such as New Scientist. These articles interview the Chapman University researchers who first predicted such new kinds of quantum paradoxes.

Strong analysis requires weak measurement
This success of this unique type of quantum experiment was dependent on making so called 'weak measurements' to avoid the collapse of the superposition in accordance with the laws of quantum mechanics, a technique first introduced by Aharonov in 1988.

"When you perform weak measurements followed by post-selections, you see a completely new and surprising reality which I believe reveals true physical properties of quantum systems." says Tollaksen.

Practical Applications: High Hopes for High-Precision Measurements
Co-Director of the Institute for Quantum Studies, Prof. Jeff Tollaksen has said: "Theoretical physics has yielded the most significant benefits for our society at the lowest costs. Discoveries in fundamental physics often lead to new industries: from electricity to smartphones to satellites.

Quantum physics resulted in technological advances that drive our economy, such as the entire computer revolution, electronics, and the nuclear power industry. In addition, it impacts many other disciplines such as genetics, medicine and mathematics.

"Experts therefore estimate that nearly half the wealth created in the 20th century arose from quantum physics. At the Institute, we're committed to producing the next generation of breakthroughs which will lead to the technology of the 21st century. Similarly, I'm sure this breakthrough will lead to many new applications including revised intuitions which can then serve as a guide to finding novel quantum effects."

This "Quantum Cheshire Cat" could be used for practical applications. For example, it could be used to make high precision measurements less sensitive to external perturbations. The measurements which now have been published in Nature Communications are the first experimental proof of this phenomenon.

The article in Nature Communications can be found here: http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2014/140729/ncomms5492/pdf/ncomms5492.pdf

 

 

NASA-funded X-ray Instrument Settles Interstellar Debate

 
‎11 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:03:12 AMGo to full article
Greenbelt MD (SPX) Jul 30, 2014 - New findings from a NASA-funded instrument have resolved a decades-old puzzle about a fog of low-energy X-rays observed over the entire sky. Thanks to refurbished detectors first flown on a NASA sounding rocket in the 1970s, astronomers have now confirmed the long-held suspicion that much of this glow stems from a region of million-degree interstellar plasma known as the local hot bubble, or LHB.

At the same time, the study also establishes upper limits on the amount of low-energy, or soft, X-rays produced within our planetary system by the solar wind, a gusty outflow of charged particles emanating from the sun.

"Interactions between the solar wind and neutral atoms in comets, the outer atmospheres of planets, and even interstellar gas produce soft X-rays," explained team member Steve Snowden, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.

"We need to account for these processes because the X-rays they produce complicate our observations of the wider universe."

Decades of mapping the sky in X-rays with energies around 250 electron volts - about 100 times the energy of visible light - revealed strong emission precisely where it shouldn't be. This glow, known as the soft X-ray diffuse background, is surprisingly bright in the gas-rich central plane of our galaxy, where it should be strongly absorbed.

This suggested the background was a local phenomenon, arising from a bubble of hot gas extending out a few hundred light-years from the solar system in all directions. Improved measurements also made it increasingly clear that the sun resides in a region where interstellar gas is unusually sparse.

Taken together, the evidence suggests our solar system is moving through a region that may have been blasted clear by one or more supernova explosions during the past 20 million years.

In the 1990s, a six-month all-sky survey by the German X-ray observatory ROSAT provided improved maps of the diffuse background, but it also revealed that comets were an unexpected source of soft X-rays. As scientists began to understand this process, called solar wind charge exchange, they realized it could occur anywhere neutral atoms interacted with solar wind ions.

Within the last decade, some scientists have been challenging the LHB interpretation, suggesting that much of the soft X-ray diffuse background is a result of charge exchange," said F. Scott Porter, a Goddard astrophysicist also participating in the study. "The only way to check is to design an instrument and make measurements."

Led by Massimiliano Galeazzi, a professor of physics at the University of Miami in Coral Gables, Florida, an international collaboration developed a mission to do just that.

The team includes scientists from NASA, the University of Wisconsin - Madison, the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, the University of Kansas at Lawrence, Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), headquartered in Paris, and other institutions.

Galeazzi and his colleagues rebuilt, tested, calibrated, and adapted X-ray detectors originally designed by the University of Wisconsin and flown on sounding rockets in the 1970s. Components from another instrument flown on space shuttle Endeavour in 1993 also were given new life. The mission was named DXL, for Diffuse X-ray emission from the Local Galaxy.

On Dec. 12, 2012, DXL launched from White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico atop a NASA Black Brant IX sounding rocket, reaching a peak altitude of 160 miles (258 km) and spending five minutes above Earth's atmosphere. The mission design allowed the instrument to observe a worst-case scenario involving charge exchange with interstellar gas.

The solar system is currently passing through a small cloud of cold interstellar gas as it moves through the galaxy. The cloud's neutral hydrogen and helium atoms stream through the planetary system at about 56,000 mph (90,000 km/h).

While hydrogen atoms quickly ionize and respond to numerous forces, the helium atoms travel paths largely governed by the sun's gravity. This creates a "helium focusing cone" downstream from the sun that crosses Earth's orbit and is located high in the sky near midnight in early December.

"This helium focusing creates a region with a much greater density of neutral atoms and a correspondingly enhanced charge exchange rate," Snowden said.

The solar wind is accelerated in the sun's corona, the hottest part of its atmosphere, so its atoms have been ionized - stripped of many of their electrons. When a neutral atom collides with a solar wind ion, one of its electrons often jumps to the charged particle. Once captured by the ion, the electron briefly remains in an excited state, then emits a soft X-ray and settles down at a lower energy. This is solar wind charge exchange in action.

To establish a baseline for the soft X-ray background, the researchers used data captured by the ROSAT mission in September 1990 in a direction looking along, rather than into, the helium focusing cone. The results, published online in the journal Nature on July 27, indicate that only about 40 percent of the soft X-ray background originates within the solar system.

"We now know that the emission comes from both sources but is dominated by the local hot bubble," said Galeazzi. "This is a significant discovery. Specifically, the existence or nonexistence of the local bubble affects our understanding of the area of the galaxy close to the sun, and can, therefore, be used as a foundation for future models of the galaxy structure."

Galeazzi and his collaborators are already planning the next flight of DXL, which will include additional instruments to better characterize the emission. The launch is currently planned for December 2015.

"The DXL team is an extraordinary example of cross-disciplinary science, bringing together astrophysicists, planetary scientists, and heliophysicists," added Porter. "It's unusual but very rewarding when scientists with such diverse interests come together to produce such groundbreaking results."

 

 

Measuring the Smallest Magnets

 
‎11 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:03:12 AMGo to full article
Rehovot, Israel (SPX) Jul 29, 2014 - Imagine trying to measure a tennis ball that bounces wildly, every time to a distance a million times its own size. The bouncing obviously creates enormous "background noise" that interferes with the measurement. But if you attach the ball directly to a measuring device, so they bounce together, you can eliminate the noise problem.

As reported recently in Nature, physicists at the Weizmann Institute of Science used a similar trick to measure the interaction between the smallest possible magnets - two single electrons - after neutralizing magnetic noise that was a million times stronger than the signal they needed to detect.

Dr. Roee Ozeri of the Institute's Physics of Complex Systems Department says: "The electron has spin, a form of orientation involving two opposing magnetic poles. In fact, it's a tiny bar magnet." The question is whether pairs of electrons act like regular bar magnets in which the opposite poles attract one another.

Dr. Shlomi Kotler performed the study while a graduate student under Dr. Ozeri's guidance, with Drs. Nitzan Akerman, Nir Navon and Yinnon Glickman.

Detecting the magnetic interaction of two electrons poses an enormous challenge: When the electrons are at a close range - as they normally are in an atomic orbit - forces other than the magnetic one prevail.

On the other hand, if the electrons are pulled apart, the magnetic force becomes dominant, but so weak in absolute terms that it's easily drowned out by ambient magnetic noise emanating from power lines, lab equipment and the earth's magnetic field.

The scientists overcame the problem by borrowing a trick from quantum computing that protects quantum information from outside interference. This technique binds two electrons together so that their spins point in opposite directions. Thus, like the bouncing tennis ball attached to the measuring device, the combination of equal but opposite spins makes the electron pair impervious to magnetic noise.

The Weizmann scientists built an electric trap in which two electrons are bound to two strontium ions that are cooled close to absolute zero and separated by 2 micrometers (millionths of a meter).

At this distance, which is astronomic by the standards of the quantum world, the magnetic interaction is very weak. But because the electron pairs were not affected by external magnetic noise, the interactions between them could be measured with great precision. The measurement lasted for 15 seconds - tens of thousands of times longer than the milliseconds during which scientists have until now been able to preserve quantum data.

The measurements showed that the electrons interacted magnetically just as two large magnets do: Their north poles repelled one another, rotating on their axes until their unlike poles drew near. This is in line with the predictions of the Standard Model, the currently accepted theory of matter. Also as predicted, the magnetic interaction weakened as a function of the distance between them to the power of three.

In addition to revealing a fundamental principle of particle physics, the measurement approach may prove useful in such areas as the development of atomic clocks or the study of quantum systems in a noisy environment.

 

 

Refrigerator magnets

 
‎11 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:03:12 AMGo to full article
Boston MA (SPX) Jul 29, 2014 - The magnets cluttering the face of your refrigerator may one day be used as cooling agents, according to a new theory formulated by MIT researchers. The theory describes the motion of magnons - quasi-particles in magnets that are collective rotations of magnetic moments, or "spins."

In addition to the magnetic moments, magnons also conduct heat; from their equations, the MIT researchers found that when exposed to a magnetic field gradient, magnons may be driven to move from one end of a magnet to another, carrying heat with them and producing a cooling effect.

"You can pump heat from one side to the other, so you can essentially use a magnet as a refrigerator," says Bolin Liao, a graduate student in MIT's Department of Mechanical Engineering. "You can envision wireless cooling where you apply a magnetic field to a magnet one or two meters away to, say, cool your laptop."

In theory, Liao says, such a magnetically driven refrigerator would require no moving parts, unlike conventional iceboxes that pump fluid through a set of pipes to keep things cool.

Liao, along with graduate student Jiawei Zhou and Department of Mechanical Engineering head Gang Chen, have published a paper detailing the magnon cooling theory in Physical Review Letters.

"People now have a new theoretical playground to study how magnons move under coexisting field and temperature gradients," Liao says. "These equations are pretty fundamental for magnon transport."

A cool effect
In a ferromagnet, the local magnetic moments can rotate and align in various directions. At a temperature of absolute zero, the local magnetic moments align to produce the strongest possible magnetic force in a magnet. As temperature increases, a magnet becomes weaker as more local magnetic moments spin away from the shared alignment; a magnon population is created with this elevated temperature.

In many ways, magnons are similar to electrons, which can simultaneously carry electrical charge and conduct heat. Electrons move in response to either an electric field or a temperature gradient - a phenomenon known as the thermoelectric effect.

In recent years, scientists have investigated this effect for applications such as thermoelectric generators, which can be used to convert heat directly into electricity, or to deliver cooling without any moving parts.

Liao and his colleagues recognized a similar "coupled" phenomenon in magnons, which move in response to two forces: a temperature gradient or a magnetic field. Because magnons behave much like electrons in this aspect, the researchers developed a theory of magnon transport based on a widely established equation for electron transport in thermoelectrics, called the Boltzmann transport equation.

From their derivations, Liao, Zhou, and Chen came up with two new equations to describe magnon transport. With these equations, they predicted a new magnon cooling effect, similar to the thermoelectric cooling effect, in which magnons, when exposed to a magnetic field gradient, may carry heat from one end of a magnet to the other.

Motivating new experiments
Liao used the properties of a common magnetic insulator to model how this magnon cooling effect may work in existing magnetic materials. He collected data for this material from previous literature, and plugged the numbers into the group's new model. He found that while the effect was small, the material was able to generate a cooling effect in response to a moderate magnetic field gradient. The effect was more pronounced at cryogenic temperatures.

The theoretical results suggest to Chen that a first application for magnon cooling may be for scientists working on projects that require wireless cooling at extremely low temperatures.

"At this stage, potential applications are in cryogenics - for example, cooling infrared detectors," Chen says. "However, we need to confirm the effect experimentally and look for better materials. We hope this will motivate new experiments."

Li Shi, a professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Texas at Austin who was not involved in the research, says the magnetic cooling effect identified by the group is "a highly useful theoretical framework for studying the coupling between spin and heat, and can potentially stimulate ideas of utilizing magnons as a working 'fluid' in a solid-state refrigeration system."

Liao points out that magnons also add to the arsenal of tools for improving existing thermoelectric generators - which, while potentially innovative in their ability to generate electricity from heat, are also relatively inefficient.

"There's still a long way to go for thermoelectrics to compete with traditional technologies," Liao says. "Studying the magnetic degree of freedom could potentially help optimize existing systems and improve the thermoelectric efficiency."

The work was partly supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

 

 

Mysterious black holes may be exploding into 'white holes'

 
‎07 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎08:18:31 PMGo to full article
Moscow (Voice of Russia) Jul 29, 2014 - A new scientific theory suggests that when black holes reach the end of their lifespan, they explode into "white holes" and release all of their matter into space. If true, the theory could help put to rest the debate over whether or not black holes actually destroy the matter they end up devouring.

As noted by Albert Einstein's theory of relativity, when a dying star ends up collapsing under its own weight, at some point the collapse becomes irreversible, resulting in a black hole that consumes light and anything else within its surrounding area. Although Vice noted that black holes do slowly leak radiation over time - ultimately draining the black hole completely - this doesn't account for all the other matter that the dying star has consumed.

Since quantum theory does not allow for the possibility that information can be lost, though, two researchers from France's Aix-Marseille University believe they've discovered an explanation for this so-called "information paradox."

According to physicists Carlo Rovelli and Hal Haggard, a black hole eventually reaches a point where it cannot collapse any further and the internal pressure begins to push outwards. This essentially turns the black hole inside out and expels everything it once consumed back into space.

Notably, the scientists believe that these white holes are created not long after the black hole's original formation, and we humans can't see it because gravity dilates time and makes the black hole's lifespan seem to last for billions or trillions of years. Their current calculation is that it only takes a few thousandths of a second for a black hole to turn into a white hole.

"Importantly, the process is very long seen from the outside, but is very short for a local observer at a small radius," the researchers wrote in a paper on the subject, according to Vice.

Ron Cowen, a science writer at Nature, explained further.

"If the authors are correct, tiny black holes that formed during the very early history of the Universe would now be ready to pop off like firecrackers and might be detected as high-energy cosmic rays or other radiation. In fact, they say, their work could imply that some of the dramatic flares commonly considered to be supernova explosions could in fact be the dying throes of tiny black holes that formed shortly after the Big Bang."

Although Rovelli and Haggard aren't completely dismissing the idea that black holes leak radiation, they said the trickles of energy would not be sufficient enough to deplete the dying stars of all the energy they've consumed. Radiation may very well seep out, but their work is primarily concerned with discovering what happens inside a black hole.

Still, both Rovelli and Haggard admitted that their theory needs to be tested further with more comprehensive calculations. If research confirms their ideas, however, theoretical physicist Steven Giddings of the University of California Santa Barbara says, "It would be important. Understanding how information escapes from a black hole is the key question for the quantum mechanics of black holes, and possibly for quantum gravity itself."

Source: Voice Of Russia

 

 

Timely arrival of Pharao space clock

 
‎07 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎08:18:31 PMGo to full article
Paris (ESA) Jul 29, 2014 - ESA has welcomed the arrival of Pharao, an important part of ESA's atomic clock experiment that will be attached to the International Space Station in 2016.

Delivered by France's CNES space agency, Pharao is accurate to a second in 300 million years, which will allow scientists to test fundamental theories proposed by Albert Einstein with a precision that is impossible in laboratories on Earth.

Time is linked to gravity and, for example, passes faster at the top of Mount Everest than at sea level. These effects have been proved in experiments on Earth but the Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space, ACES, will make more precise measurements as it flies 400 km high on humanity's weightless laboratory.

Comparing clocks under different gravity levels allows researchers to test Einstein's theories on space-time and other theories in fundamental physics.

To achieve its accurate timekeeping, the Pharao space clock uses lasers to cool caesium atoms down to -273 C, close to absolute zero.

Internet of clocks
Accurate timekeeping is vital for pinpointing our location, secure banking and fundamental science, but it is not easy to compare data from the many atomic clocks on Earth.

ACES is more than just one clock in space. Pharao will be accompanied by the Space Hydrogen Maser, which uses a different technique to keep track of time. This clock uses hydrogen atoms as a frequency reference and offers better stability but for a shorter time.

By coupling the two clocks, ACES will provide the scientists with a unique, highly stable time reference in space.

The project will link together atomic clocks in Europe, USA, Japan and Australia with their space counterparts via microwave and optical links to create an 'internet of clocks' and to deliver precise timekeeping.

Connecting all these clocks is a significant part of ACES, with France's Cadmos User Support and Operations Centre taking responsibility for operating the instruments on the Station.

ESA astronaut Thomas Pesquet will be on the orbital outpost when ACES arrives in 2016. Using the Station's robotic arm, the 375 kg payload will be installed on a platform outside Europe's Columbus space laboratory.

 

 

Boosting the Force of Empty Space

 
‎07 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎08:18:31 PMGo to full article
Vienna, Austria (SPX) Jul 25, 2014 - Vacuum fluctuations may be among the most counter-intuitive phenomena of quantum physics. Theorists from the Weizmann Institute (Rehovot, Israel) and the Vienna University of Technology propose a way to amplify their force.

Vacuum is not as empty as one might think. In fact, empty space is a bubbling soup of various virtual particles popping in and out of existence - a phenomenon called "vacuum fluctuations".

Usually, such extremely short-lived particles remain completely unnoticed, but in certain cases vacuum forces can have a measurable effect.

A team of researchers from the Weizmann Institute of Science (Rehovot, Israel) and the Vienna University of Technology has now proposed a method of amplifying these forces by several orders of magnitude using a transmission line, channelling virtual photons.

"Borrowing" Energy, but just for a Little While
If you park your car somewhere and later it is gone, that is most probably not due to vacuum fluctuations. Objects do not disappear or reappear, that would violate the law of energy conservation. In the world of quantum physics, however, things are a bit more complicated.

"Due to the uncertainty principle, virtual particles can come into existence for a brief period of time", says Igor Mazets from the Vienna University of Technology. "The higher their energy, the faster they will disappear again."

But such virtual particles can have a measurable collective effect. At very short distances, vacuum fluctuations can lead to an attractive force between atoms or molecules - the Van der Waals forces. Even the ability of a gecko to climb flat surfaces can in part be attributed to vacuum fluctuations and virtual particles.

The famous Casimir effect is another example of the power of the vacuum: The physicist Hendrik Casimir calculated in 1948 that two parallel mirrors in empty space will attract each other due to the way they influence the vacuum around them.

Atoms and Photons
Two atoms close to each other will also change the local vacuum around them. If one of them emits a virtual photon, which is almost instantly absorbed by the other, then on any timescale larger than the brief moment of the photon's existence, nothing much has happened - the total energy is conserved. But the fact that virtual particles can be exchanged modifies the vacuum around the atoms, and this leads to a force.

"Usually, such forces are very hard to measure", says Igor Mazets. "This is partly due to the fact, that such a photon may be emitted into any direction, and the chances of the second atom absorbing it are very small."

But what if the virtual particle has a little help to find its way? Ephraim Shahmoon, Gershon Kurizki (Weizmann Institute of Science) and Igor Mazets calculated what happens to vacuum forces between atoms when they are placed in the vicinity of an electrical transmission line such as a coaxial cable or a coplanar waveguide (a device used in cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments as an open transmission line), cooled to very low temperatures.

"In that case, the fluctuations are effectively confined to one dimension", says Igor Mazets. The virtual particles will be forced to go into the direction of the other atom.

In that case, the fluctuation-mediated attraction between the atoms becomes orders of magnitude stronger than in free space. Usually, the force decreases rapidly with increasing distance between the atoms. Due to the transmission line, it falls off with one over the distance cubed, instead of one over the seventh power of the distance, as in the usual case.

The researchers believe that their proposed enhancement of the power of vacuum fluctuations can have profound implications for understanding Casimir- and Van der Waals forces and it may even be used for applications in quantum information processing and other emerging quantum technologies.

 

 

Is The Universe A Bubble? Let's Check

 
‎29 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎08:59:01 PMGo to full article
Waterloo, Canada (SPX) Jul 23, 2014 - Never mind the big bang; in the beginning was the vacuum. The vacuum simmered with energy (variously called dark energy, vacuum energy, the inflation field, or the Higgs field). Like water in a pot, this high energy began to evaporate - bubbles formed.

Each bubble contained another vacuum, whose energy was lower, but still not nothing. This energy drove the bubbles to expand. Inevitably, some bubbles bumped into each other. It's possible some produced secondary bubbles. Maybe the bubbles were rare and far apart; maybe they were packed close as foam.

But here's the thing: each of these bubbles was a universe. In this picture, our universe is one bubble in a frothy sea of bubble universes.

That's the multiverse hypothesis in a bubbly nutshell.

It's not a bad story. It is, as scientists say, physically motivated - not just made up, but rather arising from what we think we know about cosmic inflation.

Cosmic inflation isn't universally accepted - most cyclical models of the universe reject the idea. Nevertheless, inflation is a leading theory of the universe's very early development, and there is some observational evidence to support it.

Inflation holds that in the instant after the big bang, the universe expanded rapidly - so rapidly that an area of space once a nanometer square ended up more than a quarter-billion light years across in just a trillionth of a trillionth of a trillionth of a second. It's an amazing idea, but it would explain some otherwise puzzling astrophysical observations.

Inflation is thought to have been driven by an inflation field - which is vacuum energy by another name. Once you postulate that the inflation field exists, it's hard to avoid an "in the beginning was the vacuum" kind of story. This is where the theory of inflation becomes controversial - when it starts to postulate multiple universes.

Proponents of the multiverse theory argue that it's the next logical step in the inflation story. Detractors argue that it is not physics, but metaphysics - that it is not science because it cannot be tested. After all, physics lives or dies by data that can be gathered and predictions that can be checked.

That's where Perimeter Associate Faculty member Matthew Johnson (cross-appointed at York University) comes in. Working with a small team that also includes Perimeter Faculty member Luis Lehner, Johnson is working to bring the multiverse hypothesis firmly into the realm of testable science.

"That's what this research program is all about," he says. "We're trying to find out what the testable predictions of this picture would be, and then going out and looking for them."

Specifically, Johnson has been considering the rare cases in which our bubble universe might collide with another bubble universe. He lays out the steps: "We simulate the whole universe. We start with a multiverse that has two bubbles in it, we collide the bubbles on a computer to figure out what happens, and then we stick a virtual observer in various places and ask what that observer would see from there."

Simulating the whole universe - or more than one - seems like a tall order, but apparently that's not so.

"Simulating the universe is easy," says Johnson. Simulations, he explains, are not accounting for every atom, every star, or every galaxy - in fact, they account for none of them.

"We're simulating things only on the largest scales," he says. "All I need is gravity and the stuff that makes these bubbles up. We're now at the point where if you have a favourite model of the multiverse, I can stick it on a computer and tell you what you should see."

That's a small step for a computer simulation program, but a giant leap for the field of multiverse cosmology. By producing testable predictions, the multiverse model has crossed the line between appealing story and real science.

In fact, Johnson says, the program has reached the point where it can rule out certain models of the multiverse: "We're now able to say that some models predict something that we should be able to see, and since we don't in fact see it, we can rule those models out."

For instance, collisions of one bubble universe with another would leave what Johnson calls "a disk on the sky" - a circular bruise in the cosmic microwave background. That the search for such a disk has so far come up empty makes certain collision-filled models less likely.

Meanwhile, the team is at work figuring out what other kinds of evidence a bubble collision might leave behind. It's the first time, the team writes in their paper, that anyone has produced a direct quantitative set of predictions for the observable signatures of bubble collisions. And though none of those signatures has so far been found, some of them are possible to look for.

The real significance of this work is as a proof of principle: it shows that the multiverse can be testable. In other words, if we are living in a bubble universe, we might actually be able to tell.

 

 

It's go time for LUX-Zeplin dark matter experiment

 
‎29 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎08:59:01 PMGo to full article
New Haven CT (SPX) Jul 21, 2014 - From the physics labs at Yale University to the bottom of a played-out gold mine in South Dakota, a new generation of dark matter experiments is ready to commence.

The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science and the National Science Foundation recently gave the go-ahead to LUX-Zeplin (LZ), a key experiment in the hunt for dark matter, the invisible substance that may make up much of the universe. Daniel McKinsey, a professor of physics, leads a contingent of Yale scientists working on the project.

"We emerged from a very intense competition," said McKinsey, whose ongoing LUX (Large Underground Xenon) experiment looks for dark matter with a liquid xenon detector placed 4,850 feet below the Earth's surface. The device resides at the Sanford Underground Research Facility, in South Dakota's Black Hills.

The new, LZ device will boost the size and effectiveness of the original LUX technology.

"We have the most sensitive detector in the world, with LUX," McKinsey said. "LZ will be hundreds of times more sensitive. It's gratifying to see that our approach is being validated."

LZ is an international effort, involving scientists from 29 institutions in the United States, Portugal, Russia, and the United Kingdom. The DOE's Lawrence Berkeley National Lab manages the experiment.

Dark matter is a scientific placeholder, of sorts. Although it can't be seen or felt, its existence is thought to explain a number of important behaviors of the universe, including the structural integrity of galaxies.

LZ's approach posits that dark matter may be composed of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles - known as WIMPs - which pass through ordinary matter virtually undetected. The experiment aims to spot these particles as they move through a container of dense, liquid xenon. That container will be surrounded by a tank of water, along with an array of sophisticated light sensors and other systems.

Putting the device down a mineshaft weeds out cosmic rays, McKinsey said. Gamma rays and neutrinos, however, still will be able to seep into the device. They'll be like tiny bowling balls, careening into the liquid xenon and colliding with electrons. Those collisions will be identified and factored out.

The researchers hope that the remaining collisions, the ones involving nuclei, will identify the presence of dark matter. "It comes down to distinguishing between electron and nuclear recoils," McKinsey said.

LZ will be a meter taller and significantly wider than its predecessor. The amount of xenon will jump from 250 kilograms to 7,000 kilograms. Such considerations become critical when you're conducting research in a mine, according to McKinsey.

"Everything has to come down in the same cage," he said.

As with LUX, a number of systems and components for LZ will be designed and built at Yale. For example, McKinsey said, team members in New Haven will work on calibration systems. They also will construct a system for bringing high voltage into the device's lower grid.

The goal is to have LZ operational in 2017, while continuing work with the LUX experiment.

"We want to get moving soon," McKinsey said. "We have new systems we want to start testing. Our activity has begun."

Two other dark matter initiatives also earned support. Those are the SuperCDMS-SNOLAB, which will look for WIMPs, and ADMX-Gen2, which will search for axion particles.

 

 

Scientists Find Way to Maintain Quantum Entanglement in Amplified Signals

 
‎29 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎08:59:01 PMGo to full article
Moscow, Russia (SPX) Jul 24, 2014 - Physicists Sergei Filippov (MIPT and Russian Quantum Center at Skolkovo) and Mario Ziman (Masaryk University in Brno, Czech Republic, and the Institute of Physics in Bratislava, Slovakia) have found a way to preserve quantum entanglement of particles passing through an amplifier and, conversely, when transmitting a signal over long distances. Details are provided in an article published in the journal Physical Review A(see preprint).

Quantum entangled particles are considered to be the basis of several promising technologies, including quantum computers and communication channels secured against tapping. Quantum entangled particles are quantum objects that can be described in terms of a common quantum state.

Two quantum entangled particles can be in different places, at any distance from each other, but they still are to be considered as a whole. This effect has no analogues in classical physics, and it has been actively studied for the past few decades.

Physicists have learned to entangle photons and have found application for them, including opticalfiber communication channels which are impossible to tap. When trying to intercept the transmission of data over such a channel, quantum entanglement of photons is inevitably destroyed and the legitimate recipient of the message immediately detects interference.

In addition to this, quantum entanglement allows for carrying out quantum teleportation, wherein a quantum object, for example, an atom, in a certain state in one laboratory transmits its quantum state to another object in another laboratory.

It is quantum entangled particles that play the key role in this process, and it is not necessarily about the quantum entanglement of the atoms between which the transmission of the state takes place.

The latter atom becomes absolutely identical to the former one, which in its turn transfers into a different state during the teleportation. If all atoms of an object were transferred like this, the second laboratory would have its exact copy.

The laws of quantum mechanics do not allow for the teleportation of objects and people, but it is already possible to quantum teleport single photons and atoms, which opens up exciting opportunities for the creation of new computing devices and communication lines.

Due to specific quantum effects, a quantum computer will be able to efficiently solve certain problems, for example, hacking codes used in banking, but for now it is still just a theoretical possibility. In practice, quantum computing and teleportation are obstructed by a process called decoherence.

Decoherence is the destruction of the quantum state due to the interaction of a quantum system with the outside world. For experiments in quantum computing, scientists use single atoms caught in magnetic traps and cooled to temperatures close to absolute zero. After going through kilometers of fiber, photons cease to be quantum entangled in most cases and become ordinary, unrelated light quanta.

To create an effective quantum computing system, scientists have to solve a number of problems, including preserving quantum entanglement when the signal abates and when it passes through an amplifier.

Fiber-optic cables on the ocean bed contain a great deal of special amplifiers composed of optical glass and rare earth elements. It is these amplifiers that make it possible to watch high-resolution videos stored on a server in California from the MIPT campus or a university in Beijing.

In their article, Filippov and Ziman say that a certain class of signals can be transmitted so that the risk ofruining quantum entanglement becomes much lower. In this case, neither the attenuation nor the amplification of a signal ruins the entanglement.

To achieve this effect, it is necessary to have the particles in a special, non-Gaussian state, or, as physicists put it, "the wave function of the particles in the coordinate representation should not be in the form of a Gaussian wave packet."

A wave function is a basic concept of quantum mechanics, and Gaussian distribution is a major mathematical function used not only by physicists but also by statisticians, sociologists and economists.

Quantum mechanics differs from classical mechanics in that there are neither material points, nor clearly specified boundaries for bodies in it. Each object can be described by a wave function - each point in space corresponds to a complex number at each moment.

If this number is squared* one may find an object at a given point. To get information on the momentum, energy, or other physical characteristic, the same wave function has to be exposed to a so-called operator.

* In fact, since the amplitude is expressed as a complex number, it is necessary to multiply the numberby a complex conjugate. This detail was omitted due to reader unfamiliarity with complex numbers.

Link for English version of complex number explanation

Gaussian distribution is a function that in its simplest form (without additional coefficients) looks like e-x2. In diagrams, it appears as a bell curve. Many processes in nature are described via this function when the results of observations are processed using mathematical methods.

Ordinary photons, which are used in most quantum entanglement experiments, are also described by a Gaussian function. The probability of finding a photon at a given point (a translation of the expression "in the coordinate representation") first increases and then decreases according to the rule of the Gaussian bell curve. In this case "it would be impossible to send the entanglement far, even if the signal is very strong," Sergei Filippov told MIPT's press service.

Using photons whose wave function has a different shape should increase the number of entangled photon pairs reaching the destination. However, this does not mean that a signal could be transmitted through a very opaque environment and at very long distances. If the signal/noise ratio falls below a certain critical threshold, quantum entanglement vanishes in any case.

MIPT's press office would like to thank Dr. Sergei Filippov for his invaluable help in writing this article.

 

 

Now can we test for Multiple universes

 
‎29 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎08:59:01 PMGo to full article
Moscow (Voice of Russia) Jul 22, 2014 - The question of the size and limits of our universe can fry our mind without reading into it. Still more amazing, some among us always believed that we live in multiple, parallel universes. Now scientists think they can prove the fantastic hypothesis.

There is testable science, and then there is fantasy and beautiful fairytales. Mathew Johnson of the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Canada, has a mission to take on one of the most impossible beliefs of the latter and place it firmly in the former category.

Johnson's tactic is quite simply to establish a way of testing for different scenarios of how universes might collide, if they exist. He develops a computer model that simulates collision of physical bubble-like objects on a small, workable scale.

The metaphor for the multiverse used in the study is then quite similar to ordinary, observable processes here on Earth.

Imagine watching a pot of boiling water slowly simmer and form bubbles. Some of these bubbles grow into bigger ones, others split up, bump into each other, interact etc.

This is what proponents of the multiverse theory believe about the vacuum, which they say came before the Big Bang: an empty field full of energy that had nowhere to go, and thus began creating bubbles - universes, that began to collide with each other and interact in different ways. They represented the totality of every dimension we have come to know - space, time, all the constants and physical laws.

In short, we are in a cappuccino foam of universes. Scientists believe this is so due to what we call cosmic inflation - a process by which the cosmos has been expanding after the purported Big Bang. Not everyone believes the theory, but it's the most popular, and explains a large quantity of otherwise inexplicable space phenomena. It holds as its central thesis that after the pop, the universe expanded billions of light years across in a microscopic fraction of a second.

But even if dominant, the force behind the inflation still has to be proven. We take for a given that that force, known as vacuum energy, exists.

There are many different variations on the multiverse theme, but they all are limited by our inability to observe them empirically.

"That's what this research program is all about," Johnson writes. "We're trying to find out what the testable predictions of this picture would be, and then going out and looking for them."

As a starting point he uses a model that requires the collision of only two universes in some way or another. What makes this model simple is that we assume that the collision will have all the physical properties of two bubbles colliding in real life. Johnson uses a computer to see how they would interact.

"We collide the bubbles on a computer to figure out what happens, and then we stick a virtual observer in various places and ask what that observer would see from there," he says.

"All I need is gravity and the stuff that makes the bubbles up. We're now at the point where if you have a favorite model of the multiverse, I can stick it on a computer and tell you what you should see," Johnson explains.

The leap here is in that the computer simulation can in this way rule out certain existing multiverse models. Johnson has already made headway in estimating how an instance of two universes colliding would behave at the microwave dimension - "a disk in the sky" for instance.

No predictions have yet come to fruition. However, this is the first time anyone has attempted to quantify these reactions. And ruling out certain results leaves other scenarios more likely to happen. Moreover, these computer models expose the likelihood of testing the behavior of bubble collisions at all, and that makes them a huge leap for physics and astronomy.

 

 

Highly charged ions

 
‎29 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎08:59:01 PMGo to full article
College Park MD (SPX) Jul 22, 2014 - The world is mostly neutral. That is, most of the atoms in our environment are electrically neutral. The number of electrons in the outer parts of atoms equals the number of protons at the centers of atoms. As one or more electrons are plucked away from the atoms, the remaining electrons feel a much stronger positive pull from the nucleus.

This enhanced pull, causing the atoms to shrink in size, ensures that those electrons are less vulnerable to the distractions of their environment, making them potentially valuable for next-generation atomic clocks, for quantum information schemes (where the loss of quantum coherence in qubits is a paramount danger), and for experiments trying to detect slight variations in the fine structure constant, the parameter that sets the overall strength of the electromagnetic force.

A new theoretical study conducted by JQI adjunct fellow Marianna Safronova and her colleagues from groups around the world (1) provides the best yet study of how highly charged ions could be used for atomic timekeeping and for processing quantum information.

They identify 10 such ions---for instance, samarium-14+ and neodymium-10+---along with estimates of ion properties experimenters need to know before beginning their work, things such as the expected lifetimes and internal energy levels for the excited states of the ions.

Working With Highly Charged Ions
Charged-up atoms are hard to produce and control. At one of the facilities dedicated to this purpose, the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) at the Lawrence Livermore National Lab, a beam of electrons intercepts a beam of atoms, ionizing the atoms at they go.

In this way charge states all the way up to +92 (fully ionized uranium atoms) have been achieved. The trick is to store such charged ions and to cool them to low temperatures. In the kind of atomic environments typical of atomic clocks or quantum computers, low temperature means small ion motion, which makes for better spectroscopy.

Spectroscopy, the measurement of the energy of atomic transitions, is all important for the applications mentioned above---clocks, quantum computing, and testing the constants of nature. Currently the world's time standard is pegged to a particular microwave transition in cesium-133 atoms.. Even higher precision and better clocks will result from the use of transitions in the optical range.

One problem of working with highly charged ions is that the gaps in the energy levels are too great. This is because when you ionize an atom, its energy levels get further apart.

The light emanating from transitions in these ions is at too great a frequency, often in the ultraviolet part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Precision control and manipulation of ions needed for clocks and quantum information is harder or presently impossible to do in that UV or even x-ray energy regime. So in choosing ion candidates, it is important to search for transitions in the optical or near-optical range.

Another criterion is that the ions should be able to attain semi-stable excited states. A third criterion is that the characteristic transition is not between the states from the same electronic configuration. Such transitions do not have enhanced sensitivity to the study whether the fine structure constant is changing over time.. A fourth criterion is that the final ionic state should not be a radioactive substance, thus reducing handling problems.

Safronova and her colleagues, using these criteria and a state-of-the-art methods that they developed to study atoms arrived at their list of ten worthy ion species. They publish their results in the 18 July 2014 issue of Physical Review Letters (2).

Not the least part of their achievement is the authors' specification of the frequencies to be expected from the critical transitions in the candidate ions. It's hard enough to calculate the transition energies of un-ionized atoms, but even harder with these particular highly charged ions.

They calculated the frequencies for their select ions and then compared (where appropriate) with the values observed in the lab. The difference, generally less than 1%, should reassure experimenters that Safronova and her colleagues can accurately predict properties of ions where no experimental data are available. .

Clockwork
The use of highly charged ions might result in more accurate clocks since the atoms will be more immune from interference from nearby electric or magnetic fields. But aren't atomic clocks already good? They are.

In January 2014, physicists at NIST-Boulder announced the creation of an atomic clock that sets records for accuracy and stability, at the 6 parts-per-10^-18 level. This clock uses strontium atoms, and the observed transition is reported to an astounding degree of explicitness. The energy corresponds to a wave with a frequency of 429,228,004,229, 870.0(1.1) Hz.

If, however, we could go just a bit further, to the level of 10^-19, then important physics tests might be possible, including the chance to determine whether the fine structure constant (denoted by the Greek letter alpha), is changing in time or space. Astronomical data has been interpreted by some to suggest that alpha is changing at a small level. At the finer level of precision offered by highly charged ions, terrestrial tests of alpha's constancy could be carried out.

Other potential uses for atomic clocks emerge in areas where high precision is critical: geodesy, hydrology, navigation, and even the deep tracking of spacecraft. Safronova singles out the potential for quantum computing: "The highly charge ions we recommend," she said, "present a completely unexplored resource for quantum information owing to their unique atomic properties and their potential for reducing the sensitivity to troubling decoherence effects."

"Highly charged ions for atomic clocks, quantum information, and search for alpha variation," M.S. Safronova, V.A. Dzuba, V.V. Flambaum, U.I. Safronova, S.G. Porsev, and M.G. Kozlov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 030801

 

 

Ferromagnetism at 230 K found in a new diluted magnetic semiconductor by Chinese physicists

 
‎25 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎04:34:40 PMGo to full article
Beijing, China (SPX) Jul 11, 2014 - Diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) have received much attention due to their potential application in spintronics, or the storage and transfer of information by using an electron's spin state, its magnetic moment and its charge.

In typical systems based on III-V semiconductors, such as (Ga,Mn)As, (In,Mn)As or (Ga,Mn)N, substitution of divalent Mn atoms into trivalent Ga (or In) sites leads to severely limited chemical solubility, resulting in metastable specimens only available as epitaxial thin films. The hetero-valence substitution, which simultaneously dopes both charges and spin, makes it difficult to individually control each quantum freedom.

Recently a group led by Professor Changqing Jin at the Institute of Physics, part of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, in Beijing, collaborated with scholar Y.J. Uemura at Columbia University in the discovery of a new DMS of bulk Li(Zn,Mn)As (termed "111" following the chemical compositions ration), where isovalent (Zn,Mn) spin doping was separated from charge control via Li concentrations, showing a Curie temperature up to Tc = 50K (Z. Den et al. Nature Communications 2, 422 (2011)).

Compared with classical diluted magnetic semiconductors such as (Ga,Mn)As, the lower Tc of the new "111" system is an obstacle for possible application.

More recently, a new ferromagnetic DMS (Ba,K)(Zn,Mn)2As2 (named "122" type following the chemical ration) system sharing the same structure with "122" type iron pnictide superconductors was reported. Via (Ba,K) substitution to dope hole carriers and (Zn,Mn) substitution to supply magnetic moments, the systems with 5-15% Mn doping exhibit ferromagnetic order with Tc up to 180 K (K. Zhao et al. NATURE COMMUNICATIONS |4: 1442 (2013)).

The ferromagnetic order, developing in the entire volume as indicated by SR results, is evidenced by the anomalous Hall effect in the ferromagnetic states.

One of the challenges to possible application for DMS is approaching Tc near room temperature. Given the fact that the Curie temperature of (Ga,Mn)As could be highly enhanced through increasing carrier density by low temperature annealing, optimizing synthesis condition may also pave the way toward further improving Tc in the (Ba,K)(Zn,Mn)2As2 system as well.

To avoid the volatility of K at high temperature, and to increase K contents in the sample and consequently increase carrier density, the mixture was heated under 650 C for 60h, a hundred degrees lower than the boiling temperature of the element potassium. This enhanced ferromagnetism with Tc at 230 K in (Ba0.7K0.3)(Zn0.85Mn0.15)2As2 DMS, which is higher than the record Tc of 200 K for (Ga,Mn)As.

The (Ba0.7K0.3)(Zn0.85Mn0.15)2As2 DMS shows spontaneous magnetization following T3/2 dependence expected for a homogeneous ferromagnet with saturation moment 1.0uB for each Mn atom.

As indicated, the carrier mediated and RKKY like interaction induced ferromagnetism could also be observed in insulating samples close to the metal-insulator transition. The resistivity curve of (Ba0.7K0.3)(Zn0.85Mn0.15)2As2, similar to that of (Ga,Mn)N, exhibits a small increase at low temperatures, due presumably to spin scattering of carriers caused by Mn dopants.

Clear signature of the ferromagnetic order is evidenced by the obvious negative magnetoresistance below Tc, which is greatly enhanced during decreasing temperature. At T=10K, an obvious hysteresis is observed in the magnetoresistance curve, showing a consistent coercive force in the M(H) curve.

In the present "122'' DMS ferromagnet (Ba0.7K0.3)(Zn0.85Mn0.15)2As2, semiconducting BaZn2As2, antiferromagnetic BaMn2As2, and superconducting (Ba,K)Fe2As2 all share the same crystal structure, with quite good lattice matching in the a-b plane (mismatch=3%). These could provide distinct advantages in attempts to generate new functional devices based on junctions of various combinations of the aforementioned DMS, superconductor, and magnetic states.

"The new DMS with decoupled spin charge doping mechanism would be promising to develop brand new spintronics," report scientists Kan Zhao, Bijuan Chen, Guoqiang Zhao, Zhen Yuan, Qingqing Liu, Zheng Deng, Jinlong Zhu and Changqing Jin, all of the Institute of Physics in Beijing, in an article titled "Ferromagnetism at 230 K in (Ba0.7K0.3)(Zn0.85Mn0.15)2As2 diluted magnetic semiconductor," published in the Chinese Science Bulletin.

 

 

Out of An Hours-long Explosion, A Stand-In For The First Stars

 
‎25 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎04:34:40 PMGo to full article
Greenbelt MD (SPX) Jul 14, 2014 - Astronomers analyzing a long-lasting blast of high-energy light observed in 2013 report finding features strikingly similar to those expected from an explosion from the universe's earliest stars. If this interpretation is correct, the outburst validates ideas about a recently identified class of gamma-ray burst and serves as a stand-in for what future observatories may see as the last acts of the first stars.

"One of the great challenges of modern astrophysics has been the quest to identify the first generation of stars to form in the universe, which we refer to as Population III stars," explained lead scientist Luigi Piro, the director of research at the Institute for Space Astrophysics and Planetology in Rome, a division of Italy's National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF). "This important event takes us one step closer."

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous explosions in the universe. The blasts emit outbursts of gamma rays -- the most powerful form of light -- and X-rays, and produce rapidly fading afterglows that can be observed in visible light, infrared and radio wavelengths. On average, NASA's Swift satellite, Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and other spacecraft detect about one GRB each day.

Shortly after 12:11 a.m. EDT on Sept. 25, 2013, Swift's Burst Alert Telescope triggered on a spike of gamma rays from a source in the constellation Fornax.

The spacecraft automatically alerted observatories around the world that a new burst -- designated GRB 130925A, after the date -- was in progress and turned its X-ray Telescope (XRT) toward the source. Other satellites also detected the rising tide of high-energy radiation, including Fermi, the Russian Konus instrument onboard NASA's Wind spacecraft, and the European Space Agency's (ESA) INTEGRAL observatory.

The burst was eventually localized to a galaxy so far away that its light had been traveling for 3.9 billion years, longer than the oldest evidence for life on Earth.

Astronomers have observed thousands of GRBs over the past five decades. Until recently, they were classified into two groups, short and long, based on the duration of the gamma-ray signal. Short bursts, lasting only two seconds or less, are thought to represent a merger of compact objects in a binary system, with the most likely suspects being neutron stars and black holes.

Long GRBs may last anywhere from several seconds to several minutes, with typical durations between 20 and 50 seconds. These events are thought to be associated with the collapse of a star many times the sun's mass and the resulting birth of a new black hole.

GRB 130925A, by contrast, produced gamma rays for 1.9 hours, more than a hundred times greater than a typical long GRB. Observations by Swift's XRT revealed an intense and highly variable X-ray afterglow that exhibited strong flares for six hours, after which it finally began the steady fadeout usually seen in long GRBs.

"GRB 130925A is a member of a rare and newly recognized class we call ultra-long bursts," said Eleonora Troja, a visiting research scientist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and a member of the study team. "But what really sets it apart is its unusual X-ray afterglow, which provides the strongest case yet that ultra-long GRBs come from stars called blue supergiants."

Astronomers think Wolf-Rayet stars best explain the origin of long GRBs. Born with more than 25 times the sun's mass, these stars burn so hot that they drive away their outer hydrogen envelopes through an outflow called a stellar wind.

By the time it collapses, the star's outer atmosphere is essentially gone and its physical size is comparable to the sun's. A black hole forms in the star's core and matter falling toward it powers jets that burrow through the star. The jets continue operating for a few tens of seconds -- the time scale of long GRBs.

Because ultra-long GRBs last hundreds of times longer, the source star must have a correspondingly greater physical size. The most likely suspect, astronomers say, is a blue supergiant, a hot star with about 20 times the sun's mass that retains its deep hydrogen atmosphere, making it roughly 100 times the sun's diameter.

Better yet, blue supergiants containing only a very small fraction of elements heavier than helium -- metals, in astronomical parlance -- could be substantially larger.

A star's metal content controls the strength of its stellar wind, and this in turn determines how much of its hydrogen atmosphere it retains before collapse. For the largest blue supergiants, the hydrogen envelope would take hours to fall into the black hole, providing a sustained fuel source to power ultra-long GRBs.

Writing in the July 10 edition of The Astrophysical Journal Letters, the researchers note that radio observations of the GRB afterglow show that it displayed nearly constant brightness over a period of four months. This extremely slow decline suggests that the explosion's blast wave was moving essentially unimpeded through space, which means that the environment around the star is largely free of material cast off by a stellar wind.

The burst's long-lived X-ray flaring proved a more puzzling feature to explain, requiring observations from Swift, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and ESA's XMM-Newton satellite to sort out. As the high-energy jet bores through the collapsing star, its leading edge rams into cooler stellar gas and heats it.

This gas flows down the sides of the jet, surrounding it in a hot X-ray-emitting sheath. Because the jet travels a greater distance through a blue supergiant, this cocoon becomes much more massive than is possible in a Wolf-Rayet star.

While the cocoon should expand rapidly as it exits the star, the X-ray evidence indicates that it remained intact. The science team suggests that magnetic fields may have suppressed the flow of hot gas across the cocoon, keeping it confined close to the jet.

"This is the first time we have detected this thermal cocoon component, likely because all other known ultra-long bursts occurred at greater distances," said Piro.

The astronomers conclude that the best explanation for the unusual properties of GRB 130925A is that it heralded the death of a metal-poor blue supergiant, a model they suggest likely characterizes the entire ultra-long class.

Stars make heavy elements throughout their energy-producing lives and during their death throes in supernova explosions and GRBs. Each generation enriches interstellar gas with a greater proportion of metals, but the process is not uniform and metal-poor galaxies still exist nearby.

Looking farther into the universe means looking deeper into the past, toward earlier stellar generations formed out of increasingly metal-poor gas.

Astronomers think Population III stars ended their lives as blue supergiants, so GRB 130925A may prove to be a valuable nearby analog to phenomena we may one day detect from the universe's most distant stars.

 

 

Supermassive black hole blows molecular gas out of galaxy at 1 million kilometers per hour

 
‎25 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎04:34:40 PMGo to full article
Sheffield, UK (SPX) Jul 11, 2014 - New research by academics at the University of Sheffield has solved a long-standing mystery surrounding the evolution of galaxies, deepening our understanding of the future of the Milky Way.

The supermassive black holes in the cores of some galaxies drive massive outflows of molecular hydrogen gas. As a result, most of the cold gas is expelled from the galaxies. Since cold gas is required to form new stars, this directly affects the galaxies' evolution.

The outflows are now a key ingredient in theoretical models of the evolution of galaxies, but it has long been a mystery as to how they are accelerated.

A study led by researchers in the University's Department of Physics and Astronomy, with partners from the Netherlands Institute of Radio Astronomy and the Center for Astrophysics, Harvard, provides the first direct evidence that the molecular outflows are accelerated by energetic jets of electrons that are moving at close to the speed of light. Such jets are propelled by the central supermassive black holes.

Using the Very Large Telescope of the European Southern Observatory in Chile to observe the nearby galaxy IC5063, researchers found that the molecular hydrogen gas is moving at extraordinary speeds - 1 million kilometers per hour - at the locations in the galaxy where its jets are impacting regions of dense gas.

These findings help us further understand the eventual fate of our own galaxy, the Milky Way, which will collide with neighbouring galaxy Andromeda in about 5 billion years.

As a result of this collision, gas will become concentrated at the centre of the system, fuelling its supermassive black hole, and potentially leading to the formation of jets that will then eject the remaining gas from the galaxy - just as we already observe in IC5063.

Professor Clive Tadhunter, from the University's Department of Physics and Astronomy, said: "Much of the gas in the outflows is in the form of molecular hydrogen, which is fragile in the sense that it is destroyed at relatively low energies. It is extraordinary that the molecular gas can survive being accelerated by jets of electrons moving at close to the speed of light."

The results of the study have been published in the journal Nature.

 

 

Reigning in chaos in particle colliders yields big results

 
‎25 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎04:34:40 PMGo to full article
Washington DC (SPX) Jul 01, 2014 - When beams with trillions of particles go zipping around at near light speed, there's bound to be some chaos. Limiting that chaos in particle colliders is crucial for the groundbreaking results such experiments are designed to deliver.

In a special focus issue of the journal Chaos, from AIP Publishing, a physicist at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) details an important method of detecting and correcting unwanted chaotic behavior in particle colliders. The method is helping accelerator physicists design high-performing, cost-efficient accelerators in an era of constrained science budgets.

The aim of the focus issue is to review, comprehensively, the theory and implementation of existing methods of chaos detection and predictability -- as well as to report recent applications of these techniques to different scientific fields. The Focus Issue: Chaos Detection Methods and Predictability is collection of 12 papers representing the wide range of applications, spanning mathematics, physics, astronomy, particle accelerator physics, meteorology and medical research.

Chaos has long bedeviled physicists trying to describe the precise motions of interacting objects. The French mathematician Henri Poincare discovered the essence of the phenomenon in the late 1800s when he attempted (unsuccessfully) to predict precisely the motions of the solar system's planets. The same chaotic behavior appears in the crowds of particles traveling inside accelerators like CERN's Large Hadron Collider.

In these machines, powerful electric and magnetic fields accelerate and guide beams containing trillions of particles. Ideally all particles would travel in orderly orbits around the rings into which they are injected. But in reality, some of the particles spread out around the ring's center, where they can become chaotic due to their mutual interactions and to defects in the magnetic fields that guide them.

Particles that get kicked out of stable orbit can then crash into the collider's ultra-cold superconducting magnets. If this happens too often, the magnets heat up and the particle beams have to stop, which compromises experiments and creates costly delays.

From previous work in astronomy, Yannis Papaphilippou, a physicist at CERN, knew of a method called "frequency map analysis" that relates the frequencies at which objects oscillate to their chaotic behavior.

Over the course of more than a decade, Papaphilippou and his colleagues applied the method to visualize those same frequencies in simulations of particle beams in accelerators. Using such simulations, physicists can design colliders to avoid chaotic beam interactions and keep particles on track.

The method has already born fruit. By modeling the extent to which tiny defects in the LHC's superconducting magnets cause protons traveling in the collider's rings to behave chaotically, Papaphilippou and his colleagues helped magnet builders design and produce these magnets within strict tolerance limits. The researchers also showed that only half as many correcting magnets were needed as was originally thought.

These findings substantially reduced the collider's cost and, along with many other efforts, helped streamline the search for the Higgs boson, Papaphilippou said. "All the big discoveries that we've had in the LHC...would have been hampered if there was not a very detailed design and evaluation of the nonlinear effects and their correction."

Frequency map analysis has also helped scientists optimize the Spallation Neutron Source in Oak Ridge, Tenn. As a result of this optimization, the machine set a world record last year for power delivery.

As physicists design new accelerators, Papaphilippou predicts they will use frequency map analysis to achieve high performance at reasonable cost. The Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel (P5), which advises the U.S. government, identified collider cost as a major concern in a recent report on the future of particle physics.

"Studying these [chaotic] effects from scratch can be a very-cost effective way to build and design these accelerators," Papaphilippou said.

The article, "Detecting chaos in particle accelerators through the frequency map analysis method," is authored by Yannis Papaphilippou. It will appear in the journal Chaos on June 30, 2014.

 

 

Ultra-cold atom transport made simple

 
‎25 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎04:34:40 PMGo to full article
Barcelona, Spain (SPX) Jul 08, 2014 - New study provides proof of the validity of a filtering device for ultra-cold neutral atoms based on tunnelling. Techniques for controlling ultra-cold atoms travelling in ring traps currently represent an important research area in physics. A new study gives a proof of principle, confirmed by numerical simulations, of the applicability to ultra-cold atoms of a very efficient and robust transport technique called spatial adiabatic passage (SAP).

Yu Loiko from the University of Barcelona, Spain, and colleagues have, for the first time, applied SAP to inject, extract, and filter the velocity of neutral atoms from and into a ring trap. Such traps are key to improving our understanding of phenomena involving ultra-cold atoms, which are relevant to high-precision applications such as atom optics, quantum metrology, quantum computation, and quantum simulation.

The authors focused on controlling the transfer of a single atom between the outermost waveguides of a system composed of two dipole waveguides and a ring trap, using the SAP technique. They calculated the explicit conditions for SAP tunnelling, which depend on two factors: the atomic velocity along the input waveguide and the initial atom population distribution among what physicists refer to as the transverse vibrational states.

To check the performance of the proposed approach, they relied on a numerical integration of the corresponding equation-namely the so-called two-dimensional Schrodinger-with parameter values for rubidium atoms and an optical dipole ring trap. Although the SAP technique had previously been reported on with regard to experiments using light beams, it had yet to be applied to the case of cold atoms.

Potential applications of these findings include the preparation of cold atom ring systems to investigate quantum phase transitions, matter wave Sagnac interferometry, the stability of persistent currents and superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs), propagation of matter wave solitons and vortices, cold collisions, artificial electromagnetism, and others.

 

 

The quantum dance of oxygen

 
‎25 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎04:34:40 PMGo to full article
Trieste, Italy (SPX) Jul 08, 2014 - Perhaps not everyone knows that oxygen has - quite unusually for such a simple molecule - magnetic properties. The phase diagram of solid oxygen at low temperatures and high pressures shows, however, several irregularities (for example, proper "information gaps" with regard to these magnetic properties) that are still poorly understood.

A team of researchers from the International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) and International Centre for Theoretical Physics Abdus Salam (ICTP) of Trieste, while trying to understand the origin of these phenomena, have identified a new phase, in which oxygen exhibits previously unknown characteristics.

The magnetism of oxygen is related to the spin of its electrons. "In each molecule two electrons align their intrinsic spin and magnetic moment, spin 1/2, giving rise to a spin 1 magnetic moment", explains Erio Tosatti, professor at SISSA and among the authors of the paper just published in PNAS.

"At very high pressures, however, the world goes upside down", he jokes, "insulators become superconductors, magnetic materials lose their properties and so on. Like oxygen, for example: while exhibiting magnetic properties at intermediate pressures, oxygen molecules lose their magnetism at pressures above 80,000 atmospheres. Or at least that's what we used to think, because our studies suggest that the situation is more complex than that".

The first non-magnetic phase, called epsilon, has been studied for years.

"Scientists didn't understand what was going on", continues Tosatti. "A few years ago, it became clear, first experimentally and then theoretically, that this loss of magnetism is caused by the sudden grouping of molecules into 'quartets', in turn related to some sort of 'reluctance' of oxygen to become metallic". At even higher pressures (one million atmospheres) oxygen takes on a metallic form and becomes a superconductor.

"The formation of quartets with loss of magnetism could be defined as a gimmick used by oxygen to delay becoming metallic. An interesting explanation, but some inconsistencies in the epsilon-phase data at 'lower' pressures, just above 80,000 atmospheres, prompted our group to delve deeper into the matter", explains Tosatti.

Tosatti, together with Michele Fabrizio from SISSA, Yanier Crespo from ICTP and Sandro Scandolo, also from ICTP, performed very delicate and extensive calculations and developed quantum models specifically to understand this corner of the phase diagram".

"Our study demonstrated that the epsilon phase is actually divided into two phases and that in the first, from 80,000 to 200,000 atmospheres, which we called epsilon 1, the quartet molecules engage in a real 'quantum dance'".

The four scientists observed, in fact, that the four oxygen molecules in each group constantly exchanged magnetic moments.

"It's as if the molecules were playing ball with their spins, the direction in which the electrons rotate around their axis, continuously passing the ball to one another, so that the mean value of each molecule's moment and magnetism is zero. In the epsilon 1 phase of oxygen, the molecules retain their spins, but these fluctuate coherently within and across quartets like a chorus of cicadas", explains Tosatti.

Based on these observations, it isn't true that oxygen in epsilon 1 phase has no magnetic properties, it's just that they hadn't been calculated or measured clearly. "Following our results we checked the literature on the subject and found experimental findings consistent with our model, but which had so far been regarded as anomalies" specifies Tosatti.

This study therefore divided the epsilon phase into two, epsilon 1 (from 80,000 to 200,000 atmospheres), with fluctuating magnetic properties, and epsilon 0 (from 200,000 to 1,000,000 atmospheres), without magnetic properties.

"We considered a new transition line between the two phases, perhaps with a critical point, which would be unprecedented in this context. There are also other implications, for example as regards the magnetic response and dissipation present in epsilon 1 but not in epsilon 0", explains Tosatti. "Now we hope to prompt the experimental physicists to verify all these new data".

 

 

University scientists unraveling nature of Higgs boson

 
‎22 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎09:39:35 PMGo to full article
Manhattan KS (SPX) Jul 01, 2014 - New physics research involving Kansas State University faculty members has helped shed light on how our universe works. A recently published study in the journal Nature Physics reports scientists have found evidence that the Higgs boson - a fundamental particle proposed in 1964 and discovered in 2012 - is the long sought-after particle responsible for giving mass to elementary particles.

"In nature, there are two types of particles: fermions and bosons," said Ketino "Keti" Kaadze, a research associate at Fermilab who in August is joining the faculty at Kansas State University's physics department.

"Fermions, quarks and leptons make up all the matter around us. Bosons are responsible for mediating interaction between the elementary particles."

Building on the full data collected in 2011 and 2012, part of which was used to identify the Higgs boson's existence, researchers see evidence that the Higgs boson decays into fermions. This also was predicted in 1964 but not observed until after the Higgs boson was identified in 2012, Kaadze said.

The observation is key in reinforcing what is theorized about the Higgs boson and is a steppingstone to building on more extensive knowledge about how the universe works, Kaadze said.

"We think that the Higgs boson is responsible for the generation of mass of fundamental particles," Kaadze said.

"For example, the electrons acquire their mass by interacting with the Higgs boson. As electrons are not massless, they form stable orbits around nuclei, thus allowing the formation of electrically neutral matter from which the Earth and all of us are made. Even slight changes of the masses of fundamental particles around us would change the universe very drastically, and the Higgs boson is the centerpiece that ties it all together."

Kaadze, along with other scientists, was part of a team that looked for the Higgs boson decaying to a pair of tau leptons - fermions that are very heavy equivalents of electrons. A second team also searched for the Higgs boson decaying into a pair of heavy fermions, called beauty quarks. These two decay signatures offer the highest discovery potential, she said.

The findings appear in the journal article, "Evidence for the direct decay of the 125 GeV Higgs boson to fermions."

Kaadze is one of the several researches in Kansas State University's physics department heavily involved in research at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, or CERN. Their research is conducted with the Compact Muon Solenoid, one of the Large Hadron Collider's two particle detectors that help scientists at CERN to search for evidence for Higgs boson.

Other Kansas State University physics faculty members involved in CERN research include Tim Bolton, professor; Andrew Ivanov, assistant professor; and Yurii Maravin, associate professor.

The Higgs boson was the last key component needed to confirm the Standard Model of particle physics: a low-energy theory that explains the workings of the universe at the smallest length scales.

Efforts are currently underway to nearly double the center-of-mass energy at CERN. Doing so will increase the ability to create Higgs bosons. In turn, scientists can build on data in an effort to explain the mysteries of the universe.

"We know that the Standard Model of physics that we have now does not explain some puzzles in nature," Kaadze said. "We know there has to be other models that can explain phenomena like dark matter and dark energy, and why we can have different generations of the same particle that are identical except for their mass. Finding the Higgs particle wasn't the end of the story. It was the starting point on a new horizon."

 

 

 

 

 

***SPECIAL OFFER ***

BUY THE DVD

&

GET THE BOOK

ONLY

PRICE R199.00

THIS LINK ONLY

 

RedOrbit Videos
 

Detecting Lies Online

 
‎13 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎07:00:46 AMGo to full article
0 A European Union-funded project is aiming to create a new system to automatically verify online rumors. It will analyze, in real time, whether a piece of information is true or false. Researchers working on the system say that it will help journalists, governments, and emergency services, among others, respond more effectively to claims on social media. The system will classify online rumors into four categories: speculation, controversy, misinformation, and disinformation. The creation of the system comes in response to the spread of rumors on social media during the 2011 London Riots.

[ Read the Article: Social Media Rumors To Be Assessed Using Online Lie Detector ]
 

Treating Cancer With Venom

 
‎13 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:45:25 AMGo to full article
0 A research team has developed a new cancer treatment using venom from bees and other creatures.

Dr. Dipanjan Pan and his team at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign presented their findings at a meeting of the American Chemical Society in San Francisco.

Venom from bees, snakes and scorpions contains proteins and peptides that can attach to cancer cells and block tumor growth. Pan and his team created synthetic venom and injected it into nanoparticles, small containers with big benefits. The nanoparticles deliver the venom directly to cancer cells, sparing the patient the often dangerous side effects of natural venom.

Credit: American Chemical Society

> Explore Further...
 

Why Wines Taste Different And How To Keep Them Fresh

 
‎13 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:30:00 AMGo to full article
0 There's dozens of different varieties of wine, but it turns out even different wines made from the same kind of grapes can smell and taste different.

Researchers eat UC Davis studied Malbec wines from grapes grown in Argentina and California. The Argentine Malbecs were sweeter than their Californian counterparts, proving that it's the geography as well as the grape that makes all the difference in winemaking.

Credit: American Chemical Society

> Explore Further...
 

Science Nation: Next Generation Robotic Legs

 
‎13 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:15:49 AMGo to full article
0 One of the major challenges in robotics is designing robots that can move over uneven, loose or unexpected terrain.

With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), computer engineer Luther Palmer and his team at the Biomorphic Robotics Lab at the University of South Florida are designing computer simulation models for the next generation of robotic legs, and then building them in the lab. The team studies the biomechanics of animals adept at running on rough ground, such as horses, to program the algorithms that power computer simulations.

Palmer sees broad applications for smarter, more agile robotic legs, including military robots that can walk alongside soldiers to carry heavy loads, space-faring robots that run like horses over the surface of Mars, and search-and-rescue robots that can move through a debris field looking for survivors.

The research in this episode was supported by NSF award #1125667, Broadening Participation Research Initiation Grant in Engineering (BRIGE): Running Over Rough Terrain—Enhancing Biological Hypotheses.

Credit: National Science Foundaiton
 

ScienceCasts: Colliding Atmospheres - Mars Vs Comet Siding Spring

 
‎13 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:00:18 AMGo to full article
0 Comet Siding Spring is about to fly historically close to Mars. The encounter could spark Martian auroras, a meteor shower, and other unpredictable effects. Whatever happens, NASA's fleet of Mars satellites will have a ringside seat.

Credit: NASA

> Read More - Orbiter Completes Maneuver To Prepare For Comet Flyby
 

HCN - Inner Coma Of C/2012 F6 (Lemmon)

 
‎12 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎09:56:34 AMGo to full article
0 Recent observations of comet Lemmon provided a 3-D view of the inner coma, including detailed mapping of the molecule HCN (made of one hydrogen, one carbon and one nitrogen), shown here, as well as HNC and formaldehyde.

Credit: Brian R. Kent / NRAO

> Explore Further...
 

What Triggers Sleepiness?

 
‎12 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎07:00:33 AMGo to full article
0 Researchers at Oxford University say that we have nerve cells in the brain that alert us to the fact that it’s time to sleep. These neurons fire when we’re tired and cool down when we’re rested. So good news for my fellow insomnia sufferers. They say that this info might help them develop new drugs to help target these regions of the brain for a better night’s sleep. The study was carried out on fruit flies, but researchers say it could apply to humans. Researchers found that mutant fruit flies with these regions of the brain turned off had trouble sleeping even after being awake all night long. And this lack of sleep affected the flies learning and memory. I know that consequence well! Researchers said these sleep neurons are kind of like a thermostat that determines how long you’ve been awake and then sends out electrical signals to put you to sleep.

[ Read the Article: Specific Brain Cells Found That Determine When Its Sleepy Time ]
 

LDSD: Supersonic Test Flight

 
‎12 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:45:59 AMGo to full article
0 Ian Clark, principal investigator of the Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator, takes us through a play-by-play of NASA’s recent 'flying saucer' test in Hawaii, using high-definition video shot from cameras on board the test vehicle.

Credit: NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

> Explore Further...
 

ANU Scientists Create A Tractor Beam On Water

 
‎12 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:30:54 AMGo to full article
0 > Explore Further...

Physicists at The Australian National University (ANU) have created a tractor beam on water, providing a radical new technique that could confine oil spills, manipulate floating objects or explain rips at the beach.

The team, led by Dr Horst Punzmann, discovered they can control water flow patterns with simple wave generators, enabling them to move floating objects at will.

The team also experimented with different shaped plungers to generate different swirling flow patterns.

The surprisingly simple technique gives scientists a way of controlling things adrift on water in a way they have never had before, resembling sci-fi tractor beams that draw in objects.

Using a ping-pong ball in a wave tank, the group worked out the size and frequency of the waves required to move the ball in whichever direction they want.

Advanced particle tracking tools revealed that the waves do not push the ball along.

Credit: Australian National University
 

Eurobot Rover Under Astronaut Control

 
‎12 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:15:07 AMGo to full article
0 ESA's Eurobot rover roving at ESTEC on 7 August under live control by astronaut Alexander Gerst on board the ISS. The demonstration helped test a new fault-tolerant telecommunication network that could support a future mission to Mars or an asteroid.

Credit: ESA

> Explore Further...
 

ISS Science Garage - Espresso In Space

 
‎12 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:00:03 AMGo to full article
0 Join astronauts Mike Massimino and Don Pettit in the science garage as they discuss one of the comforts of home that will soon be aboard the ISS.

Credit: NASA

> Explore Further...
 

Changing Livestock Diets Could Help Reduce Emissions

 
‎11 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎07:00:43 AMGo to full article
0 A new study says that there’s more profit for farmers in incorporating a higher quality feed in their livestock’s diets and it would help reduce carbon emissions as well. Livestock productions is responsible for 12% of human-related greenhouse gas emissions. The largest percentage of this is caused by land use change and deforestation. Researchers say that if farmers would mix higher-energy feed in the livestock diet mix along with the grass, less land-change would be needed. And there’s a bonus for farmers - livestock that eat more energy-rich diets grow faster and make more milk making more money for the farmer. Sounds to me like it just makes sense!

[ Read the Article: Better Diets In Livestock Production Could Help Combat Climate Change And Improve Food Security ]
 

A Tour Of M106

 
‎11 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:45:03 AMGo to full article
0 NGC 4258, also known as Messier 106, is a spiral galaxy like the Milky Way. This galaxy is famous, however, for something that our Galaxy doesn't have - two extra spiral arms that glow in X-ray, optical, and radio light.

Credit: NASA/Chandra X-ray Observatory
 

Space Scoop: X-Ray Vision Reveals The Insides Of Stars

 
‎11 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:30:04 AMGo to full article
0 Each of these four fabulous photographs shows the remains of an exploded star - called a supernova remnant.

Credit: NASA/Chandra X-ray Observatory
 

What's Inside An Asteroid?

 
‎08 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎07:00:41 AMGo to full article
0 Astronomers using the European Southern Observatory’s New Technology Telescope discovered that asteroids have a highly varied internal structure. The subject - asteroid Itokawa. This asteroid was the target of the Japanese spacecraft Hayabusa in 2005, which took samples of an asteroid for the first time and sent them back to Earth. New observations of Itokawa reveal that different parts of the asteroid have different densities, which they determined caused a slow increase in acceleration. This is the first time scientists have ever determined what it’s like inside of an asteroid and they say this knowledge is a significant step toward understanding rocky bodies in our Solar System.

[ Read the Article: Astronomers Get A Good Look Inside Asteroid Itokawa ]
 

Huge Fireball Over North Alabama

 
‎08 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:45:56 AMGo to full article
0 At 10:19 p.m. CDT on Aug. 2, NASA meteor cameras detected a very bright fireball at an altitude of 57 miles above Hoodoo Road just east of the town of Beechgrove, Tennessee. The meteoroid was about 15 inches in diameter and weighed close to 100 lbs. It traveled just over 100 miles to the south-southeast at 47,000 mph, breaking apart in a brilliant flash of light above the Alabama town of Henagar. The cameras continued to track a large fragment until it disappeared 18 miles above Gaylesville, located near Lake Weiss close to the Georgia state line. At last sight, the fragment was still traveling at 11,000 mph! Based on the meteor's speed, final altitude and weak doppler radar signatures, it is believed that this fireball produced small meteorites on the ground somewhere in the vicinity.

Credit: NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

> More Information from NASA
 

The Rosetta Mission Asks: What Is A Comet?

 
‎08 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:30:38 AMGo to full article
0 The Rosetta Mission Asks: What is a Comet? Scientists attempt to answer these questions and more as the Rosetta Mission’s Orbiter arrives and escorts comet 67/p Churyumov Gerasimenko into our inner solar system.

Credit: NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

> Read More About the Rosetta Mission
 

Preparing For Orion Recovery Test On This Week @NASA

 
‎08 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:00:56 AMGo to full article
0 NASA and the U.S. Navy were busy recently – preparing for tests scheduled off the coast of San Diego, California. Crews will run through the procedures to recover NASA's Orion spacecraft from the ocean, following its water landing from deep space missions. Kennedy Space Center, Johnson Space Center, and Lockheed Martin Space Operations are all involved in the recovery effort. Also, Mars 2020 rover and beyond, Opportunity: 25 miles and counting, Updated K-Rex rover, Automated Transfer Vehicle launch and NASA Technology Days!

Credit: NASA
 

Could Cooked Meat Make You Lose Your Mind?

 
‎06 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎07:00:59 AMGo to full article
0 Chemicals produced during the cooking of meat may increase the risk for developing Alzheimer’s say researchers in the United States and Italy. The chemicals produced are called advanced glycation end products, or AGE products. These are created when proteins or fats react with sugar at high temperatures during the Maillard reaction. In the study, mice exposed to a higher AGE diet had difficulties with cognition and coordination as they aged, produced less of an anti-aging protein and showed higher levels of a protein considered a primary biomarker of Alzheimer’s. Human trials in people over 60 indicated a link between AGEs in the blood and cognitive decline over the course of months. Good reason to maybe go veggie?

[ Read the Article: Eating Cooked Meat Increases Odds Of Developing Alzheimer’s Disease ]
 

WiFi Backscatter: Connecting RF-Powered Devices To The Internet

 
‎06 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:45:31 AMGo to full article
0 We present Wi-Fi Backscatter, a novel communication system that bridges RF-powered devices with the Internet. Specifically, we show that it is possible to reuse existing Wi-Fi infrastructure to provide Internet connectivity to RF-powered devices. We believe that this new capability can pave the way for the rapid deployment and adoption of RF-powered devices and achieve ubiquitous connectivity via nearby mobile devices that are Wi-Fi enabled.

Credit: University of Washington
 

3D Printing: High Speed Sintering

 
‎06 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:30:39 AMGo to full article
0 Researchers from the University of Sheffield have discovered they can control the density and strength of the final product by printing the ink at different shades of grey and that the best results are achieved by using less ink than is standard.

Credit: University of Sheffield
 

What's Up For August 2014

 
‎06 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:15:55 AMGo to full article
0 Go outside to see Venus and Jupiter at dawn, Saturn and Mars at dusk. No telescope required! Plus the annual Perseid meteor shower is in full swing now through the 17th. The shower peaks the night of August 12-13, but the bright moon that night will likely interfere with viewing some of the fainter meteors. The Perseid shower occurs each year when Earth travels through a trail of dusty particles left behind by comet 109P/Swift-Tuttle.

Credit: NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory
 

The Great Pacific Garbage Patch Explained

 
‎06 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:00:48 AMGo to full article
0 In light of the sheer physical enormity of the Great Pacific Garbage Patch and the complexity of its causes, what can we possibility do about it?

Perhaps help protect some vulnerable populations of wildlife from marine garbage in coastal regions, according to the Coastal Observation and Seabird Survey Team (COASST) — a citizen science group that monitors marine resources and ecosystem health at more than 350 beaches from northern California to Alaska. Although COASST, which receives funding from the National Science Foundation, has long focused on collecting data on beach-cast seabird carcasses as an indicator of coastal health, the group will soon also focus on collecting data on beached marine debris. Resulting data could be used to help support efforts to reduce the impacts of marine debris on coastal wildlife.

Credit: National Science Foundation
 

Great White Sharks Live Long And Prosper

 
‎05 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎07:00:09 AMGo to full article
0 The first successful radiocarbon age validation study for adult great white sharks reveals that this top predator grows much slower and lives longer than we thought. Of the sharks analyzed, the oldest male was estimated to be 73 and the oldest female to be 40. Researchers say that age determination in fish is important for conservation efforts. Estimating the age in sharks is challenging but was done through analyzing growth increments in mineralized tissue like ear bones and fin rays. With age comes annual rings that can be analyzed much like the growth in trees. The team used a cutting-edge technique in isotope geochemistry analysis which allowed to them to correctly access the age of the sharks unlike previous studies, revealing greater longevity in the great white!

[ Read the Article: Great Whites May Live Much Longer Than Previously Thought ]
 

Nearly 50 Years Of Lemur Data Now Available Online

 
‎05 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:45:47 AMGo to full article
0 > More Information...

A 48-year archive of life history data for the world's largest and most diverse collection of endangered primates is now digital and available online. The Duke Lemur Center database allows visitors to view and download data for more than 3600 animals representing 27 species of lemurs, lorises and galagos -- distant primate cousins who predate monkeys and apes -- with more data to be uploaded in the future.

The project was supported by the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center and the National Science Foundation (DBI 1258440). Additional support was provided by the Duke Lemur Center and Duke's Natural Sciences Division.

The data are available online in the Dryad Digital Repository at http://dx.doi/10.5061/dryad.fj974 and via the Duke Lemur Center website at http://lemur.duke.edu/duke-lemur-cent....

Credit: Duke Lemur Center
 

Solar Power To Go!

 
‎05 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:15:05 AMGo to full article
0 More energy from our sun hits the Earth in one hour than is consumed on the planet in a whole year! But, the burning question is – how can we put all that sunshine to work making usable fuel?

With support from the National Science Foundation’s Office of Emerging Frontiers in Research and Innovation, Caltech chemical engineer Sossina Haile and University of Minnesota mechanical engineer Jane Davidson are working to expand the nation’s renewable energy storage capacity. Their mission is to put the heat of the sun to work creating renewable fuels from sources that don’t need to be drilled out of the ground. The researchers are collecting sunlight to drive chemical reactions that break apart water and carbon dioxide molecules in order to make alternative fuels, such as hydrogen fuel. Solar-powered fuels, or “sun gas,” would power the vehicles we drive today, as well as airplanes. In this case, the sky really is the limit!

Credit: National Science Foundation
 

Preparing For Orion Recovery Test On This Week @NASA

 
‎05 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:00:19 AMGo to full article
0 NASA and the U.S. Navy were busy recently – preparing for tests scheduled off the coast of San Diego, California. Crews will run through the procedures to recover NASA's Orion spacecraft from the ocean, following its water landing from deep space missions. Kennedy Space Center, Johnson Space Center, and Lockheed Martin Space Operations are all involved in the recovery effort. Also, Mars 2020 rover and beyond, Opportunity: 25 miles and counting, Updated K-Rex rover, Automated Transfer Vehicle launch and NASA Technology Days!

Credit: NASA
 

What Can Earwax Say About You?

 
‎04 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎07:00:58 AMGo to full article
0 Chemists from the Monell Chemical Senses Center in Philadelphia found that your earwax can tell a lot about you—for instance...where you came from. Their research showed that earwax substances varied between individuals of East Asian origin and Caucasians. Their previous work found that underarm body odors convey a lot of info about a person, like identity and health issues, and now they think earwax can too. They analyzed the release of volatile organic compounds from earwax samples taken from males of both East Asian and Caucasian descent. They found that 12 VOCs were present in all of the men, but that the Caucasians possessed greater amounts of 11 of 12 VOCs than East Asians. They said, “In essence, we could obtain information about a person’s ethnicity simply by looking in his ears.”

[ Read the Article: Earwax Substance Can Help Determine A Person’s Ethnic Origin ]
 

EUNIS Sees Evidence For Nanoflare Coronal Heating

 
‎04 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:45:25 AMGo to full article
0 Scientists have recently gathered some of the strongest evidence to date to explain what makes the sun's outer atmosphere so much hotter than its surface. The new observations show temperatures in the atmosphere so hot that only one current theory explains them: something called nanoflares - a constant peppering of impulsive bursts of heating, none of which can be individually detected -- provide the mysterious extra heat.

These new observations come from just six minutes worth of data from one of NASA's least expensive type of missions, a sounding rocket. The EUNIS mission, short for Extreme Ultraviolet Normal Incidence Spectrograph, launched on April 23, 2013, gathering a new snapshot of data every 1.3 seconds to track the properties of material over a wide range of temperatures in the complex solar atmosphere

The unique capabilities of EUNIS enabled researchers to obtain these results. The spectrograph was able to clearly and unambiguously distinguish the observations representing the extremely hot material - emission lines showing light with a wavelength of 592.6 Angstrom, where an Angstrom is the size of an atom -- from a very nearby light wavelength of 592.2 Angstroms.

Credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

> Explore Further...
 

Operation IceBridge: Across The Ross

 
‎04 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:30:25 AMGo to full article
0 During their last Antarctic campaign, NASA's Operation IceBridge completed the first-ever basin-wide airborne survey of ice in the Ross Sea. This survey, known as the Ross Sea Fluxgate mission, aimed to help researchers track the movement of sea ice in this critical region.

After an early morning weather briefing and takeoff from the sea ice runway at the National Science Foundation's McMurdo Station, the NASA P-3 flew a survey that took researchers across the Ross Sea basin and back. The purpose of this mission was to set up a pair of parallel lines known as a flux gate that scientists can use to study how ice moves out through the Ross Sea. In addition, IceBridge's instruments collected data on sea ice freeboard – the height of ice above the ocean surface – which can be used to calculate sea ice thickness and volume.

Credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
 

Healthcare That Follows You From Home To Hospital And Back: Smart America Expo

 
‎04 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:15:25 AMGo to full article
0 Professor Marjorie Skubic from the University of Missouri has created a suite of health care technologies that identify when an individual falls in their home or when their physical behavior changes over time.

However, how does a physician at a hospital know about and use information gathered by devices like those designed by Skubic for the home? And likewise, how does information about a patient's condition in the hospital get incorporated into technologies like Skubic's when they return to their home?

As part of the Closed Loop Healthcare team, Skubic worked to connect the technologies she's created with those developed by other teams with similar health care goals. The team's ultimate aim is to "close the loop" of health care coverage so devices, data and doctors' diagnoses can be integrated for the good of the patient.

Credit: National Science Foundation
 

Space To Ground: Food, Fuel And Supplies

 
‎02 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎11:03:48 AMGo to full article
0 NASA's Space to Ground is your weekly update on what's happening aboard the International Space Station.

Credit: NASA
 

MESSENGER Flies Over Mercury

 
‎02 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎10:52:01 AMGo to full article
0 NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft captured this video during a flyover of Mercury's north pole on June 8, 2014.

The image frames were taken once per second while MESSENGER was at altitudes ranging from 115 to 165 kilometers, traveling at a speed of 3.7 kilometers per second relative to the surface. The movie is sped up by a factor of seven for ease of viewing. The images have resolutions ranging from 21 to 45 meters/pixel.

Credit: NASA / Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory / Carnegie Institution of Washington

> Explore Further...
 

Robotic Honey Bee Brains

 
‎01 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎07:00:44 AMGo to full article
0 Scientists at a university in Berlin are using the honeybee nervous system as a model for a robot brain. They installed a camera on a small robotic vehicle and connected it to a computer, which acted as the insect brain. The camera acted as the eye and the neural network operated the motors of the robot in order to control its direction. The scientists set up a reward system associated with colored objects to lead to specific changes in the network - teaching the insect-brained robot to go for the reward and avoid the other option. And the little insect robots did it! Success! Now these scientists plan to expand the neural network by supplementing more learning principles.

[ Read the Article: Robot Uses Insect Brain To Navigate Arena ]
 

Zooming In On The Young Double Star HK Tauri

 
‎01 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:45:21 AMGo to full article
0 This video takes us from a broad view of the sky deep into the star forming clouds of Taurus. The final sequence shows an artist’s impression of HK Tauri, a young double star with a protoplanetary disc around each of its component stars. ALMA observations of this system have provided the clearest picture ever of protoplanetary discs in a double star. The new result demonstrates one possible way to explain why so many exoplanets — unlike the planets in the Solar System — came to have strange, eccentric or inclined orbits.

Credit: ESO / Digitized Sky Survey 2 / N. Risinger (skysurvey.org). Music: movetwo

> Explore Further...
 

Drone Extends Wi-Fi Reach For Disaster Relief: Smart America Expo

 
‎01 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:30:12 AMGo to full article
0 At the Smart America Expo, Yan Wan from the University of North Texas exhibited unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) she developed that are capable of providing wireless communications to storm-ravaged areas where telephone access might be out.

Typical wireless communications have a range limit of only a hundred meters. However using technology developed by Wan and her colleagues, they were able to extend the Wi-Fi reach of drones to five kilometers.

In a grant from NSF, Wan is applying similar technology to next-generation aviation systems. One day, Wan's research will enable drone-to-drone and flight-to-flight communications, improving air traffic safety, coordination and efficiency.

Credit: National Science Foundation
 

A New Way To Generate Insulin-Producing Cells In Type 1 Diabetes

 
‎01 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:15:13 AMGo to full article
0 Sanford-Burnham researchers discover a simple peptide that can induce new beta-cell formation in the pancreas. The findings—coupled with an immune therapy—show promise for a new approach to treating type 1 diabetes.

Credit: Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute

> Explore Further...
 

See This Screen Without Needing Your Glasses

 
‎01 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:00:08 AMGo to full article
0 Millions of people worldwide need glasses or contact lenses to see or read properly. We introduce a computational display technology that predistorts the presented content for an observer, so that the target image is perceived without the need for eyewear. By designing optics in concert with prefiltering algorithms, the proposed display architecture achieves significantly higher resolution and contrast than prior approaches to vision-correcting image display. We demonstrate that inexpensive light field displays driven by efficient implementations of 4D prefiltering algorithms can produce the desired vision-corrected imagery, even for higher-order aberrations that are difficult to be corrected with glasses. The proposed computational display architecture is evaluated in simulation and with a low-cost prototype device.

Credit: Fu-Chung Huang, University of California-Berkeley

> Explore Further...
 

Will Sugar Kill You Eventually?

 
‎31 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎07:00:18 AMGo to full article
0 Scientists looking at data from a national health survey investigated the possible link between added sugar intake as a percentage of daily calories and the risk of cardiovascular disease. The data showed that, from 2005-2010, 71% of participants got 10% or more of their calories from added sugar while 10% of participants got 25% or more calories from added sugar. With the higher intake of calories from added sugar, the risk of death from cardiovascular disease rose. Regular intake of sugar-sweetened beverages, that being 7 servings or more per week, was linked to increased risk of dying from cardiovascular disease. So what’s the answer? You guessed it…keep in moderation.

[ Read the Article: Deadly Sweet: Added Sugars Linked To Cardiovascular Disease Risk ]
 

The Slim By Design Menu

 
‎31 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎06:45:19 AMGo to full article
0 If you’ve ever ordered the wrong food at a restaurant, don’t blame yourself; blame the menu. What you order may have less to do with what you want and more to do with a menu’s layout and descriptions.

After analyzing 217 menus and the selections of over 300 diners, the Cornell study published this month in the International Journal of Hospitality Management showed that when it comes to what you order for dinner, two things matter most: what you see on the menu and how you imagine it will taste.

Credit: Brian Wansink, Cornell University Food and Brand Lab

> Explore Further...

 

 

RedOrbit Videos Science

 

Why Wines Taste Different And How To Keep Them Fresh

 
‎13 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:30:00 AMGo to full article
0 There's dozens of different varieties of wine, but it turns out even different wines made from the same kind of grapes can smell and taste different. Researchers eat UC Davis studied Malbec wines from grapes grown in Argentina and California. The Argentine Malbecs were sweeter than their Californian counterparts, proving that it's the geography as well as the grape that makes all the difference in winemaking. Credit: American Chemical Society > Explore Further...
 

ANU Scientists Create A Tractor Beam On Water

 
‎12 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:30:54 AMGo to full article
0 > Explore Further... Physicists at The Australian National University (ANU) have created a tractor beam on water, providing a radical new technique that could confine oil spills, manipulate floating objects or explain rips at the beach. The team, led by Dr Horst Punzmann, discovered they can control water flow patterns with simple wave generators, enabling them to move floating objects at will. The team also experimented with different shaped plungers to generate different swirling flow patterns. The surprisingly simple technique gives scientists a way of controlling things adrift on water in a way they have never had before, resembling sci-fi tractor beams that draw in objects. Using a ping-pong ball in a wave tank, the group worked out the size and frequency of the waves required to move the ball in whichever direction they want. Advanced particle tracking tools revealed that the waves do not push the ball along. Credit: Australian National University
 

Changing Livestock Diets Could Help Reduce Emissions

 
‎11 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎07:00:43 AMGo to full article
0 A new study says that there’s more profit for farmers in incorporating a higher quality feed in their livestock’s diets and it would help reduce carbon emissions as well. Livestock productions is responsible for 12% of human-related greenhouse gas emissions. The largest percentage of this is caused by land use change and deforestation. Researchers say that if farmers would mix higher-energy feed in the livestock diet mix along with the grass, less land-change would be needed. And there’s a bonus for farmers - livestock that eat more energy-rich diets grow faster and make more milk making more money for the farmer. Sounds to me like it just makes sense! [ Read the Article: Better Diets In Livestock Production Could Help Combat Climate Change And Improve Food Security ]
 

The Great Pacific Garbage Patch Explained

 
‎06 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:00:48 AMGo to full article
0 In light of the sheer physical enormity of the Great Pacific Garbage Patch and the complexity of its causes, what can we possibility do about it? Perhaps help protect some vulnerable populations of wildlife from marine garbage in coastal regions, according to the Coastal Observation and Seabird Survey Team (COASST) — a citizen science group that monitors marine resources and ecosystem health at more than 350 beaches from northern California to Alaska. Although COASST, which receives funding from the National Science Foundation, has long focused on collecting data on beach-cast seabird carcasses as an indicator of coastal health, the group will soon also focus on collecting data on beached marine debris. Resulting data could be used to help support efforts to reduce the impacts of marine debris on coastal wildlife. Credit: National Science Foundation
 

Great White Sharks Live Long And Prosper

 
‎05 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎07:00:09 AMGo to full article
0 The first successful radiocarbon age validation study for adult great white sharks reveals that this top predator grows much slower and lives longer than we thought. Of the sharks analyzed, the oldest male was estimated to be 73 and the oldest female to be 40. Researchers say that age determination in fish is important for conservation efforts. Estimating the age in sharks is challenging but was done through analyzing growth increments in mineralized tissue like ear bones and fin rays. With age comes annual rings that can be analyzed much like the growth in trees. The team used a cutting-edge technique in isotope geochemistry analysis which allowed to them to correctly access the age of the sharks unlike previous studies, revealing greater longevity in the great white! [ Read the Article: Great Whites May Live Much Longer Than Previously Thought ]
 

Nearly 50 Years Of Lemur Data Now Available Online

 
‎05 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:45:47 AMGo to full article
0 > More Information... A 48-year archive of life history data for the world's largest and most diverse collection of endangered primates is now digital and available online. The Duke Lemur Center database allows visitors to view and download data for more than 3600 animals representing 27 species of lemurs, lorises and galagos -- distant primate cousins who predate monkeys and apes -- with more data to be uploaded in the future. The project was supported by the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center and the National Science Foundation (DBI 1258440). Additional support was provided by the Duke Lemur Center and Duke's Natural Sciences Division. The data are available online in the Dryad Digital Repository at http://dx.doi/10.5061/dryad.fj974 and via the Duke Lemur Center website at http://lemur.duke.edu/duke-lemur-cent.... Credit: Duke Lemur Center
 

Solar Power To Go!

 
‎05 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:15:05 AMGo to full article
0 More energy from our sun hits the Earth in one hour than is consumed on the planet in a whole year! But, the burning question is – how can we put all that sunshine to work making usable fuel? With support from the National Science Foundation’s Office of Emerging Frontiers in Research and Innovation, Caltech chemical engineer Sossina Haile and University of Minnesota mechanical engineer Jane Davidson are working to expand the nation’s renewable energy storage capacity. Their mission is to put the heat of the sun to work creating renewable fuels from sources that don’t need to be drilled out of the ground. The researchers are collecting sunlight to drive chemical reactions that break apart water and carbon dioxide molecules in order to make alternative fuels, such as hydrogen fuel. Solar-powered fuels, or “sun gas,” would power the vehicles we drive today, as well as airplanes. In this case, the sky really is the limit! Credit: National Science Foundation
 

What Can Earwax Say About You?

 
‎04 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎07:00:58 AMGo to full article
0 Chemists from the Monell Chemical Senses Center in Philadelphia found that your earwax can tell a lot about you—for instance...where you came from. Their research showed that earwax substances varied between individuals of East Asian origin and Caucasians. Their previous work found that underarm body odors convey a lot of info about a person, like identity and health issues, and now they think earwax can too. They analyzed the release of volatile organic compounds from earwax samples taken from males of both East Asian and Caucasian descent. They found that 12 VOCs were present in all of the men, but that the Caucasians possessed greater amounts of 11 of 12 VOCs than East Asians. They said, “In essence, we could obtain information about a person’s ethnicity simply by looking in his ears.” [ Read the Article: Earwax Substance Can Help Determine A Person’s Ethnic Origin ]
 

Operation IceBridge: Across The Ross

 
‎04 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎06:30:25 AMGo to full article
0 During their last Antarctic campaign, NASA's Operation IceBridge completed the first-ever basin-wide airborne survey of ice in the Ross Sea. This survey, known as the Ross Sea Fluxgate mission, aimed to help researchers track the movement of sea ice in this critical region. After an early morning weather briefing and takeoff from the sea ice runway at the National Science Foundation's McMurdo Station, the NASA P-3 flew a survey that took researchers across the Ross Sea basin and back. The purpose of this mission was to set up a pair of parallel lines known as a flux gate that scientists can use to study how ice moves out through the Ross Sea. In addition, IceBridge's instruments collected data on sea ice freeboard – the height of ice above the ocean surface – which can be used to calculate sea ice thickness and volume. Credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
 

Science Nation - WIFIRE Helps Firefighters Get A Jump On Wildfires

 
‎31 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎06:15:34 AMGo to full article
0 In recent years, the number and scale of wildfires in the U.S. has risen, threatening cities and forests and forcing large-scale evacuations. NSF is supporting the WIFIRE initiative, led jointly by UC San Diego and the University of Maryland, to better monitor, predict and mitigate wildfires in the future. WIFIRE merges observations, such as satellite imagery and real-time data from sensors in the field, with computational techniques like signal processing, visualization, modeling, and data assimilation, to monitor environmental conditions and predict where and how fast a wildfire will spread. The project is part of the NSF HazardSEES program, which enhances sustainability through the use of advanced technologies and new methods." Participants in WIFIRE include researchers from the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC), the California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology’s (Calit2) Qualcomm Institute, and the Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (MAE) department at UC San Diego’s Jacobs School of Engineering. Also participating in the project is the University of Maryland’s Department of Fire Protection Engineering. Credit: National Science Foundation
 

Deborah Linebarger Discusses The Effect Of Background TV On Children

 
‎29 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎06:45:14 AMGo to full article
0 Parents, turn off the television when your children are with you. And when you do let them watch, make sure the programs stimulate their interest in learning. That's the advice arising from University of Iowa researchers who examined the impact of television and parenting on children’s social and emotional development. The researchers found that background television—when the TV is on in a room where a child is doing something other than watching—can divert a child’s attention from play and learning. It also found that noneducational programs can negatively affect children’s cognitive development. Credit: University of Iowa > More Information
 

Earth From Space: Cal Madow

 
‎29 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎06:30:05 AMGo to full article
0 Earth from Space is presented by Kelsea Brennan-Wessels from the ESA Web-TV virtual studios. In the one-hundred-thirteenth edition, visit the Cal Madow mountain range in northern Somalia. Credit: ESA
 

Science Nation - NEON Studies Wildfire In Unprecedented Detail

 
‎29 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎06:15:29 AMGo to full article
0 In response to one of the worst wildfires in Colorado history, scientists from the Warner College of Natural Resources at Colorado State University (CSU) are leading a first of its kind, large-scale wildfire impact study on the High Park Fire in partnership with Colorado's newest research facility, the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON). The study will provide critical data to communities still grappling with how to respond to major water quality, erosion and ecosystem restoration issues in an area spanning more than 136 square miles. Credit: National Science Foundation
 

To Our Pet Cats, We're Just Giant Versions Of Them

 
‎28 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎07:00:51 AMGo to full article
0 According to a new book called Cat Sense from a professor from the Anthrozoology Institute at the University of Bristol, your furry little feline friend thinks you’re just a larger, non-hostile version of itself. Researchers say that your cat is just treating you as another cat. And when you’re cat brings home that prize-wining dead rat to your doorstep as a gift, they say it’s not actually a gift. Researchers at this school say the cat simply remembers it likes tinned food once it walks through the door and leaves its prey laying there. Why study this view of cats? Because the researcher at this school says that in actuality cats aren’t really very domesticated, that they are still wild, and that we must take that into consideration in the damage he says he’s seeing done by pedigree breeders. [ Read the Article: Aren’t We All Just Giant Versions Of Our Domestic Feline Friends? ]
 

Science Nation - Medicine And Engineering Join Forces To Restore Disfigured Faces

 
‎28 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎06:30:04 AMGo to full article
0 Patients who have suffered devastating facial injuries sometimes go to great lengths to hide themselves from public view. "I've had patients come to me wearing motorcycle helmets, with the visor pulled down," says Michael Miller, chair of plastic surgery at Ohio State University's Wexner Medical Center. "I remember one patient who came to see me wearing a beekeeper hat, with a wide brim and the veil pulled over her face. This is the only way she would go out in public. So, early on in my career, I became very interested in finding better ways to restore a normal appearance and function for people." And, Miller has always had an interest in engineering, as well as medicine. "There's a tremendous overlap between restorative surgery and engineering because both professions are problem solvers," he says. One state away, at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, civil and mechanical engineer Glaucio Paulino saw the possibilities of combining engineering and medical skills to tackle the complex challenge of facial reconstruction. Credit: National Science Foundation
 

Dr. Jaume Forcada Describes Genetic Study On Antarctic Fur Seals

 
‎28 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎06:15:08 AMGo to full article
0 Genetic analysis of Antarctic fur seals, alongside decades of in-depth monitoring, has provided unique insights into the effect of climate change on a population of top-predators. Published in Nature this week, the findings show that the seals have significantly altered in accordance with changes in food availability that are associated with climate conditions. Despite a shift in the population towards 'fitter' individuals, this fitness is not passing down through generations, leaving the population in decline. Credit: British Antarctic Survey > More Information...
 

Height Is Definitely A Factor In Romance

 
‎25 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎07:00:09 AMGo to full article
0 A new study from Rice University and the University of North Texas looked at how “height” factors into mate preference. Taking data from Yahoo! personal dating advertisements, they found that nearly half of women tended to care about a man’s height, whereas for men it wasn’t nearly as important at 13.5%. Further study of university students confirmed that finding with 55% of women wanting a taller man and 37% of men wanting a shorter woman. Come on guys, us tall girls need love too! One female participant said “as a girl, I like to feel delicate and secure all the time. There’s something to be said about wearing high heels and still being shorter.” [ Read the Article: Study Shows That Height Matters For A Woman ]
 

Hive Intelligence: How Honey Bees Adjust To Catastrophic Loss

 
‎25 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎06:15:43 AMGo to full article
0 Scientists attached radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags to hundreds of individual honey bees and tracked them for several weeks. The effort yielded two discoveries: Some foraging bees are much busier than others; and if those busy bees disappear, others will take their place. Credit: University of Illinois > More Information...
 

Landsat's Global Perspective

 
‎23 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎06:00:45 AMGo to full article
0 On July 23rd, 1972, the first Landsat spacecraft launched into orbit. At the time, it was called "Earth Resources Technology Satellite," or ERTS, and was the first satellite to use a scanning spectrophotometer. Previous satellites relied on film cameras (ejecting the exposed film to be caught by planes) or transmitted the signal from television cameras. The scanning sensor and its successor sensors on subsequent Landsat satellites revolutionized how we study our home planet. Celebrating this anniversary, this video is a "greatest hits" montage of Landsat data. Throughout the decades, Landsat satellites have given us a detailed view of the changes to Earth's land surface. By collecting data in multiple wavelength regions, including thermal infrared wavelengths, the Landsat fleet has allowed us to study natural disasters, urban change, water quality and water usage, agriculture development, glaciers and ice sheets, and forest health. NASA and the U.S. Department of the Interior through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) jointly manage Landsat, and the USGS preserves a more than 40-year archive of Landsat data that is freely available over the Internet. Credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
 

NASA Sees Typhoon Rammasun in 3-D

 
‎19 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎10:47:42 AMGo to full article
0 NASA's TRMM satellite flew over on July 14, 2014 at 1819 UTC and data was used to make this 3-D flyby showing thunderstorms to heights of almost 17km (10.5 miles). Rain was measured falling at a rate of almost 102 mm (about 4 inches). Credit: SSAI / NASA / Hal Pierce
 

Black Widow Males Dance It Up During Mating Time

 
‎18 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎07:00:14 AMGo to full article
0 Biologists at Simon Fraser University say that the male black widow spider wiggles it to attract females. There’s a little role reversal for you. They found that the male spiders shake they abdomen once arriving at a female’s web to produce carefully pitched vibrations to let her know they are there and ready to court. And this is the funny part—to also let her know that they aren’t potential prey trapped in her web. Well, that’s according to how you look at it anyway. The female has a fine tuned sensory system to know the difference between a suitor and prey. Oh you poor male spiders, caught in the woman’s web. The males have to twerk so they don’t ignite the female’s predator response and get eaten. [ Read the Article: Male Black Widows Wiggle It To Attract Their Mates ]
 

CAFNR Duck Migration Study

 
‎17 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎10:48:09 AMGo to full article
0 New satellite-tracking study reveals mallards are using conservation lands. Researchers Dylan Kesler and Lisa Webb explain about their latest research involving satellite tracking of mallards. Mallard ducks monitored with remote satellite tracking technology during their 2011-2012 migrations extensively used public and private wetland conservation areas, a joint research program has found. This is the first time that ducks have been so closely tracked during the entirety of their migration from Canada to the American Midwest and back again. Scientists now have baseline information for future research into what influences migration flight paths, landing site selection and foraging behavior. The data will also be useful to conservationists looking for ways to ensure healthy duck populations into the future. The research was conducted by the College of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources at the University of Missouri, U.S. Geological Survey, Missouri Department of Conversation, the Arkansas Fish and Game Commission, Ducks Unlimited and Ducks Unlimited Canada. Credit: University of Missouri
 

52-Ton Bridge Shakes Violently At University Of Nevada, Reno Earthquake Engineering Lab

 
‎17 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎08:40:07 AMGo to full article
0 A 70-foot-long, 52-ton concrete bridge survived a series of earthquakes in the first multiple-shake-table experiment in the University of Nevada, Reno's new Earthquake Engineering Lab, the newest addition to the world-renowned earthquake and seismic engineering facility. Credit: University of Nevada, Reno
 

Beer Cooler Helps Measure Sea Temperature

 
‎17 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎06:00:06 AMGo to full article
0 A beer cooler is playing an important role in helping to make sure that satellite measurements of sea-surface temperature are accurate. Converted beer coolers are used to house reference blackbodies for radiometers that measure sea-surface temperatures from ships. These ground-truth measurements are used to check that the satellite and the ship data are accurate and compliant with international metrology standards. Credit: B. Haran / H. Mortimer / ESA / Planetary Visions / ATG medialab
 

People Unconsciously Limit Their Social Circles

 
‎16 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎07:00:52 AMGo to full article
0 A new study from the University of Oxford and University of Chester reveals that we have a “one-in, one-out” policy when it comes to friends. Even though social media makes it easier for us to communicate with more people, researchers say we have a finite emotional capacity. They used students that were transitioning from high school to college to conduct their study. They found that even if participants made new friends, their social signatures - like number of phone calls - remained the same. Researchers believe this occurs because of a limited amount of time to communicate as well as the immense cognitive and emotional effort required to sustain close relationships. [ Read the Article: Make New Friends, But Keep The Old? New Study Claims Otherwise ]
 

10 Years Of Aura Legacy

 
‎16 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎06:00:35 AMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: Ten Years In Since Its Launch, NASA’s Aura Mission Keeps On Providing Invaluable Data About Our Atmosphere ] The Aura atmospheric chemistry satellite celebrates its 10th anniversary on July 15th, 2014. Since its launch in 2004, Aura has monitored the Earth's atmosphere and provided data on the ozone layer, air quality, and greenhouse gases associated with climate change. In this video, NASA Goddard scientists Paul Newman and Bryan Duncan describe the remarkable changes that the Aura satellite has witnessed in its first ten years of Earth observation. Credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
 

Major Study Documents Nutritional And Food Safety Benefits Of Organic Farming

 
‎15 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎06:45:31 AMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: Organic Crops Found To Contain More Nutrients, Less Pesticide Residue ] The largest study of its kind has found that organic foods and crops have a suite of advantages over their conventional counterparts, including more antioxidants and fewer, less frequent pesticide residues. The study looked at an unprecedented 343 peer-reviewed publications comparing the nutritional quality and safety of organic and conventional plant-based foods, including fruits, vegetables, and grains. The study team applied sophisticated meta-analysis techniques to quantify differences between organic and non-organic foods. Credit: Washington State University
 

Fewer Clouds Could Mean Hotter Temperatures

 
‎14 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎07:00:01 AMGo to full article
0 A study by the University of New South Wales says that Earth’s temperatures will rise 7.2 degrees Fahrenheit by the end of the century. And results of this would be no bueno for agriculture, especially in already warmer climates. The Australian team of researchers says they have a new key for predicting cloud behavior and, according to their predictions, carbon dioxide levels will double. They’re describing it as “climate change madness.” The team says the problem with climate change forecasting has been the inability to predict cloud behavior, but thanks to their new method, they can now account for clouds in their models. They say they are "hoping for the best and preparing for the worst." [ Read the Article: Decreasing Cloud Cover Could Mean Higher Global Temperatures ]
 

How To Get 24 Hours Of Solar Power

 
‎11 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎07:00:22 AMGo to full article
0 The Energy Frontier Research Center at the University of North Carolina has supposedly developed a system that surpasses the pitfalls of solar energy, making a 24 hour power source. How? Their new system known as dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cell, phew long name, creates chemical fuel by using the solar power to divide water molecules into constituent parts: hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen is isolated and stored as fuel to be used later. Sounds simple, but it’s a very novel process that involves a nanoparticle drawing electrons away from water molecules to make the hydrogen fuel. Fortunately, these scientists know how it works and they say that it has the potential to revolutionize the energy world. [ Read the Article: New Solar Energy System May Provide Power 24 Hours A Day ]
 

Dogs Know How You're Feeling

 
‎10 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎07:00:27 AMGo to full article
0 Canines’ brains, like human brains, are sensitive to acoustic cues of emotion. So you’re dog really can tell how you’re feeling. The researchers used fMRI technology to peer into the brains of canines while listening to 200 human and canine sounds from playful barking to laughing and crying. Approximately 39% of the dogs’ vocal regions responded to other dog sounds, 48% to other environmental noises and 13% to human voices. But they found the dog voice areas in exactly the same location as human voice, meaning our pets are a little more like their master than we thought. [ Read the Article: Dogs, Like Humans, Have ‘Voice Areas’ In Their Brains ]

 

 

Beyond Perception - DVD

by Chuck Missler  

 

 

DVD

PRICE R 159.00

 

Media Type: DVD
Published 20-Sep-2010
Published by Koinonia House
KHID#: DVD84
Why do scientists now believe we live in a 10-dimensional universe?

Has physics finally reached the very boundaries of reality?

There seems to be evidence to suggest that our world and everything in it are only ghostly images; projections from a level of reality so beyond our own that the real reality is literally beyond both space and time. The main architect of this astonishing idea is one of the world's most eminent thinkers- physicist David Bohm, a protege of Einstein's. Earlier, he noticed that, in plasmas, particles stopped behaving like individuals and started behaving as if they were part of a larger and inter connected whole. He continued his work in the behavior of oceans of these particles, noting their behaving as if they know what each on the untold trillions of individual particles were doing.

This briefing pack DVD comes with:
-two mp3 audio files
-one notes file in pdf format

This DVD includes notes in PDF format and MP3 files.

Encoding: This DVD will be viewable in other countries WITH the proper DVD player and television set.
Format: Color, Fullscreen
Aspect Ratio: 4:3
Audio Encoding: Dolby Digital 2.0 stereo
Run Time: 2 hour(s)
Number of discs: 1


 
The Beyond Collection 

 

 

      

 

 

 

Price R399.00

 The Collection Includes the 4 DVD'S below

 

 

 

DVD - R159.00

 

 

DVD - R159.00

 

 

DVD - R159.00

 

 

DVD - R159.00

 

If you purchase the 4 discs individually the price will be R636.00

 

 YOU SAVE R 237.00!

Genetics Research Confirms Biblical Timeline

Exciting research from the summer of 2012 described DNA variation in the protein coding regions of the human genome linked to population growth. One of the investigation's conclusions was that the human genome began to rapidly diversify not more than 5,000 years ago.1,2 This observation closely agrees with a biblical timeline of post-flood human diversification. Yet another study, this one published in the journal Nature, accessed even more extensive data and unintentionally confirmed the recent human history described in Genesis.3

Differences in human DNA can be characterized across populations and ethnic groups using a variety of techniques. One of the most informative genetic technologies in this regard is the analysis of rare DNA variation in the protein coding regions of the genome. Variability in these regions is less frequent than the more numerous genetic differences that occur in the non-coding regulatory regions. Researchers can statistically combine this information with demographic data derived from population growth across the world to generate time scales related to human genetic diversification.4

What makes this type of research unique is that evolutionary scientists typically incorporate hypothetical deep time scales taken from the authority of paleontologists or other similar deep-time scenarios to calibrate models of genetic change over time. Demographics-based studies using observed world population dynamics do not rely on this bias and are therefore more accurate and realistic.

In a 2012 Science report, geneticists analyzed DNA sequences of 15,585 protein-coding gene regions in the human genome for 1,351 European Americans and 1,088 African Americans for rare DNA variation.1,2 This new study accessed rare coding variation in 15,336 genes from over 6,500 humans—almost three times the amount of data compared to the first study.3 A separate group of researchers performed the new study.

The Nature results convey a second spectacular confirmation of the amazingly biblical conclusions from the first study. These scientists confirmed that the human genome began to rapidly diversify not more than 5,000 years ago. In addition, they found significant levels of  variation to be associated with degradation of the human genome, not forward evolutionary progress. This fits closely with research performed by Cornell University geneticist John Sanford who demonstrated through biologically realistic population genetic modeling that genomes actually devolve over time in a process called genetic entropy.5

According to the Bible, the pre-flood world population was reduced to Noah's three sons and their wives, creating a genetic bottleneck from which all humans descended. Immediately following the global flood event, we would expect to see a rapid diversification continuing up to the present. According to Scripture, this began not more than 5,000 years ago. We would also expect the human genome to devolve or degrade as it accumulates irreversible genetic errors over time. Now, two secular research papers confirm these biblical predictions.

References

  1. Tomkins, J. 2012. Human DNA Variation Linked to Biblical Event Timeline. Creation Science Update. Posted on icr.org July 23, 2012, accessed December 31, 2012.
  2. Tennessen, J. et al. 2012. Evolution and Functional Impact of Rare Coding Variation from Deep Sequencing of Human Exomes. Science. 337 (6090): 64-69.
  3. Fu, W, et al. Analysis of 6,515 exomes reveals the recent origin of most human protein-coding variants. Nature. Published online before print, July 13, 2012.
  4. Keinan, A and A. Clark. 2012. Recent Explosive Human Population Growth Has Resulted in an Excess of Rare Genetic Variants. Science. 336 (6082): 740-743.
  5. Sanford, J. C. 2008. Genetic Entropy and the Mystery of the Genome, 3rd ed. Waterloo, NY: FMS Publications.

* Dr. Tomkins is a Research Associate and received his Ph.D. in Genetics from Clemson University.

 

 

Does Dinosaur Extinction Encourage Faith?

 
‎11 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

Many professors at private religious universities cling to secular views of the past despite the clear anti-Christian consequences. Theological inferences from a recent study on dinosaur extinction illustrate this dilemma.

 More...

 

Solar System Geysers—Each a Fountain of Youth

 
‎08 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

Detailed inspection of a Saturn moon now shows not just one, but 101 geysers shooting ice particles into space. If these geysers formed billions of years ago they should be old, cold, and dead—that is, completely inactive. Why aren’t they?

 More...

 

Solar-Powered Sea Slug Illuminates Evolutionary Weaknesses

 
‎06 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

In an everyday scene so bizarre that science fiction writers might never have imagined it, algae-eating sea slugs actually hijack chloroplasts—those tiny plant structures that perform photosynthesis—and use them as energy producers for themselves. Evolutionists have been trying to explain this complicated and baffling process. Have they?

 More...

 

Zombie Ant Origins Mystify

 
‎04 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

A fungus turns ants into zombies. Roundworms brainwash insects, forcing them to commit suicide by drowning in order to complete the worm's life cycle. These parasites' complicated life cycles and surgically-precise host interactions leave virtually no doubt that they were intentionally fashioned. But how, when and why could God's originally "very good" creation accommodate such morbid features?

 More...

 

Four-Winged Dinosaur Definition Doesn't Fly

 
‎30 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

An international team of scientists discovered a new fossil in Chinese sediments famous for their supposed feathered dinosaur specimens. Like a handful of previous finds, this new example apparently had four wings. Fossil impressions show flight feathers extending not only from the front wings of Changyuraptor yangi, but also from a pair of hind wings, making this the largest four-winged creature yet found in fossils.

 More...

 

Echolocation

 
‎28 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

While bats live in air and dolphins live in water, both use a biological form of sonar technology called echolocation to see with sound! The specifications in dolphin and bat biosonar systems are so many, so well-integrated, and so precise, could they really have developed at random in two completely different environments?

 More...

 

Fossilized Brain May Give Paleontologists Headache

 
‎25 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

Who has ever heard of a fossilized brain? Few would expect such a discovery, yet it looks like that's what researchers found inside a Stone Age skull from Norway. If so, it would confirm a published creation prediction and challenge many evolutionary timescales.

 More...

 

NASA's Far-Out Search for Life

 
‎23 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

NASA promoters discussed the hope of discovering life on other planets at a recent meeting in NASA headquarters. Despite billions of dollars spent over the decades-long search and the fact that not one shred of distant life evidence has been found, NASA continues to suggest that life might really be out there and that its discovery is within reach.

 More...

 

Circular Arguments Punch Holes in Triceratops Study

 
‎21 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

The eleven-year Hell Creek Project involved collecting fossils from the famous Montana Hell Creek Formation, including over fifty Triceratops specimens. The latest report from the project, however, reveals three "logic holes" in its attempts to answer questions about when and how these dinosaurs evolved.

 More...

 

Second Look Causes Scientist to Reverse Dino-Bird Claim

 
‎18 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

Stephen Czerkas digs dinosaurs. His early advocacy for feathered dinosaurs makes his recent reversal that much more remarkable. His reexamination of a fossil—one that had been known as a feathered dinosaur—reveals the fruits of taking a closer look at spectacular claims.

 More...

 

Do We Always Believe What Scientists Say?

 
‎16 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

Many Americans are convinced that mainstream narratives are true—like humans descended from ape-like ancestors or that burning fossil fuels causes global warming. But many times large contingents totally disagree with these popular ideas. How can equally intelligent and educated people arrive at such opposing conclusions? Conventional thinkers often assume that those who diverge from mainstream narratives simply need more science education. However, a new study shows why some other factor must be to blame.

 More...

 

Did Adam Really Live 930 Years?

 
‎14 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

Genesis 5:5 says Adam lived for 930 years. Judging by today’s standards, this sounds impossible. Many contemporary readers of Genesis balk at such numbers and some end up rejecting the whole Bible. But a few researchers have found reasons to believe it.

 More...

 

Oops! Evolutionists Disproving Evolution

 
‎11 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

For protozoa-to-person evolution to have worked over time, purely natural factors must have conceived, constructed, integrated, and implemented new proteins into old organisms. Brave researchers—already convinced that this somehow occurred—have been investigating this core issue, but their recent discovery refutes their own perspective.

 More...

 

Clever Clover: Evidence for Evolution?

 
‎09 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

Plant biologists continue to frame interesting clover traits in terms of evolution. However, one clever clover trait in particular keeps showing up—or disappearing—in peculiar patterns. Do these patterns illustrate evolutionary changes or does something entirely different switch off this trait?

 More...

 

Darwin's 'Special Difficulty' Solved?

 
‎07 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

Darwin's hypothesis of evolution faced enormous scientific challenges from the very outset of its publication. Recently, a group of evolutionists, publishing in the journal Science, claimed to have simplified one of those challenges. Have they?

 More...

 

Ceremony Becoming the Occasion

 
‎04 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

This Fourth of July we celebrate our precious liberty as a country, but we should not forget the things from which we are truly free, and the Liberator who rescued us from them.

 More...

 

Human Remains in Spain: Neandertal or Not?

 
‎02 ‎July ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

A famous fossil cave in Spain yielded human fossils from over two dozen ancient individuals. Investigators analyzed these human head bones and compared them with typical Neandertal skulls. Their findings, published in the journal Science, unwittingly support a biblical creation model for Neandertal origins.

 More...

 

Oceans of Water Deep Beneath the Earth?

 
‎27 ‎June ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

We should not imagine subterranean oceans as depicted in Jules Verne’s classic novel Journey to the Center of the Earth, but scientists keep finding evidence for vast amounts of water far below the surface in the form of hydrated minerals. The newfound waters are causing quite a stir.

 More...

 

Chimp DNA Mutation Study—Selective Yet Surprising

 
‎25 ‎June ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

A popular evolutionary belief is that humans and chimps shared a common ancestor 2 to 6 million years ago. Apparently, evolutionists still aren't too sure of their own theory: now they've more than doubled that timeline.

 More...

 

Cyclostratigraphy: Another Round of Circular Reasoning?

 
‎23 ‎June ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

Secular scientists believe that fossils and rock layers correspond to multi-million-year time scales, but nowhere does the Bible refer to that supposed "deep time." Do these old ages come from genuine observations, or are they somehow maintained as fact no matter what the data show?

 More...

 

Powerhouse of Scientists Refute Evolution, Part Three

 
‎20 ‎June ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

The information of life is in a state of gradual decay, not upward evolution, according to at least eight technical papers published in the proceedings of a unique symposium called Biological Information: New Perspectives.

 More...

 

Human Proteome 'More Complex than Previously Thought'

 
‎18 ‎June ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

Once again the oft-repeated phrase "More complex than previously thought" has been used to describe new research cataloguing thousands of proteins produced from the human genome. Will a Designer ever be considered?

 More...

 

Powerhouse of Scientists Refute Evolution, Part Two

 
‎16 ‎June ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

What does it take to make a language? Researchers recently asked this question of the language encoded inside cells. Whatever it takes to make a human language must have happened to make the information-packed language of life, right?

 More...

 

Powerhouse of Scientists Refute Evolution, Part One

 
‎13 ‎June ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

Life science textbooks have long taught that Neo-Darwinism explains how single cells evolved into sentient scientists, but not all scientists agree. Do they disagree because of a blind adherence to religion that opposes Darwinian science, or because they have examined the issues and found the science lacking?

 More...

 

Comb Jelly Genome Gums Up Evolution

 
‎11 ‎June ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

Comb jellies look like disco balls with flashing lights that dance and spin as they float around the ocean. These creatures are so fascinating that one neuroscientist likened them to "aliens who've come to earth."

 More...

 

Brainwashing Children to 'Suppress' Design Intuition

 
‎09 ‎June ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

The Wall Street Journal is praising psychological interventions on kindergarteners that demonstrate how repeated picture-stories can train them to suppress their intelligent design inferences about the world with natural selection…and this may be permanent.

 More...

 

'Smoking Gun' Proof of Big Bang Already In Doubt

 
‎06 ‎June ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

In March 2014, a team of radio astronomers announced purported direct evidence for inflation, an important part of the Big Bang model. But only two months after this “discovery” a number of secular scientists have become increasingly skeptical.

 More...

 

Saturn's Magnetic Field Auroras: Evidence for Creation

 
‎04 ‎June ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

New evidence confirms that, like Earth, Saturn's magnetic field helps create its own auroras. This space spectacle attracts a more fundamental question about where its magnetic field came from in the first place.

 More...

 

Antarctica Rising: Uplift Rate Suppresses Conventional Geology

 
‎30 ‎May ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

New results show that the continental crust underlying Antarctica is rising rapidly as parts of its massive ice sheet have been melting away. This unexpected bounce might help better position the timing of similar effects that occurred in northern North America near the close of the Ice Age.

 More...

 

'Simple and Elegant' Insect Design Showcases Creation

 
‎28 ‎May ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

Symbiosis in tiny creatures very clearly showcases divine creation. How could two unrelated creatures come to fully depend on one another unless they were intentionally crafted that way from the beginning? Otherwise, they would die while waiting for a perfect partner to evolve.

 More...

 

 
 

Scientific American Content: Global

 

 

 

Browse and Search NASA Image Galleries

 

 


DVD

PRICE R 159.00

 

 

 

 

 

Transhumanism is an international intellectual and cultural movement supporting the use of science and technology to improve human mental and physical characteristics and capacities.

by Dr. Martin Erdmann


The human species can, if it wishes, transcend itself. We need a name for this new belief. Perhaps transhumanism will serve: man remaining man, but transcending himself, by realizing new possibilities of and for his human nature.
Julian Huxley
1st director of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (wrote nearly fifty years ago)
Transhumanism is a word that is beginning to bubble to the top of our prophetic studies and horizon. Simply described, transhumanism is an international intellectual and cultural movement supporting the use of science and technology to improve human mental and physical characteristics and capacities - in essence, to create a "posthuman" society.
This is not a passing fad. Transhumanist programs are sponsored in institutions such as Oxford, Standford, and Caltech. Sponsorships come from organizations such as Ford, Apple, Intel, Xerox, Sun Microsystems, and others. DARPA, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, a technical department within the U.S. Department of Defense is also involved in transhumanist projects.
This briefing pack contains 2 hours of teachings
Available in the following formats
DVD:
1 Disc
2 M4A Files

More Info

 

 

Price R 159.00
 
 
 
THE BOOK

Price R179.00

 

 

***SPECIAL OFFER ***

BUY THE DVD

&

GET THE BOOK

ONLY

PRICE R199.00

THIS LINK ONLY

 

 

 

 

DVD - R 159.00


 

 

 

Book   R169.00

 

 

 

Available in the following formats:
DVD
Price R 159.00
 
 
 

All prices are in South African Rand's.
 
 

 

 Preview

The Origins of Information: Exploring and Explaining Biological Information


 

In the 21st century, the information age has finally come to biology. We now know that biology at its root is comprised of information rich systems, such as the complex digital code encoded in DNA. Groundbreaking discoveries of the past decade are revealing the information bearing properties of biological systems.

Dr. Stephen C. Meyer, a Cambridge trained philosopher of science is examining and explaining the amazing depth of digital technology found in each and every living cell such as nested coding, digital processing, distributive retrieval and storage systems, and genomic operating systems.

Meyer is developing a more fundamental argument for intelligent design that is based not on a single feature like the bacterial flagellum, but rather on a pervasive feature of all living systems. Alongside matter and energy, Dr. Meyer shows that there is a third fundamental entity in the universe needed for life: information.

 

http://www.stephencmeyer.org/

Got Science? Genesis 1 and Evidence

 

 

 
DVD - R159.00
 

 

Many scientists say complex life just randomly happened.
Primordial soup + lightning strike = Bingo! Is there any shred of scientific evidence that life was CREATED as Genesis 1 claims? Dr. Stephen Meyer, author of SIGNATURE IN THE CELL, says not a shred. Rather, a ton. Learn good reasoning techniques here.
 
08 June 2012, 08:09:11 PM
 

Intelligent Design is not Creationism

 
08 June 2012, 08:09:11 PM | Robert CrowtherGo to full article

This article was originally published in the Daily Telegraph (UK) on January 29. Original Article In 2004, the distinguished philosopher Antony Flew of the University of Reading made worldwide news when he repudiated a lifelong commitment to atheism and affirmed the reality of some kind of a creator. Flew cited evidence of intelligent design in DNA and the arguments of "American [intelligent] design theorists" as important reasons for this shift. Since then, British readers have learnt about the theory of intelligent design (ID) mainly from media reports about United States court battles over the legality of teaching students about it. According to most reports, ID is a "faith-based" alternative to evolution based solely on religion. But is this accurate? As one of the architects of the theory, I know it isn't. Contrary to media reports, ID is not a religious-based idea, but an evidence-based scientific theory about life's origins. According to Darwinian biologists such as Oxford University's Richard Dawkins, living systems "give the appearance of having been designed for a purpose". But, for modern Darwinists, that appearance of design is illusory, because the purely undirected process of natural selection acting on random mutations is entirely sufficient to produce the intricate designed-like structures found in living organisms. By contrast, ID holds that there are tell-tale features of living systems and the universe that are best explained by a designing intelligence. The theory does not challenge the idea of evolution defined as change over time, or even common ancestry, but it disputes Darwin's idea that the cause of biological change is wholly blind and undirected. What signs of intelligence do design advocates see? In recent years, biologists have discovered an exquisite world of nanotechnology within living cells - complex circuits, sliding clamps, energy-generating turbines and miniature machines. For example, bacterial cells are propelled by rotary engines called flagellar motors that rotate at 100,000rpm. These engines look like they were designed by engineers, with many distinct mechanical parts (made of proteins), including rotors, stators, O-rings, bushings, U-joints and drive shafts. The biochemist Michael Behe points out that the flagellar motor depends on the co-ordinated function of 30 protein parts. Remove one of these proteins and the rotary motor doesn't work. The motor is, in Behe's words, "irreducibly complex". This creates a problem for the Darwinian mechanism. Natural selection preserves or "selects" functional advantages as they arise by random mutation. Yet the flagellar motor does not function unless all its 30 parts are present. Thus, natural selection can "select" the motor once it has arisen as a functioning whole, but it cannot produce the motor in a step-by-step Darwinian fashion. Natural selection purportedly builds complex systems from simpler structures by preserving a series of intermediates, each of which must perform some function. With the flagellar motor, most of the critical intermediate structures perform no function for selection to preserve. This leaves the origin of the flagellar motor unexplained by the mechanism - natural selection - that Darwin specifically proposed to replace the design hypothesis. Is there a better explanation? Based on our uniform experience, we know of only one type of cause that produces irreducibly complex systems: intelligence. Whenever we encounter complex systems - whether integrated circuits or internal combustion engines - and we know how they arose, invariably a designing intelligence played a role. Consider an even more fundamental argument for design. In 1953, when Watson and Crick elucidated the structure of the DNA molecule, they made a startling discovery. Strings of precisely sequenced chemicals called nucleotides in DNA store and transmit the assembly instructions - the information - in a four-character digital code for building the protein molecules the cell needs to survive. Crick then developed his "sequence hypothesis", in which the chemical bases in DNA function like letters in a written language or symbols in a computer code. As Dawkins has noted, "the machine code of the genes is uncannily computer-like". The informational features of the cell at least appear designed. Yet, to date, no theory of undirected chemical evolution has explained the origin of the digital information needed to build the first living cell. Why? There is simply too much information in the cell to be explained by chance alone. The information in DNA (and RNA) has also been shown to defy explanation by forces of chemical necessity. Saying otherwise would be like saying a headline arose as the result of chemical attraction between ink and paper. Clearly, something else is at work. DNA functions like a software program. We know from experience that software comes from programmers. We know that information - whether, say, in hieroglyphics or radio signals - always arises from an intelligent source. As the pioneering information theorist Henry Quastler observed: "Information habitually arises from conscious activity." So the discovery of digital information in DNA provides strong grounds for inferring that intelligence played a causal role in its origin. Thus, ID is not based on religion, but on scientific discoveries and our experience of cause and effect, the basis of all scientific reasoning about the past. Unlike creationism, ID is an inference from biological data. Even so, ID may provide support for theistic belief. But that is not grounds for dismissing it. Those who do confuse the evidence for the theory with its possible implications. Many astrophysicists initially rejected the Big Bang theory because it seemed to point to the need for a transcendent cause of matter, space and time. But science eventually accepted it because the evidence strongly supported it. Today, a similar prejudice confronts ID. Nevertheless, this new theory must also be evaluated on the basis of the evidence, not philosophical preferences. As Professor Flew advises: "We must follow the evidence, wherever it leads." Stephen C Meyer edited 'Darwinism, Design and Public Education' (Michigan State University Press). He has a PhD in philosophy of science from Cambridge University and is a senior fellow at the Discovery Institute in Seattle.

 

09 December 2011, 11:13:24 PM

New Research Supports Meyer's Discussion of Pre-Biotic Chemistry in Signature in the Cell

 
09 December 2011, 11:13:24 PM | Andrew McDiarmidGo to full article
A recent Nature publication reports a new technique for measuring the oxygen levels in Earth's atmosphere some 4.4 billion years ago. The authors found that by studying cerium oxidation states in zircon, a compound formed from volcanic magma, they could ascertain the oxidation levels in the early earth. Their findings suggest that the early Earth's oxygen levels were very close to current levels. This research supports Dr. Meyer's discussion in Signature in the Cell. On pgs. 224-226 of Ch. 10: Beyond the Reach of Chance, Meyer states that when Stanley Miller conducted his famous 1953 experiment simulating early Earth's atmosphere, he "assumed that the earth's atmosphere contained virtually no free oxygen." Meyer reveals that new geochemical evidence showed that the assumptions Miller had made about the early atmosphere were incorrect. This new research is additional confirmation that oxygen was present in significant quantities. Because oxygen quenches organic reactions necessary to produce essential building blocks of life, the ability of inorganic materials to produce organic life, as chemical evolutionary theory assumes, is not possible. Read the complete article at ENV.

 

Dr. Meyer Debates Signature in the Cell Arguments with Keith Fox on Premier Radio UK

24 November 2011, 12:37:19 AM | Andrew McDiarmidGo to full article
During a recent visit to London, Dr. Stephen Meyer debated Keith Fox on Premier Radio UK's "Unbelievable" program. Fox is a professor of biochemistry at Southampton University and Chair of the UK's Christians in Science network. Two years after its publication, Meyer's Signature in the Cell continues to make an impact with its powerful argument for design in DNA. In this lively conversation, Meyer and Fox discuss origins of life and the design inference in science.

 

« Overflowtoday.com asks Stephen Meyer if he's got science | Main

Dr. Meyer Debates Signature in the Cell Arguments with Keith Fox on Premier Radio UK


During a recent visit to London, Dr. Stephen Meyer debated Keith Fox on Premier Radio UK's "Unbelievable" program. Fox is a professor of biochemistry at Southampton University and Chair of the UK's Christians in Science network. Two years after its publication, Meyer's Signature in the Cell continues to make an impact with its powerful argument for design in DNA. In this lively conversation, Meyer and Fox discuss origins of life and the design inference in science.


 

 

July 14, 2010

What is the key thing that needs to be explained in origin of life research?

Dr. Stephen Meyer explains the importance of biological information in origin of life research, as discussed in his groundbreaking intelligent design book Signature in the Cell.

 

 

Watch here in high resolution.

 

Searching For The Truth On Origins
By Roger Oakland

4 DVD set

 

 

 

 

 

 

PRICE  R399.00

 

 ($49.00) equivalent

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

NASA Television
 

http://www.nasa.gov/audience/formedia/index.html


 

+27 11 969 0086


frosty@khouseafrica.com

 

 


Bible

DVD

+

MP3 on CD-ROM
Featured Commentaries

Learn the Bible

 in 24 hours



Old Testament


Genesis

Exodus

Leviticus

Numbers

Deuteronomy

Joshua and The Twelve Tribes

Judges

Ruth and Esther

I and II Samuel

I and II Kings

I and II Chronicles

Ezra & Nehemiah

Job

Psalms

Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Song of Songs

Isaiah

Jeremiah

/Lamentations

Ezekiel

Daniel

Hosea

Joel and Amos

Jonah, Nahum & Obadiah

Micah

Zechariah

The Minor

Prophets

 



New Testament


Matthew

Mark

Luke

John

Acts

Romans

I & II Corinthians

Galatians

Ephesians

Philippians

Colossians and Philemon

I and II

Thessalonians

Timothy/

Titus/Philemon

Hebrews

James

I and II Peter

I, II, and III John

Jude

Revelation