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This page is dedicated to My Grandson Brandon.

(Branstein)

***IN STOCK***
 HOLOGRAPHIC

UNIVERSE

by Chuck Missler

DVD

PRICE R 159.00

 

 

 

 

This DVD includes notes in PDF format and M4A files.


This briefing pack contains 2 hours of teachings

Available in the following formats

Session 1

• Epistemology 101: How do we “know”?

– Scientific Myths of the Past

– Scientific Myths of the Present

• The Macrocosm: The Plasma Universe: Gravitational Presumption?

• The Microcosm: The Planck Wall

• The Metacosm: Fracture of Hyperspace?

Session 2


• The Holographic Model: David Bohm

• GEO 600 “Noise”

• The Black Hole Paradox

– String Theorists examine the elephant

• A Holographic Universe:

– Distances are synthetic (virtual) images

– A Geocentric Cosmology?

– Some Scriptural Perspective(s)

 

 

“One can’t believe impossible things,”

Alice laughed.

“I daresay you haven’t had much practice,”

said the Queen.

“When I was your age, I always did it for

half-an-hour a day.

Why, sometimes I’ve believed as many

as six impossible things before breakfast.”

Through the Looking Glass

Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson)
 

DVD:

1 Disc
2 M4A Files
Color, Fullscreen 16:9, Dolby Digital 2.0 stereo, Region  This DVD will be viewable in other countries WITH the proper DVD player and television set.)
 

M4A File Video

Can be burned to disc and played on MP4 compatible DVD players.
Playable on iPod, iPhone, iPod Touch
Playable on any MP4 player
1 PDF Notes File
2 MP3 Files


 

 

 

 

 

 

Featured Briefing

A Holographic Universe?

by Dr. Chuck Missler

Are we actually living in a holographic universe? Are the distant galaxies only a virtual illusion? In a hologram, distances are synthetic! How does this impact our concepts of time and space?

There seems to be growing evidence to suggest that our world and everything in it may be only ghostly images, projections from a level of reality so beyond our own that the real reality is literally beyond both space and time.1

The Cosmos As a Super-Hologram?

An initiating architect of this astonishing idea was one of the world’s most eminent thinkers: University of London physicist David Bohm, a protégé of Einstein’s and one of the world’s most respected quantum physicists. Bohm’s work in plasma physics in the 1950s is considered a landmark. Earlier, at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, he noticed that in plasmas (ionized gases) the particles stopped behaving as individuals and started behaving as if they were part of a larger and interconnected whole. Moving to Princeton University in 1947, there, too, he continued his work in the behavior of oceans of ionized particles, noting their highly organized overall effects and their behavior, as if they knew what each of the untold trillions of individual particles was doing.

One of the implications of Bohm’s view has to do with the nature of location. Bohm’s interpretation of quantum physics indicated that at the subquantum level location ceased to exist. All points in space become equal to all other points in space, and it was meaningless to speak of anything as being separate from anything else. Physicists call this property “nonlocality”. The web of subatomic particles that compose our physical universe—the very fabric of “reality” itself—possesses what appears to be an undeniable “holographic” property. Paul Davis of the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, England, observed that since all particles are continually interacting and separating, “the nonlocal aspects of quantum systems is therefore a general property of nature.”2

The Nature of Reality

One of Bohm’s most startling suggestions was that the tangible reality of our everyday lives is really a kind of illusion, like a holographic image. Underlying it is a deeper order of existence, a vast and more primary level of reality that gives birth to all the objects and appearances of our physical world in much the same way that a piece of holographic film gives birth to a hologram. Bohm calls this deeper level of reality the implicate (“enfolded”) order and he refers to our level of existence the explicate (unfolded) order.3 This view is not inconsistent with the Biblical presentation of the physical (“explicate”) world as being subordinate to the spiritual (“implicate”) world as the superior reality.4

The Search for Gravity Waves

Gravitational waves are extremely small ripples in the structure of spacetime caused by astrophysical events like supernovae or coalescing massive binaries (neutron stars, black holes). They had been predicted by Albert Einstein in 1916, but not yet directly observed.

GEO 600 is a gravitational wave detector located near Sarstedt, Germany, which seeks to detect gravitational waves by means of a laser interferometer of 600 meter arms’ length. This instrument, and its sister interferometric detectors, are some of the most sensitive gravitational wave detectors ever designed. They are designed to detect relative changes in distance of the order of 10-21, about the size of a single atom compared to the distance from the Earth to the Sun! Construction on the project began in 1995.

Mystery Noise

On January 15, 2009, it was reported in New Scientist that some yet unidentified noise that was present in the GEO 600 detector measurements might be because the instrument is sensitive to extremely small quantum fluctuations of space-time affecting the positions of parts of the detector. This claim was made by Craig Hogan, a scientist from Fermilab, on the basis of his theory of how such fluctuations should occur motivated by the holographic principle.5 Apparently, the gravitational wave detector in Hannover may have detected evidence for a holographic Universe!

Gravitational Wave Observatories Join Forces

A number of major projects will now pool their data to analyze it, jointly boosting their chances of spotting a faint signal that might otherwise be hidden by detector noise. Using lasers, they measure the length between mirrored test masses hung inside tunnels at right angles to each other. Gravitational waves decrease the distance between the masses in one tunnel and increase it in the other by a tiny, but detectable amount. Combining the data will also make it possible to triangulate to find the source of any gravitational waves detected. These include: Laser Interferometer Gravitational Observatory based in Hanford, Washington and Livingston, Louisiana; Virgo Observatory, Pisa Italy; and, of course, the GEO 600 Observatory near Hanover, Germany.

The most ambitious of them is the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), a joint mission between NASA and the European Space Agency to develop and operate a space-based gravitational wave detector sensitive at frequencies between 0.03 mHz and 0.1 Hz. LISA seeks to detect gravitational-wave induced strains in space-time by measuring changes of the separation between fiducial masses in three spacecraft 5 million kilometers apart.

Cosmic Implications

Are we actually living in a holographic universe? Are the distant galaxies only a virtual illusion? In a hologram, distances are synthetic! How does this impact our concepts of time and space?

It gets even worse: Could our universe be geocentric? The implications are too staggering to embrace. The holographic paradigm is still a developing concept and riddled with controversies. For decades, science has chosen to ignore evidences that do not fit their standard theories. However, the volume of evidence has now reached the point that denial is no longer a viable option.

Clearly, 20th-century science has discovered that our “macrocosm”—studies of largeness—is finite, not infinite. Our universe is finite and had a beginning, and that’s what has led to the “big bang” speculations. We also realize that gravity is dramatically eclipsed by electromagnetic considerations when dealing with galaxies, etc. The plasma physicists have been trying to tell astronomers that for decades but no one was listening.

What is even more shocking has been the discoveries in the “microcosm”—studies of smallness—that run up against the “Planck Wall” of the non-location of subatomic particles, and the many strange paradoxes of quantum physics. We now discover that we are in a virtual reality that is a digital, simulated environment. The bizarre realization that the “constants” of physics are changing indicates that our “reality” is “but a shadow of a larger reality,”6 and that’s what the Bible has maintained all along!7

The Bible is, of course, unique in that it has always presented a universe of more than three dimensions,8 and revealed a Creator that is transcendent over His creation. It is the only “holy book” that demonstrates these contemporary insights. It’s time for us to spend more time with the handbook that the Creator has handed to us. It is the ultimate adventure, indeed!

For background information on the Holographic Universe, see our briefing series, The Beyond Collection, available on DVD and other formats, in the Christmas catalog insert in this issue.


Notes

  1. We explore the limitations of the Macrocosm, the Microcosm, and the super-embracing “Metacosm” in our Beyond Series.
  2. Paul Davis, Superforce, Simon & Schuster, New York, 1948, p.48.
  3. This is reminiscent of the Red King’s dream in Through the Looking Glass, in which Alice finds herself in deep metaphysical waters when the Tweedle brothers defend the view that all material objects, including ourselves, are only “sorts of things” in the mind of God.
  4. 2 Corinthians 4:18.
  5. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. (Craig Hogan was then put in charge…)
  6. Scientific American, June 2005, “The Inconstancy of Constants”.
  7. Hebrews 11:3; John 1:1-3; et al.
  8. Ephesians 3:18. Nachmonides, writing in the 13th century, concluded, from his studies of the Genesis texts, that our universe has ten dimensions, of which only four are directly “knowable”.
 
 
Space News from SpaceDaily.com
Space News From SpaceDaily.Com
 
 

Orion launch to test human flight risks in deep space

 
‎07 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎02:59:23 AMGo to full article
Washington (AFP) Nov 06, 2014
With memories still fresh of two commercial space flight accidents in the past 10 days, NASA is readying its first test flight of the Orion spacecraft that could one day carry humans to Mars. No one will be on board when Orion launches next month from Cape Canaveral in Florida, but the test will involve more than $370 million in rocket equipment and hardware. That price tag does not incl
 

NASA wants to put Lytro cameras in their probes

 
‎07 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎02:59:23 AMGo to full article
Washington (UPI) Nov 6, 2014
Digital camera company Lytro is making buzz in the tech world this week, having announced partnerships with NASA, the Defense Department, and a number of companies in the energy and healthcare industries. The company wants to share its cameras' light-field - "shoot first, focus later" - capabilities with third parties, licensing out its cutting edge technology to be incorporated into
 

Dark matter may be massive

 
‎07 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎02:59:23 AMGo to full article
Cleveland OH (SPX) Nov 06, 2014
The physics community has spent three decades searching for and finding no evidence that dark matter is made of tiny exotic particles. Case Western Reserve University theoretical physicists suggest researchers consider looking for candidates more in the ordinary realm and, well, more massive. Dark matter is unseen matter, that, combined with normal matter, could create the gravity that, am
 

EIAST and AUS launch UAE's first CubeSat Mission Nayif-1

 
‎07 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎02:59:23 AMGo to full article
Dubai, UAE (SPX) Nov 06, 2014
The Emirates Institution for Advanced Science and Technology (EIAST), in partnership with American University of Sharjah (AUS), launched the UAE's first CubeSat Mission, a Nanosatellite that offers hands-on experience to engineering students in the design, integration, testing, and operation of a communications satellite. Nayif-1 is in line with UAE's vision of building a competitive Knowl
 

Russia Test-Fires Topol-M Intercontinental Ballistic Missile

 
‎07 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎02:59:23 AMGo to full article
Moscow (RIA Novosti) Nov 05, 2014
The Russian Strategic Missile Forces test-fired on Saturday a Topol-M intercontinental ballistic missile from a launch site in northwestern Russia, the country's Defense Ministry said. "The (MBR) RT-2PM2 ,Topol-M', a silo-based intercontinental ballistic missile, was launched on November 1, at 9:20 a.m. [local time, or 6:20 GMT] from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome," the ministry said in a stateme
 

Poland to buy armed drones amid Ukraine crisis

 
‎07 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎02:59:23 AMGo to full article
Warsaw (AFP) Nov 04, 2014
NATO member Poland said Tuesday it will acquire combat drones as part of a multi-billion-euro revamp of its armed forces amid heightened tensions with Russia over its role in the Ukraine crisis. "We will use these drones to defend our territory," Deputy Defence Minister Czeslaw Mroczek told AFP. "My Ukrainian counterpart informed me that one of their main problems was the fact that Russ
 

Disorder + disorder = more disorder?

 
‎07 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎02:59:23 AMGo to full article
Washington DC (SPX) Nov 05, 2014
If you took the junk from the back of your closet and combined it with the dirty laundry already on your floor, you would have an even bigger mess. While this principle will likely always hold true for our bedrooms, it turns out that in certain situations, combining messes can actually reduce the disorder of the whole. An international team of researchers from Slovenia and Iran has identif
 

Two photons strongly coupled by glass fiber

 
‎07 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎02:59:23 AMGo to full article
Vienna, Austria (SPX) Nov 04, 2014
Two photons in free space do not interact. Light waves can pass through each other without having any influence on each other at all. For many applications in quantum technology, however, interaction between photons is crucial. It is an indispensable prerequisite for transmitting information through tap-proof quantum channels or for building optical logic gates. At the Vienna Univers
 

Ultracold disappearing act

 
‎07 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎02:59:23 AMGo to full article
Houston TX (SPX) Nov 04, 2014
A disappearing act was the last thing Rice University physicist Randy Hulet expected to see in his ultracold atomic experiments, but that is what he and his students produced by colliding pairs of Bose Einstein condensates (BECs) that were prepared in special states called solitons. Hulet's team documented the strange phenomenon in a new study published online this week in the journal Natu
 

ADS boosts EO portfolio with the addition of DMC Data

 
‎07 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎02:59:23 AMGo to full article
Paris (SPX) Nov 06, 2014
Airbus Defence and Space announced that the data and application services of DMC International Imaging Ltd. (DMCii), UK, will now be available through its Geo-Intelligence programme line, thus further enhancing its Earth observation-based products and services portfolio. With the DMC satellites, Airbus Defence and Space expands its capabilities significantly to what is now the largest flee
 

India votes against U.N. draft resolution on nuke pact

 
‎07 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎02:59:23 AMGo to full article
New Delhi (XNA) Nov 05, 2014
India has voted against the provisions of draft resolutions calling for signing of the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT), ruling out the possibility of joining the treaty as a non-nuclear weapon state, local media reported on Saturday. A U.N. Assembly committee Friday adopted a resolution in New York calling on all countries which have not signed NPT to sign it as non-nuclear weapon s
 

NASA Installs Giant Composite Material Research Robot

 
‎07 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎02:59:23 AMGo to full article
Hampton VA (SPX) Nov 06, 2014
Kathy Barnstorff It looks like something out of a "Transformers" movie - a huge robotic arm that moves and spins to pick up massive heads filled with spools of carbon fibers, then moves in preprogrammed patterns to deposit those fibers onto a 40-foot long bed. But instead of transforming from machine to Autobot, it can transform epoxy and fibers into aerospace structures and parts. NASA's
 

Gilat and HISPASAT Enhance VNO Activity

 
‎07 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎02:59:23 AMGo to full article
Petah Tikva, Israel (SPX) Nov 06, 2014
Gilat Satellite Networks has announced that its Virtual Network Operations (VNO) program with Spanish satellite operator HISPASAT has signed on two new ISPs who intend to provide Internet services via satellite in Spain and Portugal. HISPASAT recently purchased a new SkyEdge II-c hub for its Arganda Teleport in Madrid. "A key reason for the adaptation of Gilat's advanced SkyEdge II-c platf
 

ISS Agency Heads Issue Joint Statement

 
‎07 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎02:59:23 AMGo to full article
Washington DC (SPX) Nov 06, 2014
The heads of the International Space Station (ISS) agencies from Canada, Europe, Japan, Russia and the United States met in Paris, France, on Nov. 4, 2014. The following is a joint statement issued by the leaders: Recognizing the full mission breadth of the ISS from research that benefits all of humanity, to technology development, to expanding commercial use of low Earth orbit, to enhanci
 

Rice chemists gain edge in next-gen energy

 
‎07 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎02:59:23 AMGo to full article
Houston TX (SPX) Nov 05, 2014
Rice University scientists who want to gain an edge in energy production and storage report they have found it in molybdenum disulfide. The Rice lab of chemist James Tour has turned molybdenum disulfide's two-dimensional form into a nanoporous film that can catalyze the production of hydrogen or be used for energy storage. The versatile chemical compound classified as a dichalcogenide is i
 

Orbital likely to discontinue using Russian rocket engine

 
‎06 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎07:47:57 AMGo to full article
Washington DC (RIA Novosti) Nov 06, 2014
The US manufacturer of fallen unmanned cargo spacecraft Antares is likely to discontinue using the Russian rocket engine that it believes to be the cause of the vehicle launch crash in October, according to press release issued Wednesday. "Preliminary evidence and analysis conducted to date points to a probable turbopump-related failure in one of the two Aerojet Rocketdyne AJ26 stage one m
 

Peering into Planetary Atmospheres

 
‎06 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎07:47:57 AMGo to full article
Laurel MD (SPX) Nov 06, 2014
Pluto is the foremost member of a large population of mysterious icy bodies - called Kuiper Belt Objects - that reside far beyond the orbit of Neptune. In the 1970s and 1980s, Voyagers 1 and 2 explored the gas giant planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune) and their intricate systems of rings and moons, but Pluto was out of reach for a visit by either spacecraft. New Horizons will fil
 

How to Land on a Comet

 
‎06 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎07:47:57 AMGo to full article
Huntsville AL (SPX) Nov 06, 2014
Generally speaking, space missions fall into one of three categories: difficult, more difficult, and ridiculously difficult. Flybys are difficult. A spaceship travels hundreds of millions of miles through the dark void of space, pinpoints a distant planet or moon, and flies past it at 20 to 30 thousand mph, snapping pictures furiously during an achingly brief encounter. Going into or
 

The Little Engine that Could

 
‎06 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎07:47:57 AMGo to full article
McLean VA (SPX) Nov 06, 2014
The Price Induction DGEN model 380 turbofan engine rolled into the NASA Glenn Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory on the back of a flatbed truck recently to see if the small engine could be successfully used to test engine noise reduction concepts proposed by researchers. Evaluating concepts on a small engine is much cheaper than the larger version. If the specialized testing on this
 

African states endorse installation of a mega radio telescope

 
‎06 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎07:47:57 AMGo to full article
Nairobi, Kenya (XNA) Nov 06, 2014
Nine African countries on Tuesday agreed on modalities of setting up one of the world's largest radio telescopes that will revolutionize space science in the continent. Government officials meeting in Nairobi said the countries have finalized the harmonization of policies and laws to facilitate the installation of the radio telescope dubbed Square Kilometer Array (SKA). "The appetite for r
 

UCLA astronomers solve puzzle about bizarre object at the center of our galaxy

 
‎06 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎07:47:57 AMGo to full article
Los Angeles CA (SPX) Nov 06, 2014
For years, astronomers have been puzzled by a bizarre object in the center of the Milky Way that was believed to be a hydrogen gas cloud headed toward our galaxy's enormous black hole. Having studied it during its closest approach to the black hole this summer, UCLA astronomers believe that they have solved the riddle of the object widely known as G2. A team led by Andrea Ghez, professor o
 

ESA space ferry moves ISS to avoid debris

 
‎06 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎07:47:57 AMGo to full article
Paris (ESA) Nov 06, 2014
The International Space Station was threatened by space debris last week but ESA's Automated Transfer Vehicle saved the day by firing its thrusters to push the orbital outpost and its six occupants out of harm's way. This is the first time the Station's international partners have avoided space debris with such urgency. Ground stations continuously track space junk - leftover hardwar
 

US to Continue Space Cooperation With Russia After Spacecraft Crashes

 
‎06 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎07:47:57 AMGo to full article
Washington DC (RIA Novosti) Nov 06, 2014
The United States plans to continue cooperation with Russia in the space industry amid US spacecraft crashes, White House press secretary Josh Earnest said on Monday. "We have continued to see cooperation between the United States and Russia as it relates to the International Space Station (ISS)," Earnest said answering the question if the United States is going to reconsider NASA funding
 

Spaceflight partners with JAMSS to loft 8 CubeSats on JAXA mission

 
‎06 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎07:47:57 AMGo to full article
Seattle WA (SPX) Nov 06, 2014
Spaceflight and Japan Manned Space Systems have announced a cooperative launch service agreement to integrate and deploy CubeSats from the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Astro-H mission. The Spaceflight and JAMSS commercial partnership has enabled U.S. commercial CubeSat customers to launch on an H-IIA launch vehicle for the first time. "We are very excited to provide additio
 

Orion Takes Big Step Before Moving to the Launch Pad

 
‎06 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎07:47:57 AMGo to full article
Hampton VA (SPX) Nov 06, 2014
Kevin Rivers was nothing but giddy as he stood behind the closed door of the Launch Abort System Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, waiting to see the Orion spacecraft that will one day send humans on the journey to Mars. After just a few minutes that seemed like a lifetime, Rivers, the Launch Abort System project manager, walked through the facility door. There before him
 

MAVEN Continues Mars Exploration Begun 50 Years Ago by Mariner 4

 
‎06 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎07:47:57 AMGo to full article
Pasadena CA (JPL) Nov 06, 2014
When the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution, or MAVEN, spacecraft arrived at the Red Planet on Sept. 21, it marked the continuation of exploration of one of Earth's nearest celestial neighbors that began 50 years ago. In 1964, the Mariner 4 probe became the first to successfully fly by Mars, opening the way for future human exploration. MAVEN was launched from the Kennedy Space Center
 

NASA's Curiosity Mars Rover Finds Mineral Match

 
‎06 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎07:47:57 AMGo to full article
Pasadena CA (JPL) Nov 06, 2014
Reddish rock powder from the first hole drilled into a Martian mountain by NASA's Curiosity rover has yielded the mission's first confirmation of a mineral mapped from orbit. "This connects us with the mineral identifications from orbit, which can now help guide our investigations as we climb the slope and test hypotheses derived from the orbital mapping," said Curiosity Project Scientist
 

Station Trio Prepares for Departure amid Ongoing Science

 
‎06 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎07:47:57 AMGo to full article
Washington DC (SPX) Nov 06, 2014
Expedition 41 Commander Max Suraev and Flight Engineers Reid Wiseman and Alexander Gerst are in their final week aboard the International Space Station. All three homebound crew members spent time on Monday preparing for their departure. Expedition 41 will end Nov. 9 when it undocks inside the Soyuz TMA-13M spacecraft at 7:29 p.m. EST. Gerst also drew his blood samples for stowage in
 

String field theory could be the foundation of quantum mechanics

 
‎06 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎07:47:57 AMGo to full article
Los Angeles CA (SPX) Nov 04, 2014
Two USC researchers have proposed a link between string field theory and quantum mechanics that could open the door to using string field theory - or a broader version of it, called M-theory - as the basis of all physics. "This could solve the mystery of where quantum mechanics comes from," said Itzhak Bars, USC Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences professor and lead author of th
 

Orbital blames rocket engine failure for launchpad blast

 
‎06 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎07:47:57 AMGo to full article
Washington (AFP) Nov 05, 2014
Orbital Sciences Corporation said Wednesday a preliminary probe into last month's unmanned rocket blast shows an engine failure was to blame for the explosion shortly after liftoff from Wallops Island, Virginia. The type of engines used to power the Antares rocket were a pair of decades-old Ukrainian-designed AJ-26s, that were refurbished by Aerojet Rocketdyne. "Preliminary evidence and
 

Risk-taker Branson battles to protect Virgin brand

 
‎05 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎08:58:15 AMGo to full article
London (AFP) Nov 04, 2014
Richard Branson knows how to handle business setbacks, but he is now battling to protect the Virgin empire's image following the test flight crash of his flagship space tourism venture. The British entrepreneur is fighting to stop the fatal crash that brought down Virgin Galactic's SpaceShipTwo charring his sprawling Virgin Group, which encompasses more than 400 companies in multiple sec
 

NTSB reveals spaceship crash timeline, fingers lever

 
‎05 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎08:58:15 AMGo to full article
Los Angeles (AFP) Nov 04, 2014
Investigators gave a precise timeline late Monday of the devastating Virgin Galactic spaceship crash, detailing exactly when a slowing mechanism was wrongly deployed, but said they could not determine who activated it. The co-pilot of the SpaceshipTwo died in the crash Friday over California's Mojave desert while the pilot survived the disaster, which has called into question Virgin chief R
 

NASA-Funded Sounding Rocket to Gather 1,500 Sun Images in 5 Minutes

 
‎05 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎08:58:15 AMGo to full article
Greenbelt MD (SPX) Nov 05, 2014
A sounding rocket outfitted with technology to gather 1,500 images of the sun over its five-minute mission is preparing to launch in early November 2014. Capturing five images per second, the RAISE mission will focus in on the split-second changes that occur near active regions on the sun - areas of intense and complex magnetic fields that can give birth to giant eruptions on the sun that
 

Solving the mystery of life by exploring Churyumov-Gerasimenko

 
‎05 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎08:58:15 AMGo to full article
Moscow (RIA Novosti) Nov 05, 2014
Within a few days, the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft will drop a tiny lander called Philae onto the surface of a mysterious comet, 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: a huge chunk of ice and organic chemicals that has been travelling for billions of years through outer space. "Rosetta and the Philae lander should answer two of the most important questions in science: where did Earth's
 

SpaceShipTwo Manufacturer May Face Setback After Crash in California

 
‎05 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎08:58:15 AMGo to full article
Washington DC (RIA Novosti) Nov 05, 2014
The crash of the Virgin Galactic suborbital spaceplane SpaceShipTwo in Califonia will be a setback to the company, retired space policy director at George Washington University John Logsdon told RIA Novosti on Friday. "It's certainly setback, because Virgin Galactic was the most out in front and highest profile company in the industry and said it was beginning to offer commercial flights,"
 

Eye-catching space technology restoring sight

 
‎05 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎08:58:15 AMGo to full article
Paris (ESA) Nov 05, 2014
Laser surgery to correct eyesight is common practice, but did you know that technology developed for use in space is now commonly used to track the patient's eye and precisely direct the laser scalpel? If you look at a fixed point while tilting or shaking your head, your eyes automatically hold steady, allowing you to see clearly even while moving around. This neat trick of nature is a ref
 

Five years in space: one satellite, three missions

 
‎05 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎08:58:15 AMGo to full article
Paris (ESA) Nov 05, 2014
ESA's Proba-2 celebrates five years in orbit today. From technology demonstrator to solar observatory and now space weather platform, the mission has provided triple value to European scientists. The second PRoject for OnBoard Autonomy mission was launched in 2009 as part of ESA's programme for proving new technology in space. Orbiting at about 725 km, this minisatellite - smaller th
 

Canadian astronaut's 'Space Oddity' video back on YouTube

 
‎05 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎08:58:15 AMGo to full article
Ottawa (AFP) Nov 04, 2014
The first music video recorded in space - a cover of David Bowie's "Space Oddity" by Canadian astronaut Chris Hadfield - is back after a public outcry over its removal from YouTube. Hadfield, who made the video in zero gravity during a five-month mission last year to the International Space Station, said on his website it is being made available online for free for two years. It had or
 

NASA Lining up ICESat-2's Laser-catching Telescope

 
‎05 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎08:58:15 AMGo to full article
Greenbelt MD (SPX) Nov 05, 2014
To catch individual laser photons that have travelled more than 600 miles from a satellite to Earth and back, the satellite's telescope needs to be perfectly positioned. Last week, engineers and technicians at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, fitted the mirrored telescope of the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) into its place. It's the latest m
 

Five years of soil moisture, ocean salinity and beyond

 
‎05 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎08:58:15 AMGo to full article
Paris (ESA) Nov 05, 2014
ESA's SMOS satellite has clocked up more than one billion kilometers orbiting Earth to improve our understanding of our planet's water cycle. Marking its fifth birthday, all the data collected over land and ocean have been drawn together to show how moisture in the soil and salinity in the ocean change over the year. The Earth Explorer SMOS mission was launched on 2 November 2009 from Ples
 

NASA Program Enhances Climate Resilience at Agency Facilities

 
‎05 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎08:58:15 AMGo to full article
Washington DC (SPX) Nov 05, 2014
A new study in the latest issue of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society provides an in-depth look at how NASA facilities have been affected by climate extremes and climate change in recent years and how the agency is preparing for the future. Using a blend of weather data, global and regional climate model outputs, and advances in the understanding of the climate system, the
 

Life Can Survive on Much Less Water Than You Might Think

 
‎05 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎08:58:15 AMGo to full article
Moffett Field CA (SPX) Nov 05, 2014
"Follow the water" has long been the mantra of our scientific search for alien life in the Solar System and beyond. We continue seeking conditions where water can remain liquid either on a world's surface or elsewhere within a planetary body. This approach makes a lot of sense. Life as we know it requires water for the complex chemistry that enables growth and reproduction. Where there is water,
 

Planetary Atmospheres a Key to Assessing Possibilities for Life

 
‎05 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎08:58:15 AMGo to full article
Moffett Field CA (SPX) Nov 05, 2014
A planetary atmosphere is a delicate thing. On Earth, we are familiar with the ozone hole - a tear in our upper atmosphere caused by human-created chemicals that thin away the ozone. Threats to an atmosphere, however, can also come from natural causes. If a big enough asteroid smacks into a planet, it can strip the atmosphere away. Radiation from a star can also make an atmosphere balloon,
 

To Agilkia... and beyond: Comet landing site is named

 
‎05 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎08:58:15 AMGo to full article
Paris (AFP) Nov 04, 2014
Will space historians one day say "Agilkia" with the same awe as they utter "Tranquility Base," where in 1969 Man first walked on the Moon? Agilkia - called after an island on the Nile - has been selected as the name of the site for the first landing on a comet, the European Space Agency (ESA) said on Tuesday. The historic event will take place on November 12, when ESA's Rosetta spacec
 

Fireball lit up the sky across Midwest and East Coast Monday night

 
‎05 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎08:58:15 AMGo to full article
Chicago (UPI) Nov 4, 2014
Dozens of skywatchers - including some armed with video cameras - reported seeing a bright fireball streak across the skyline on Monday evening. The American Meteor Society fielded more than 300 reports from across the Midwest and East Coast. Bill Cooke, head of NASA's Meteoroid Environments Office in Huntsville, Alabama, told ABC News their reports suggest two separate fireball event
 

Risk-taker Branson battles to protect Virgin brand

 
‎04 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎04:45:31 PMGo to full article
London (AFP) Nov 04, 2014
Richard Branson knows how to handle business setbacks, but he is now battling to protect the Virgin empire's image following the test flight crash of his flagship space tourism venture. The British entrepreneur is fighting to stop the fatal explosion that brought down Virgin Galactic's SpaceShipTwo charring his sprawling Virgin Group, which encompasses more than 400 companies in multiple sec
 

NTSB reveals spaceship crash timeline, fingers lever

 
‎04 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎04:45:31 PMGo to full article
Los Angeles (AFP) Nov 04, 2014
Investigators gave a precise timeline late Monday of the devastating Virgin Galactic spaceship crash, detailing exactly when a slowing mechanism was wrongly deployed, but said they could not determine who activated it. The co-pilot of the SpaceshipTwo died in the crash Friday over California's Mojave desert while the pilot survived the disaster, which has called into question Virgin chief R
 

China gears up for lunar mission after round-trip success

 
‎04 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎04:45:31 PMGo to full article
Beijing (XNA) Nov 04, 2014
The head of China's lunar probe program has called for a thorough analysis of data collected from the test lunar orbiter, which returned Saturday, to speed up work on Chang'e-5, the star of the 2017 lunar mission. With the test lunar orbiter landing early Saturday in north China after an eight-day flight, China joined the Soviet Union and the United States and became the third nation to re
 

Virgin boss hits out after safety warning claim

 
‎04 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎04:45:31 PMGo to full article
Los Angeles, United Kingdom (AFP) Nov 03, 2014
Questions about why the Virgin Galactic spaceship crashed switched focus Monday to a prematurely-deployed lever on the doomed flight, as Virgin's boss suggested it may "well be" the cause. But Branson also hit out against "hurtful" critics and "self-proclaimed experts" after a rocket scientist said that the company had ignored safety warnings ahead of the deadly crash of one of its spacecraf
 

China to build global quantum communication network in 2030

 
‎04 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎04:45:31 PMGo to full article
Hefei, China (XNA) Nov 04, 2014
China will build a global quantum communication network by 2030, said a leading Chinese quantum physicist on Sunday. "China's quantum information science and technology is developing very fast and China leads in some areas in this field," said Pan Jianwei, a Chinese quantum scientist and professor at the University of Science and Technology of China. The field of quantum communicatio

 

 
News About Time And Space
 
 

Disorder + disorder = more disorder?

 
‎07 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎03:32:16 AMGo to full article
Washington DC (SPX) Nov 05, 2014 - If you took the junk from the back of your closet and combined it with the dirty laundry already on your floor, you would have an even bigger mess. While this principle will likely always hold true for our bedrooms, it turns out that in certain situations, combining messes can actually reduce the disorder of the whole.

An international team of researchers from Slovenia and Iran has identified a set of conditions in which adding disorder to a system makes it more orderly. This behavior is known as antifragility, a concept introduced recently to describe similar phenomena in statistics, economics and social science.

In a paper published in The Journal of Chemical Physics, from AIP Publishing, the researchers found a counterintuitive interplay between two different types of disorder. One is thermodynamic disorder, or entropy. The other is the structural disorder-defects in an idealized system that can change its properties.

"One expects that different types of disorder just add to one another to one final mess at the end," said Ali Naji, the lead author of the paper and a researcher from the Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences in Tehran.

"But surprisingly, we find that in some cases, structural disorder can counteract the thermal disorder, making the system overall more ordered."

The exception that the researchers identified involved the interaction between the structural disorder of charged surfaces and the thermal disorder of Coulomb fluids-collections of mobile charged particles, either ions or larger molecules, that interact with each other.

They compared two different types of charged surfaces. In the orderly one, the charges were evenly distributed across the surface. In the messy one, positive and negative charges were spread randomly across the surface, though they maintained their positions once placed--a situation called "quenched disorder."

When the researchers put each of these surfaces in contact with a Coulomb fluid, they found that the ions in the Coulomb fluid were more strongly attracted to the disordered surface than to the ordered one. Surprisingly, when they then calculated the entropy of both systems, they found that the randomly charged system had lower entropy than the uniformly charged one-the addition of structural disorder opposed the effects of the Coulomb fluid's thermal disorder.

Unfortunately, the finding won't revolutionize our approach to cleaning anytime soon. "This only works for certain cases and under certain conditions," Naji said.

"We find out that the disordered charges have to interact strongly with the mobile charges in the Coulomb fluid in order to have this behavior." However, the researchers eventually hope to identify these systems in areas more directly applicable to human lives.

"One wonders in what other systems one could observe even more spectacular cases [of these systems] that would help us stave degradation, spontaneous disordering and aging of materials and instill robustness and resilience," said Rudolf Podgornik, a researcher from the Jozef Stefan Institute and University of Ljubljana, Slovenia who is the senior coauthor of this paper.

"Chaos is not necessarily bad for us if we know how to counteract it with a little properly applied disorder of our own."

"Asymmetric Coulomb fluids at randomly charge dielectric interfaces: Anti-fragility, overcharging, and charge inversion," is authored by Ali Naji, Malihe Ghodrat, Haniyeh Komaie-Moghaddam and Rudolf Podgornik. It was published in The Journal of Chemical Physics

 

 

The Peres conjecture is false!

 
‎07 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎03:32:16 AMGo to full article
Geneva, Switzerland (SPX) Nov 06, 2014 - Since 1999, the conjecture by Asher Peres, who invented quantum teleportation, has piqued the interest of many scientists in the field. According to his hypothesis, the weakest form of quantum entanglement can never result in the strongest manifestation of the phenomenon.

Today, a team of researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, and the Hungarian Academy of Sciences have proven this conjecture to be false, thus solving one of the most famous problems in quantum information physics. This news was published in Nature Communications review.

The physicist Asher Peres was very interested in the phenomenon of quantum entanglement and its different manifestations.

When two objects (take photons, for example) are entangled, they remain correlated regardless of the distance that separates them physically: whether they are separated by a millimetre or by several kilometres, any action done to one of them will immediately affect the other.

To check whether a system is entangled, scientists test for Bell's inequality. If the experimental measurements violate Bell's inequality, this means that the two objects are entangled, and that they correspond to two manifestations, in different locations, of the same single object. This is called nonlocality.

A Problematic Conjecture
In 1999, Asher Peres conjectured that the weakest form of an entanglement will never result in the strongest manifestation of the phenomenon. Explanations.

The violation of Bell's inequality represents the strongest form of entanglement. Two objects must indeed be strongly entangled in order for the system's experimental measurements to violate Bell's inequality. On the other hand, there also exist states with very weak entanglement.

Asher Peres wondered if it would be possible to distil several wealky entangled states in order to make a strongly entangled one, as one would distil alcohol. The theory showed that this was possible, but not in every case.

Certain states are in fact too weakly entangled to be distilled; this is the case of bound entanglement, which is considered the weakest form of the phenomenon. Peres therefore concluded that the weakest form of entanglement could never result in the strongest manifestation of the phenomenon, namely nonlocality.

Later, a number of scientists tried to prove his conjecture. Some succeeded in a few particular cases, but none were able to demonstrate the claim in general. Peres's conjecture was therefore considered to be one of the most famous unresolved problems in the field of quantum information physics... until now.

In fact, Nicolas Brunner, a physics Professor at UNIGE's Faculty of science, and Tamas Vertesi, a researcher at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, were able to disprove Peres's conjecture.

"To do so, we just had to find a counter-example," explains Professor Brunner. "Using numerical algorithms, we showed that a bound entanglement can violate Bell's inequality, without needing to be distilled."

 

 

Sussex physicists find simple solution for quantum technology challenge

 
‎07 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎03:32:16 AMGo to full article
Sussex, UK (SPX) Nov 03, 2014 - A solution to one of the key challenges in the development of quantum technologies has been proposed by University of Sussex physicists. In a paper published in Nature Communications, Professor Barry Garraway and colleagues show how to make a new type of flexibly designed microscopic trap for atoms.

Quantum technology devices, such as high-precision sensors and specialised superfast computers, often depend on harnessing the delicate interaction of atoms. However, the methods for trapping these tiny particles are hugely problematic because of the atoms' tendency to interact with their immediate environment.

The Sussex team, in collaboration with the University of Strathclyde, have now shown that a new technique involving electromagnetic induction could be the solution.

Professor Garraway says: "Our findings are significant because future quantum technologies will depend on confining and manipulating cold atoms. The design of those traps is normally extremely complex and involves stringent requirements for scale and smoothness. Our new approach is simple to implement using a chip-based technology, which is flexible and very robust.

"This is another step towards the development of new quantum technologies that will revolutionise many aspects of our lives. Already, our researchers in Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (AMO) are developing devices that could radically change how we measure time, navigate our world, sense our gravitational field and solve seemingly impossible mathematical problems."

'Inductively guided circuits for ultracold dressed atoms', German A. Sinuco-Leo'n, Kathryn A. Burrows, Aidan S. Arnold and Barry M. Garraway, is published in Nature Communications

 

 

Griffith scientists propose existence and interaction of parallel worlds

 
‎07 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎03:32:16 AMGo to full article
Nathan, Australia (SPX) Oct 31, 2014 - Griffith University academics are challenging the foundations of quantum science with a radical new theory based on the existence of, and interactions between, parallel universes.

In a paper published in the prestigious journal Physical Review X, Professor Howard Wiseman and Dr Michael Hall from Griffith's Centre for Quantum Dynamics, and Dr Dirk-Andre Deckert from the University of California, take interacting parallel worlds out of the realm of science fiction and into that of hard science.

The team proposes that parallel universes really exist, and that they interact. That is, rather than evolving independently, nearby worlds influence one another by a subtle force of repulsion. They show that such an interaction could explain everything that is bizarre about quantum mechanics

Quantum theory is needed to explain how the universe works at the microscopic scale, and is believed to apply to all matter. But it is notoriously difficult to fathom, exhibiting weird phenomena which seem to violate the laws of cause and effect.

As the eminent American theoretical physicist Richard Feynman once noted: "I think I can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanics."

However, the "Many-Interacting Worlds" approach developed at Griffith University provides a new and daring perspective on this baffling field.

"The idea of parallel universes in quantum mechanics has been around since 1957," says Professor Wiseman.

"In the well-known "Many-Worlds Interpretation", each universe branches into a bunch of new universes every time a quantum measurement is made. All possibilities are therefore realised - in some universes the dinosaur-killing asteroid missed Earth. In others, Australia was colonised by the Portuguese.

"But critics question the reality of these other universes, since they do not influence our universe at all. On this score, our "Many Interacting Worlds" approach is completely different, as its name implies."

Professor Wiseman and his colleagues propose that:

+ The universe we experience is just one of a gigantic number of worlds. Some are almost identical to ours while most are very different;

+ All of these worlds are equally real, exist continuously through time, and possess precisely defined properties;

+ All quantum phenomena arise from a universal force of repulsion between 'nearby' (i.e. similar) worlds which tends to make them more dissimilar.

Dr Hall says the "Many-Interacting Worlds" theory may even create the extraordinary possibility of testing for the existence of other worlds.

"The beauty of our approach is that if there is just one world our theory reduces to Newtonian mechanics, while if there is a gigantic number of worlds it reproduces quantum mechanics," he says.

"In between it predicts something new that is neither Newton's theory nor quantum theory.

"We also believe that, in providing a new mental picture of quantum effects, it will be useful in planning experiments to test and exploit quantum phenomena."

The ability to approximate quantum evolution using a finite number of worlds could have significant ramifications in molecular dynamics, which is important for understanding chemical reactions and the action of drugs.

Professor Bill Poirier, Distinguished Professor of Chemistry at Texas Tech University, has observed: "These are great ideas, not only conceptually, but also with regard to the new numerical breakthroughs they are almost certain to engender."

 

 

String field theory could be the foundation of quantum mechanics

 
‎07 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎03:32:16 AMGo to full article
Los Angeles CA (SPX) Nov 04, 2014 - Two USC researchers have proposed a link between string field theory and quantum mechanics that could open the door to using string field theory - or a broader version of it, called M-theory - as the basis of all physics.

"This could solve the mystery of where quantum mechanics comes from," said Itzhak Bars, USC Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences professor and lead author of the paper.

Bars collaborated with Dmitry Rychkov, his Ph.D. student at USC. The paper was published online on Oct. 27 by the journal Physics Letters.

Rather than use quantum mechanics to validate string field theory, the researchers worked backwards and used string field theory to try to validate quantum mechanics.

In their paper, which reformulated string field theory in a clearer language, Bars and Rychov showed that a set of fundamental quantum mechanical principles known as "commutation rules'' may be derived from the geometry of strings joining and splitting.

"Our argument can be presented in bare bones in a hugely simplified mathematical structure," Bars said. "The essential ingredient is the assumption that all matter is made up of strings and that the only possible interaction is joining/splitting as specified in their version of string field theory."

Physicists have long sought to unite quantum mechanics and general relativity, and to explain why both work in their respective domains. First proposed in the 1970s, string theory resolved inconsistencies of quantum gravity and suggested that the fundamental unit of matter was a tiny string, not a point, and that the only possible interactions of matter are strings either joining or splitting.

Four decades later, physicists are still trying to hash out the rules of string theory, which seem to demand some interesting starting conditions to work (like extra dimensions, which may explain why quarks and leptons have electric charge, color and "flavor" that distinguish them from one another).

At present, no single set of rules can be used to explain all of the physical interactions that occur in the observable universe.

On large scales, scientists use classical, Newtonian mechanics to describe how gravity holds the moon in its orbit or why the force of a jet engine propels a jet forward. Newtonian mechanics is intuitive and can often be observed with the naked eye.

On incredibly tiny scales, such as 100 million times smaller than an atom, scientists use relativistic quantum field theory to describe the interactions of subatomic particles and the forces that hold quarks and leptons together inside protons, neutrons, nuclei and atoms.

Quantum mechanics is often counterintuitive, allowing for particles to be in two places at once, but has been repeatedly validated from the atom to the quarks. It has become an invaluable and accurate framework for understanding the interactions of matter and energy at small distances.

Quantum mechanics is extremely successful as a model for how things work on small scales, but it contains a big mystery: the unexplained foundational quantum commutation rules that predict uncertainty in the position and momentum of every point in the universe.

"The commutation rules don't have an explanation from a more fundamental perspective, but have been experimentally verified down to the smallest distances probed by the most powerful accelerators. Clearly the rules are correct, but they beg for an explanation of their origins in some physical phenomena that are even deeper," Bars said.

The difficulty lies in the fact that there's no experimental data on the topic - testing things on such a small scale is currently beyond a scientist's technological ability.

 

 

Two photons strongly coupled by glass fiber

 
‎07 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎03:32:16 AMGo to full article
Vienna, Austria (SPX) Nov 04, 2014 - Two photons in free space do not interact. Light waves can pass through each other without having any influence on each other at all. For many applications in quantum technology, however, interaction between photons is crucial.

It is an indispensable prerequisite for transmitting information through tap-proof quantum channels or for building optical logic gates.

At the Vienna University of Technology (TU Wien), scientists have now succeeded in establishing a strong interaction between two single photons. This opens up completely new possibilities for quantum optics. The experimental results have now been published in the journal "Nature Photonics".

Interaction Usually Requires Bright Light
"In order to have light interact with light, people have been using so-called nonlinear media", says Professor Arno Rauschenbeutel (Institute for Atomic and Subatomic Physics, TU Wien).

The light has an effect on the properties of these materials, and the material in turn influences the light, which leads to an indirect coupling between photons. This technique, however, can only be used at strong light intensities, when countless photons are involved.

At TU Wien, a system was built which creates a strong interaction between only two photons. This interaction is so strong that the phase of the photons is changed by 180 degrees.

"It is like a pendulum, which should actually swing to the left, but due to coupling with a second pendulum, it swings to the right. There cannot be a more extreme change in the pendulum's oscillation", says Rauschenbeutel. "We achieve the strongest possible interaction with the smallest possible intensity of light."

A Photon in a Bottle
To make this possible, the photon has to be sent on an unlikely journey. An ultra-thin glass fibre is coupled to a tiny bottle-like light resonator so that light can partly enter the resonator, move in circles and return to the glass fibre. This detour through the resonator leads to the phase of the photon being inverted: a wave crest appears where a wave trough would have been expected.

When, however, a single rubidium atom is coupled to the resonator, the system is changed dramatically. Due to the presence of the atom, hardly any light enters the resonator anymore and the oscillation phase of the photon cannot be inverted.

Two Photons at Once
Things change when two photons arrive at the same time. "The atom is an absorber which can be saturated", says Arno Rauschenbeutel.

"A photon is absorbed by the atom for a short while and then released into the resonator. During that time, it cannot absorb any other photons. If two photons arrive simultaneously, only one can be absorbed, while the other can still be phase shifted."

From a quantum mechanical point of view, there is no difference between the two photons. They can only be understood as a joint wave-like object, which is located in the resonator and in the glass fibre at the same time. The photons are indistinguishable.

No one can tell which of them is being absorbed and which one has passed. When both hit the resonator at the same time, both of them together experience a phase shift by 180 degrees. Two interacting photons arriving simultaneously show a completely different behaviour than single photons.

The Building Blocks of Future Quantum Data-Highways?

"That way, a maximally entangled photon state can be created", says Arno Rauschenbeutel. "Such states are required in all fields of quantum optics - in quantum teleportation, or for light-transistors which could potentially be used for quantum computing."

A big advantage of the new system is that it is based on glass fibre technology, which is already being used for online communication anyway. Nano glass fibres and bottle-resonators are perfectly compatible with existing technologies. The targeted creation of a strong photon-photon-interaction is an important step towards a worldwide quantum information network for the tap-proof transmission of data.

 

 

Ultracold disappearing act

 
‎07 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎03:32:16 AMGo to full article
Houston TX (SPX) Nov 04, 2014 - A disappearing act was the last thing Rice University physicist Randy Hulet expected to see in his ultracold atomic experiments, but that is what he and his students produced by colliding pairs of Bose Einstein condensates (BECs) that were prepared in special states called solitons.

Hulet's team documented the strange phenomenon in a new study published online this week in the journal Nature Physics.

BECs are clumps of a few hundred thousand lithium atoms that are cooled to within one-millionth of a degree above absolute zero, a temperature so cold that the atoms march in lockstep and act as a single "matter wave." Solitons are waves that do not diminish, flatten out or change shape as they move through space. To form solitons, Hulet's team coaxed the BECs into a configuration where the attractive forces between lithium atoms perfectly balance the quantum pressure that tends to spread them out..

The researchers expected to observe the property that a pair of colliding solitons would pass though one another without slowing down or changing shape. However, they found that in certain collisions, the solitons approached one another, maintained a minimum gap between themselves, and then appeared to bounce away from the collision.

"You never see them together," said Hulet, Rice's Fayez Sarofim Professor of Physics and Astronomy. "There is always a hole, a gap that they must jump over. They pass through one another, but they never occupy the same space while they're doing that.

"It happens because of 'wave packet' interference," he said. "Think of them as waves that can have a positive or negative amplitude. One of the solitons is positive and the other is negative, so they cancel one another. The probability of them being in the spot where they meet is zero. They pass through that spot, but you never see them there."

Hulet's team specializes in experiments on BECs and other ultracold matter. They use lasers to both trap and cool clouds of lithium gas to temperatures that are so cold that the matter's behavior is dictated by fundamental forces of nature that aren't observable at higher temperatures.

To create solitons, Hulet and postdoctoral research associate Jason Nguyen, the study's lead author, balanced the forces of attraction and repulsion in the BECs.

"First we make a Bose Einstein condensate and then we use a sheet of light to split the condensate in half and push the two halves apart," Nguyen said. "We hold them apart and turn each of them into solitons, and then we take the sheet away and let them fall back toward one another and collide."

Cameras captured images of the tiny BECs throughout the process. In the images, two solitons oscillate back and forth like pendulums swinging in opposite directions. Hulet's team, which also included graduate student De Luo and former postdoctoral researcher Paul Dyke, documented thousands of head-on collisions between soliton pairs and noticed a strange gap in some, but not all, of the experiments.

"One of the defining features of a soliton is that they are supposed to be able to pass through one another and emerge unfazed," Hulet said.

"Some of the collisions are consistent with that," he said, pointing to images of two solitons oscillating, meeting, emerging and continuing on their cycle. "These two solitons certainly appear to have passed through one another.

"In another set of collisions, there's always this gap between them," he said, pointing to a different set of images. "It doesn't look like they ever close that gap to be able to pass through. In fact, it looks like they've come together and then bounced off one another."

Hulet said the idea of solitons bouncing away from one another had been around for about 40 years, based on longstanding observations of optical solitons in fiber-optic cables. In this scenario, the gap is viewed as evidence of a force that is pushing the solitons apart.

To probe more deeply, Hulet's team needed to conduct a new set of experiments that focused on the one defining feature of a soliton that they couldn't control -- its phase.

The first soliton was observed in a canal in Scotland in 1834 and they've since been observed in magnets, fiber-optic cables, atomic nuclei and even swimming pools. Hulet's team was among the first to report BEC "matter-wave bright solitons" in 2002.

Like a wave in the ocean or a light beam in a fiber-optic cable, solitons have a characteristic amplitude, frequency and phase. Hulet's team could control the amplitude but they could not control the soliton's phase.

"All waves oscillate in time," Hulet said. "They have a frequency at which their amplitude becomes positive, negative, positive, negative and so on. The rate of that oscillation, how often it switches, defines their frequency. Where they begin that cycle is something we refer to as 'the phase.' It's a kind of starting point."

The wave's phase is an angle that can vary between zero and 360 degrees. Waves that are "in-phase" have the same starting point, and waves that are "out-of-phase" are 180 degrees off, meaning that one begins at its peak while the other starts at its trough.

"When we saw the initial data we said, 'This doesn't make sense, because solitons are always supposed to pass through one another and these look like they're bouncing instead,'" Hulet said. "So we began thinking about how we could tag one of the solitons to make it distinct so that we could follow its trajectory in time and see what it did."

The team found a way to "tag" one soliton by making it larger than the other. In the next round of experiments, Nguyen and Luo captured pictures of collisions between different-sized solitons.

"We did that experiment over and over for many different relative phases, and we looked for two cases, one where the relative phase was zero, or in-phase, and another where it was 180 degrees, or completely out-of-phase," Hulet said.

For the in-phase case, the team saw the two solitons pass through one another and emerge, just as predicted by theory.

"In the out-of-phase case, the one with the gap, where it appeared that they had been bouncing off of each other, we still saw the gap but we also saw the larger soliton emerge unfazed on the other side of the gap. In other words, it jumped through the gap!"

Hulet said the experiment confirmed the theory that solitons do pass through one another, even in cases where they are out-of-phase and only appear to bounce away from each other.

Many of the events that Hulet's team measures occur in one-thousandth of a second or less. To confirm that the "disappearing act" wasn't causing a miniscule interaction between the soliton pairs -- an interaction that might cause them to slowly dissipate over time -- Hulet's team tracked one of the experiments for almost a full second.

The data showed the solitons oscillating back and fourth, winking in and out of view each time they crossed, without any measurable effect.

"This is great example of a case where experiments on ultracold matter can yield a fundamental new insight," Hulet said. "The phase-dependent effects had been seen in optical experiments, but there has been a misunderstanding about the interpretation of those observations."

 

 

Plasma: Casimir and Yukawa mesons

 
‎07 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎03:32:16 AMGo to full article
Canberra, Australia (SPX) Nov 04, 2014 - A new theoretical work establishes a long-sought-after connection between nuclear particles and electromagnetic theories. Its findings suggest that there is an equivalence between generalised Casimir forces and those that are referred to as weak nuclear interactions between protons and neutrons.

The Casimir forces are due to the quantisation of electromagnetic fluctuations in vacuum, while the weak nuclear interactions are mediated by subatomic scale particles, originally called mesons by Yukawa. These findings by Barry Ninham from the Australian National University, in Canberra, and European colleagues, have now been published in EPJ D.

The study focuses on two perfectly reflecting model plates, separated by any non-zero density plasma, i.e. a charged gas which may contain electrons only or electrons and positrons.

The authors extended the formulae for the Casimir force between these ideal metal plates to include interactions across a plasma and temperature, explicitly.

The ensuing formulae show that long-range electromagnetic fluctuations are qualitatively different from those across a vacuum. They also shed some new light on measurements of Casimir forces between metal plates, an issue that has long puzzled physicists.

In addition, the authors revisited and reworked the formulae for the original Casimir forces across a vacuum to correctly account for the temperature.

At extremely small distances - also tantamount to very high temperatures - the formulae are equivalent to the effect of the force of an electron-positron plasma in the space between the interacting ideal plates, according to the study.

In this context, the mesons of the nuclear interaction theory become plasmons, which are collective excitations in the sea of electron-positron pairs in the vacuum.

If the correspondence proves correct, the implications are profound for broad areas ranging from physical chemistry to nanotechnology.

Ninham, B.W. et al. (2014). Casimir Forces in a Plasma: Possible Connections to Yukawa Potentials. European Physical Journal D. DOI 10.1140/epjd/e2014-50484-8

 

 

Syracuse Physicists Closer to Understanding Balance of Matter, Antimatter

 
‎07 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎03:32:16 AMGo to full article
Syracuse NY (SPX) Oct 29, 2014 - Distinguished Professor Sheldon Stone and his colleagues recently announced their findings at a workshop at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. Titled "Implications of LHCb Measurements and Their Future Prospects," the workshop enabled him and other members of the Large Hadron Collider beauty (LHCb) Collaboration to share recent data results.

The LHCb Collaboration is a multinational experiment that seeks to explore what happened after the Big Bang, causing matter to survive and flourish in the Universe.

LHCb is an international experiment, based at CERN, involving more than 800 scientists and engineers from all over the world. At CERN, Stone heads up a team of 15 physicists from Syracuse.

"Many international experiments are interested in the Bs meson because it oscillates between a matter particle and an antimatter particle," says Stone, who heads up Syracuse's High-Energy Physics Group.

"Understanding its properties may shed light on charge-parity [CP] violation, which refers to the balance of matter and antimatter in the universe and is one of the biggest challenges of particle physics."

Scientists believe that, 14 billion years ago, energy coalesced to form equal quantities of matter and antimatter. As the universe cooled and expanded, its composition changed. Antimatter all but disappeared after the Big Bang (approximately 3.8 billion years ago), leaving behind matter to create everything from stars and galaxies to life on Earth.

"Something must have happened to cause extra CP violation and, thus, form the universe as we know it," Stone says.

He thinks part of the answer lies in the Bs meson, which contains an antiquark and a strange quark and is bound together by a strong interaction. (A quark is a hard, point-like object found inside a proton and neutron that forms the nucleus of an atom.)

Enter CERN, a European research organization that operates the world's largest particle physics laboratory.

In Geneva, Stone and his research team-which includes Liming Zhang, a former Syracuse research associate who is now a professor at Tsinghua University in Beijing, China-have studied two landmark experiments that took place at Fermilab, a high-energy physics laboratory near Chicago, in 2009.

The experiments involved the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and the DZero (D0), four-story detectors that were part of Fermilab's now-defunct Tevatron, then one of the world's highest-energy particle accelerators.

"Results from D0 and CDF showed that the matter-antimatter oscillations of the Bs meson deviated from the standard model of physics, but the uncertainties of their results were too high to make any solid conclusions," Stone says.

He and Zhang had no choice but to devise a technique allowing for more precise measurements of Bs mesons. Their new result shows that the difference in oscillations between the Bs and anti-Bs meson is just as the standard model has predicted.

Stone says the new measurement dramatically restricts the realms where new physics could be hiding, forcing physicists to expand their searches into other areas. "Everyone knows there is new physics. We just need to perform more sensitive analyses to sniff it out," he adds.

 

 

Can the wave function of an electron be divided and trapped?

 
‎07 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎03:32:16 AMGo to full article
Providence RI (SPX) Oct 29, 2014 - New research by physicists from Brown University puts the profound strangeness of quantum mechanics in a nutshell - or, more accurately, in a helium bubble.

Experiments led by Humphrey Maris, professor of physics at Brown, suggest that the quantum state of an electron - the electron's wave function - can be shattered into pieces and those pieces can be trapped in tiny bubbles of liquid helium. To be clear, the researchers are not saying that the electron can be broken apart. Electrons are elementary particles, indivisible and unbreakable. But what the researchers are saying is in some ways more bizarre.

In quantum mechanics, particles do not have a distinct position in space. Instead, they exist as a wave function, a probability distribution that includes all the possible locations where a particle might be found. Maris and his colleagues are suggesting that parts of that distribution can be separated and cordoned off from each other.

"We are trapping the chance of finding the electron, not pieces of the electron," Maris said.

"It's a little like a lottery. When lottery tickets are sold, everyone who buys a ticket gets a piece of paper. So all these people are holding a chance and you can consider that the chances are spread all over the place. But there is only one prize - one electron - and where that prize will go is determined later."

If Maris's interpretation of his experimental findings is correct, it raises profound questions about the measurement process in quantum mechanics. In the traditional formulation of quantum mechanics, when a particle is measured - meaning it is found to be in one particular location - the wave function is said to collapse.

"The experiments we have performed indicate that the mere interaction of an electron with some larger physical system, such as a bath of liquid helium, does not constitute a measurement," Maris said. "The question then is: What does?"

And the fact that the wave function can be split into two or more bubbles is strange as well. If a detector finds the electron in one bubble, what happens to the other bubble?

"It really raises all kinds of interesting questions," Maris said.

The new research is published in the Journal of Low Temperature Physics.

Electron bubbles
Scientists have wondered for years about the strange behavior of electrons in liquid helium cooled to near absolute zero. When an electron enters the liquid, it repels surrounding helium atoms, forming a bubble in the liquid about 3.6 nanometers across. The size of the bubble is determined by the pressure of the electron pushing against the surface tension of the helium. The strangeness, however, arises in experiments dating back to the 1960s looking at how the bubbles move.

In the experiments, a pulse of electrons enters the top of a helium-filled tube, and a detector registers the electric charge delivered when electron bubbles reach the bottom of the tube. Because the bubbles have a well-defined size, they should all experience the same amount of drag as they move, and should therefore arrive at the detector at the same time. But that's not what happens.

Experiments have detected unidentified objects that reach the detector before the normal electron bubbles. Over the years, scientists have cataloged 14 distinct objects of different sizes, all of which seem to move faster than an electron bubble would be expected to move.

"They've been a mystery ever since they were first detected," Maris said. "Nobody has a good explanation."

Several possibilities have been proposed. The unknown objects could be impurities in the helium-charged particles knocked free from the walls of the container. Another possibility is that the objects could be helium ions - helium atoms that have picked up one or more extra electrons, which produce a negative charge at the detector.

But Maris and his colleagues, including Nobel laureate and Brown physicist Leon Cooper, believe a new set of experiments puts those explanations to rest.

New experiments
The researchers performed a series of electron bubble mobility experiments with much greater sensitivity than previous efforts. They were able to detect all 14 of the objects from previous work, plus four additional objects that appeared frequently over the course of the experiments. But in addition to those 18 objects that showed up frequently, the study revealed countless additional objects that appeared more rarely.

In effect, Maris says, it appears there aren't just 18 objects, but an effectively infinite number of them, with a "continuous distribution of sizes" up to the size of the normal electron bubble.

"That puts a dagger in the idea that these are impurities or helium ions," Maris said. "It would be hard to imagine that there would be that many impurities, or that many previously unknown helium ions."

The only way the researchers can think of to explain the results is through "fission" of the wave function. In certain situations, the researchers surmise, electron wave functions break apart upon entering the liquid, and pieces of the wave function are caught in separate bubbles. Because the bubbles contain less than the full wave function, they're smaller than normal electron bubbles and therefore move faster.

In their new paper, Maris and his team lay out a mechanism by which fission could happen that is supported by quantum theory and is in good agreement with the experimental results. The mechanism involves a concept in quantum mechanics known as reflection above the barrier.

In the case of electrons and helium, it works like this: When an electron hits the surface of the liquid helium, there's some chance that it will cross into the liquid, and some chance that it will bounce off and carom away. In quantum mechanics, those possibilities are expressed as part of the wave function crossing the barrier, and part of it being reflected.

Perhaps the small electron bubbles are formed by the portion of the wave function that goes through the surface. The size of the bubble depends on how much wave function goes through, which would explain the continuous distribution of small electron bubble sizes detected in the experiments.

The idea that part of the wave function is reflected at a barrier is standard quantum mechanics, Cooper said. "I don't think anyone would argue with that," he said. "The non-standard part is that the piece of the wave function that goes through can have a physical effect by influencing the size of the bubble. That is what is radically new here."

Further, the researchers propose what happens after the wave function enters the liquid. It's a bit like putting a droplet of oil in a puddle of water. "Sometime your drop of oil forms one bubble," Maris said, "Sometimes it forms two, sometimes 100."

There are elements within quantum theory that suggest a tendency for the wave function to break up into specific sizes. By Maris's calculations, the specific sizes one might expect to see correspond roughly to the 18 frequently occurring electron bubble sizes.

"We think this offers the best explanation for what we see in the experiments," Maris said. We've got this body of data that goes back 40 years. The experiments are not wrong; they've been done by multiple people. We have a tradition called Occam's razor, where we try to come up with the simplest explanation. This, so far as we can tell, is it."

But it does raise some interesting questions that sit on the border of science and philosophy. For example, it's necessary to assume that the helium does not make a measurement of the actual position of the electron. If it did, any bubble found not to contain the electron would, in theory, simply disappear. And that, Maris says, points to one of the deepest mysteries of quantum theory.

"No one is sure what actually constitutes a measurement. Perhaps physicists can agree that someone with a Ph.D. wearing a white coat sitting in the lab of a famous university can make measurements. But what about somebody who really isn't sure what they are doing? Is consciousness required? We don't really know."

Authors on the paper in addition to Maris were former Brown postdoctoral researcher Wanchun Wei, graduate student Zhuolin Xie, and George Seidel, professor emeritus of physics.

 

 

New evidence for an exotic, predicted superconducting state

 
‎04 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎04:04:22 PMGo to full article
Providence RI (SPX) Oct 28, 2014 - Superconductors and magnetic fields do not usually get along. But a research team led by a Brown University physicist has produced new evidence for an exotic superconducting state, first predicted a half-century ago, that can indeed arise when a superconductor is exposed to a strong magnetic field.

"It took 50 years to show that this phenomenon indeed happens," said Vesna Mitrovic, associate professor of physics at Brown University, who led the work. "We have identified the microscopic nature of this exotic quantum state of matter."

The research is published in Nature Physics.

Superconductivity - the ability to conduct electric current without resistance - depends on the formation of electron twosomes known as Cooper pairs (named for Leon Cooper, a Brown University physicist who shared the Nobel Prize for identifying the phenomenon).

In a normal conductor, electrons rattle around in the structure of the material, which creates resistance. But Cooper pairs move in concert in a way that keeps them from rattling around, enabling them to travel without resistance.

Magnetic fields are the enemy of Cooper pairs. In order to form a pair, electrons must be opposites in a property that physicists refer to as spin. Normally, a superconducting material has a roughly equal number of electrons with each spin, so nearly all electrons have a dance partner. But strong magnetic fields can flip "spin-down" electrons to "spin-up", making the spin population in the material unequal.

"The question is what happens when we have more electrons with one spin than the other," Mitrovic said.

"What happens with the ones that don't have pairs? Can we actually form superconducting states that way, and what would that state look like?"

In 1964, physicists predicted that superconductivity could indeed persist in certain kinds of materials amid a magnetic field. The prediction was that the unpaired electrons would gather together in discrete bands or stripes across the superconducting material.

Those bands would conduct normally, while the rest of the material would be superconducting. This modulated superconductive state came to be known as the FFLO phase, named for theorists Peter Fulde, Richard Ferrell, Anatoly Larkin, and Yuri Ovchinniko, who predicted its existence.

To investigate the phenomenon, Mitrovic and her team used an organic superconductor with the catchy name ?-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu(NCS)2. The material consists of ultra-thin sheets stacked on top of each other and is exactly the kind of material predicted to exhibit the FFLO state.

After applying an intense magnetic field to the material, Mitrovic and her collaborators from the French National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Grenoble probed its properties using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).

What they found were regions across the material where unpaired, spin-up electrons had congregated. These "polarized" electrons behave, "like little particles constrained in a box," Mitrovic said, and they form what are known as Andreev bound states.

"What is remarkable about these bound states is that they enable transport of supercurrents through non-superconducting regions," Mitrovic said. "Thus, the current can travel without resistance throughout the entire material in this special superconducting state."

Experimentalists have been trying for years to provide solid evidence that the FFLO state exists, but to little avail. Mitrovic and her colleagues took some counterintuitive measures to arrive at their findings. Specifically, they probed their material at a much higher temperature than might be expected for quantum experiments.

"Normally to observe quantum states you want to be as cold as possible, to limit thermal motion," Mitrovic said. "But by raising the temperature we increased the energy window of our NMR probe to detect the states we were looking for. That was a breakthrough."

This new understanding of what happens when electron spin populations become unequal could have implications beyond superconductivity, according to Mitrovic.

It might help astrophysicists to understand pulsars - densely packed neutron stars believed to harbor both superconductivity and strong magnetic fields. It could also be relevant to the field of spintronics, devices that operate based on electron spin rather than charge, made of layered ferromagnetic-superconducting structures.

"This really goes beyond the problem of superconductivity," Mitrovic said. "It has implications for explaining many other things in the universe, such as behavior of dense quarks, particles that make up atomic nuclei."

 

 

Experiment provides route to macroscopic high-mass superpositions

 
‎04 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎04:04:22 PMGo to full article
Southampton, UK (SPX) Oct 27, 2014 - University of Southampton scientists have designed a new experiment to test the foundations of quantum mechanics at the large scale.

Standard quantum theory places no limit on particle size and current experiments use larger and larger particles, which exhibit wave-like behaviour. However, at these masses experiments begin to probe extensions to standard quantum mechanics, which describe the apparent quantum-to-classical transition.

Now, Southampton researchers, with colleagues from the University of Duisburg-Essen in Germany, have designed a new type of experiment which will advance the current state-of-the-art experiments by a factor of 100, from 10,000 atomic mass units (amu), roughly equal to the mass of a single proton, to one million amu.

The research is published in Nature Communications.

They propose an interferometer with a levitated, optically cooled, and then free-falling silicon nanoparticle in the mass range of one million amu, delocalised over more than 150 nm. The scheme employs the near-field Talbot effect with a single standing-wave laser pulse as a phase grating.

Individual particles are dropped and diffracted by a standing UV laser wave, such that interference of neighbouring diffraction orders produces a resonant near-field fringe pattern. In order to record the interferogram, the nanospheres are deposited on a glass slide and their arrival positions are recorded via optical microscopy.

The researchers argue that the choice of silicon, due to its specific material characteristics, will produce reliable high mass interference, unaffected by environmental decoherence, in a setup that can be produced with current technology.

Dr James Bateman, from Physics and Astronomy at the University of Southampton and co-author of the study, says: "This work is a natural extension of atomic physics, which has revolutionised many technologies. Our analysis, which accounts for all relevant sources of decoherence, indicates that this is a viable route towards macroscopic high-mass superpositions.

"This current work is not technology-driven, but it does ask difficult questions of relevance to future quantum devices. Placing larger and larger mechanical systems into quantum states has implications for what can be done with the technology. We hope that our work will lead to a better understanding of the fundamental physics and hence to more advanced quantum devices."

As time-of-flight, and therefore mass, is limited by the free-fall distance under earth's gravity, a space-based mission is planned by the Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO) consortium with which the researchers are involved; this could bring a further factor of 100 in mass.

 

 

Lucky Star Escapes Black Hole With Minor Damage

 
‎31 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎04:41:37 AMGo to full article
Columbus OH (SPX) Oct 27, 2014 - Astronomers have gotten the closest look yet at what happens when a black hole takes a bite out of a star-and the star lives to tell the tale.

We may think of black holes as swallowing entire stars-or any other object that wanders too close to their immense gravity. But sometimes, a star that is almost captured by a black hole escapes with only a portion of its mass torn off. Such was the case for a star some 650 million light years away toward Ursa Major, the constellation that contains the "Big Dipper," where a supermassive black hole tore off a chunk of material from a star that got away.

Astronomers at The Ohio State University couldn't see the star itself with their All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN, pronounced "assassin"). But they did see the light that flared as the black hole "ate" the material that it managed to capture.

In a paper to appear in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society , they report that the star and the black hole are located in a galaxy outside of the newly dubbed Laniakea Supercluster, of which our home Milky Way Galaxy is a part.

If Laniakea is our galactic "city," this event-called a " tidal disruption event ," or TDE- happened in our larger metropolitan area. Still, it's the closest TDE ever spotted, and it gives astronomers the best chance yet of learning more about how supermassive black holes form and grow.

ASAS-SN has so far spotted more than 60 bright and nearby supernovae; one of the program's other goals is to try to determine how often TDEs happen in the nearby universe. But study co-author Krzysztof Stanek, professor of astronomy at Ohio State, and his collaborators were surprised to find one in January 2014, just a few months after ASAS-SN's four telescopes in Hawaii began gathering data.

To Stanek, the fact that the survey made such a rare find so quickly suggests that TDEs may be more common than astronomers realized.

"We found one right out of the gate," he said. "Based on that, we are encouraged that the rate may be higher than one TDE every year or two.

"You could say we just got lucky, but when you get lucky time after time, you're doing something right," he continued. "Maybe the rate truly is higher than people expected, which would mean that we should be seeing more of these in the near future."

Doctoral student Thomas Holoien led the observations and analysis of the TDE when it first flared to brightness on January 25, 2014. It appeared near the back left "foot" of Ursa Major, between the stars Alula Borealis and Praecipua. He labeled the object ASASSN-14ae, and at first he thought it was a supernova, albeit an unusual-looking one. But its brightness pattern ultimately indicated something else, and he and his colleagues determined that they were seeing a TDE.

They did follow-up ground observations via the 1-meter robotic telescope at McDonald Observatory, the 2-meter robotic Liverpool Telescope, the 3.5-meter Apache Point Observatory telescope, and the double 8.4-meter Large Binocular Telescope .

Then they added space-based observations from the Swift UltraViolet and Optical Telescope . Finally, they used Sloan Digital Sky Survey archival data to place the object within its host galaxy, called SDSS J110840.11.

Based on the amount of energy released during the event, the researchers calculated that a relatively small amount of stellar material-only one thousandth of the mass of our sun, an amount approximately equal to the mass of the planet Jupiter-had been sucked into the black hole. Holoien summarized the paper in an online video.

Study co-author Christopher Kochanek, professor of astronomy at Ohio State and the Ohio Eminent Scholar in Observational Cosmology, was among the first experts to model TDEs 25 years ago, as a graduate student. Only a handful have been spotted since then, however, and nobody knows for sure how important a contribution TDEs might make to the growth of black holes in the universe.

Conventional wisdom suggests that black holes don't consume whole stars all that often-maybe only once every 10,000-100,000 years, Kochanek said. But how often black holes tear off just a piece of a passing star is an open question.

"The issue is that the chances of a black hole partly shredding a star may not be all that different from the chances of it completely shredding a star. We just don't know," Kochanek said.

ASAS-SN may help provide the answer. The survey is hosted by the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network , with four 15-centimeter telescopes at Haleakala Observatory in Hawaii and two in Cerro Tololo, Chile. These are relatively low-powered telescopes, Stanek explained, but they are ideal for taking detailed studies of the entire nearby universe at low cost.

The survey is enjoying some success in its first year of operation; about half of all bright, nearby supernovae discovered since May 2014 were discovered by ASAS-SN . It's a promising beginning to a project meant to enhance our understanding of the stars, galaxies, and galactic superclusters close to home.

"There's only one local neighborhood," Stanek said. "It's like getting the local newspaper. You want to know what your neighbors did."

 

 

New window on the early universe

 
‎31 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎04:41:37 AMGo to full article
Bonn, Germany (SPX) Oct 24, 2014 - Using two world-class supercomputers, the researchers were able to demonstrate the effectiveness of their approach by simulating the formation of a massive galaxy at the dawn of cosmic time. The ALMA radio telescope - which stands at an elevation of 5,000 meters in the Atacama Desert of Chile, one of the driest places on earth - was then used to forge observations of the galaxy, showing how their method improves upon previous efforts.

It is extremely difficult to gather information about galaxies at the edge of the Universe: the signals from these heavenly bodies "dilute" in the course of their billion-year journey through space toward earth, making them difficult observational targets.

Estimating how much molecular hydrogen is present in these galaxies is particularly challenging: the molecule emits almost no radiation. Nevertheless, Astrophysicists are keen to map the abundance of this element: molecular hydrogen is the fundamental building block for new stars; the more of it contained within a particular galaxy, the more stars that galaxy can form.

The carbon trick
Currently, astrophysicists make use of a trick to determine the abundance of molecular hydrogen in a galaxy: they first measure the amount of carbon monoxide - which emits far more light than molecular hydrogen - and then "convert" the carbon monoxide signal to an abundance of molecular hydrogen using a complex procedure. This method, however, is imprecise and prone to error.

"We were able to show that the radiation of neutral carbon is much better suited to observe very distant galaxies", says Dr. Padelis Papadopoulos from the University of Cardiff.

"The measured values allow for a very precise estimation of how much molecular hydrogen is present." Unfortunately, the radiation from neutral carbon is almost entirely absorbed by water vapor in the earth's atmosphere, which acts similar to a pair of dark sunglasses when observing the carbon signal.

However, a new radio telescope in the Chilean Atacama Desert, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (or ALMA), is designed with these limitations in mind. There, at an elevation of 5,000 meters, the conditions are so extremely dry that the telescope can easily pick up the interstellar radiation from carbon atoms.

Looking back 12 billion years into the past
"According to our calculations, ALMA can detect these distant galaxies, the signals of which have been traveling to us for more than 12 billion years", says Matteo Tomassetti, doctoral student of the University of Bonn and lead author of the publication.

"Even more importantly: for the first time we are able to precisely determine how much molecular hydrogen is present in these galaxies."

The University of Bonn astrophysicist Professor Cristiano Porciani speaks of a new window to the early universe. "Our theoretical work will have an important impact on observational astronomy", he emphasizes. "It will help us to better understand the mysterious origin of the galaxies."

To carry out their work, the team was awarded resources on two world-class super-computers -- HeCTOR at the University of Edinburgh and Abel at the University of Oslo -- which were made available through a European computing cooperative known as PRACE (Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe).

The study was supported and funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) within the framework of the special research area 956, as well as by the International Max Planck Research School.

M. Tomassetti, C. Porciani, E. Romano-Diaz, A. D. Ludlow, P. P. Papadopoulos: Atomic carbon as a powerful tracer of molecular gas in the high-redshift Universe: perspectives for ALMA; MNRAS Letters; doi: 10/193/mnras/slu137

 

 

POLARBEAR detects B-modes in the cosmic microwave background

 
‎31 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎04:41:37 AMGo to full article
San Diego CA (SPX) Oct 23, 2014 - Cosmologists have made the most sensitive and precise measurements yet of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. The report, published in the Astrophysical Journal, marks an early success for POLARBEAR, a collaboration of more than 70 scientists using a telescope high in Chile's Atacama desert designed to capture the universe's oldest light.

"It's a really important milestone," said Kam Arnold, the corresponding author of the report who has been working on the instrument for a decade.

"We're in a new regime of more powerful, precision cosmology." Arnold is a research scientist at UC San Diego's Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences and part of the cosmology group led by physics professor Brian Keating.

POLARBEAR measures remnant radiation from the Big Bang, which has cooled and stretched with the expansion of the universe to microwave lengths. This cosmic microwave background, the CMB, acts as an enormous backlight, illuminating the large-scale structure of the universe and carrying an imprint of cosmic history.

Arnold and many others have developed sensitive instruments called bolometers to measure this light. Arrayed in the telescope, the bolometers record the direction of the light's electrical field from multiple points in the sky.

"It's a map of all these little directions that the light's electric field is pointing," Arnold explained.

POLARBEAR has now mapped these angles with resolution on a scale of about 3 arcminutes, just one-tenth the diameter of the full moon..

The team found telling twists called B-modes in the patterns of polarization, signs that this cosmic backlight has been warped by intervening structures in the universe, including such mysteries as dark matter, composed of substance that remains unknown, and the famously aloof particles called neutrinos, which elude capture making them difficult to study.

This initial report, the result of the first season of observation, maps B-modes in three small patches of sky.

Dust in our own galaxy also emits polarized radiation like the CMB and has influenced other measurements. But these patches are relatively clean, Arnold says. And variations in the CMB polarization due to dust occur on so broad a scale that they do not significantly influence the finer resolution B-modes in this report.

"We are confident that these B-modes are cosmological rather than galactic in origin," Arnold said.

Observations continue, and the data stream will ultimately be fed by additional telescopes comprising the Simons Array. Together they will map wider swaths of the sky, making fundamental discoveries possible.

"POLARBEAR is a real tour de force. With a relatively small, but strong, UC-led team we have surpassed the next-nearest competitors by an order of magnitude in sensitivity. We have paved the way towards solving the deepest mysteries in the quest to understand matter and energy at the beginning of time," said Brian Keating.

POLARBEAR is a collaboration of scientists from many institutions including experiment founder, Adrian Lee, professor of physics at UC Berkeley.

 

 

Big Black Holes Can Block New Stars

 
‎31 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎04:41:37 AMGo to full article
Baltimore MD (SPX) Oct 23, 2014 - Massive black holes spewing out radio-frequency-emitting particles at near-light speed can block formation of new stars in aging galaxies, a study has found. The research provides crucial new evidence that it is these jets of "radio-frequency feedback" streaming from mature galaxies' central black holes that prevent hot free gas from cooling and collapsing into baby stars.

"When you look into the past history of the universe, you see these galaxies building stars," said Tobias Marriage, assistant professor of physics and astronomy at Johns Hopkins and co-lead author of the study.

"At some point, they stop forming stars and the question is: Why? Basically, these active black holes give a reason for why stars stop forming in the universe."

The findings have been published in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. They were made possible by adaptation of a well-known research technique for use in solving a new problem.

Johns Hopkins postdoctoral fellow Megan Gralla found that the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect signature - typically used to study large galaxy clusters - can also be used to learn a great deal about smaller formations. The SZ effect occurs when high-energy electrons in hot gas interact with faint light in the cosmic microwave background, light left over from earliest times when the universe was a thousand times hotter and a billion times denser than today.

"The SZ is usually used to study clusters of hundreds of galaxies but the galaxies we're looking for are much smaller and have just a companion or two," Gralla said.

"What we're doing is asking a different question than what has been previously asked," Gralla said. "We're using a technique that's been around for some time and that researchers have been very successful with, and we're using it to answer a totally different question in a totally different subfield of astronomy."

"I was stunned when I saw this paper, because I've never thought that detecting the SZ effect from active galactic nuclei was possible," said Eiichiro Komatsu, director of the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics in Germany and an expert in the field who was not involved in the research.

"I was wrong. ... It makes those of us who work on the SZ effect from galaxy clusters feel old; research on the SZ effect has entered a new era."

In space, hot gas drawn into a galaxy can cool and condense, forming stars. Some gas also funnels down into the galaxy's black hole, which grows together with the stellar population. This cycle can repeat continuously; more gas is pulled in to cool and condense, more stars begin to shine and the central black hole grows more massive.

But in nearly all mature galaxies - the big galaxies called "elliptical" because of their shape - that gas doesn't cool any more. "If gas is kept hot, it can't collapse," Marriage said. When that happens: No new stars.

Marriage, Gralla and their collaborators found that the elliptical galaxies with radio-frequency feedback - relativistic radio-frequency-emitting particles shooting from the massive central black holes at their center at close to the speed of light - all contain hot gas and a dearth of infant stars. That provides crucial evidence for their hypothesis that this radio-frequency feedback is the "off switch" for star-making in mature galaxies.

Marriage said, however, that it is still not known just why black holes in mature elliptical galaxies begin to emit radio-frequency feedback. "The exact mechanism behind this is not fully understood and there are still debates," he said.

Komatsu said that the new Johns Hopkins-led study, combined with others detecting SZ signals from more ordinary galaxies, "pose new challenges to the theory of galaxy formation, as there were hardly any data which told us how much hot gas there is around galaxies."

Marriage and Gralla were joined as co-lead authors by Devin Crichton, a Johns Hopkins graduate student in physics and astronomy, and Wenli Mo, a physics and astronomy undergraduate student who earned her degree in May 2011. She is now studying at the University of Florida on a National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship.

The team used data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, a 6-meter telescope in northern Chile; the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Very Large Array in New Mexico and its Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia; the Parkes Observatory in Australia; and the European Space Agency's Herschel Space Observatory.

 

 

Cooling with molecules

 
‎31 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎04:41:37 AMGo to full article
Bielefeld, Germany (SPX) Oct 24, 2014 - An international team of scientists have become the first ever researchers to successfully reach temperatures below minus 272.15 degrees Celsius - only just above absolute zero - using magnetic molecules.

The physicists and chemists presented their new investigation in the scientific journal Nature Communications. It was developed by six scientists from Bielefeld University, the University of Manchester (Great Britain), and the Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain).

Scientists usually express temperatures on the Kelvin scale. Minus 272.15 degrees Celsius is precisely one Kelvin. This is why the researchers call their development 'sub-Kelvin cooling'. Cold temperatures are generally obtained by using an effect that anyone can observe with an aerosol can.

If you press the button on the can for long enough, you will notice that whatever is being sprayed out gets colder. A normal refrigerator also uses this effect. In both cases, a gaseous refrigerant cools down as it expands due to the drop from high to low pressure.

But how can we reach really low temperatures in the low Kelvin range? Nowadays, this is done by using helium as the refrigerant. However, helium is becoming increasingly scarce.

'The very rare helium-3 isotope with which one can also get down to a few tenths of a Kelvin is now practically unaffordable,' says Professor Dr. Jurgen Schnack, co-author of the study and physicist at Bielefeld University. Magnetic substances can also be used as refrigerants. These particularly include paramagnetic salts.

Their cooling has nothing to do with pressure. They cool down when the external magnetic field generated by, for example, an electromagnet decreases. When the electric current is reduced in the coil, the magnetic field also decreases and the paramagnetic salts cool down.

In their article, the scientists from Zaragoza, Manchester, and Bielefeld report on successful sub-Kelvin cooling with an alternative medium - magnetic molecules.

These are molecules containing magnetic ions such as gadolinium. 'Nowadays, these can be produced in large quantities so that they are readily available compared to helium,' says Professor Eric J. L. McInnes PhD, the head of the research team at the University of Manchester where the molecules studied were synthesized.

The magnetic molecule with which he and his colleagues have been experimenting is called 'Gd7' in short. Very appropriately, it has the geometric structure of a snowflake. As the computer simulations by Professor Schnack's research team show, it starts of by cooling down in a decreasing magnetic field; then it warms up again before finally cooling down once more as the magnetic field disappears.

'We were really excited when the theoretical computations were able to explain this complex behaviour in detail,' says the Professor of Theoretical Physics. '

Compared to paramagnetic salts in which the temperature drops continuously as the magnetic field declines, molecules such as Gd7 behave in more complex ways. They can be used to get down to really low temperatures without switching off the magnetic field completely,' reports Dr. Marco Evangelisti whose team at the Universidad de Zaragoza carried out the low-temperature experiments.

You have to know that such simulations work with gigantic matrices, that is, special number fields. We are happy to have a powerful supercomputer in Bielefeld for this purpose,' says Schnack. The researcher reports that the computer system is not just invaluable for the project on magnetic cooling but also for the DFG Research Unit 945 'Nanomagnets', funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG).

Jurgen Schnack has been studying magnetic molecules for 15 years. These often, but not always, have an organic backbone composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in which special metal ions such as iron ions are bound together. Each of these iron particles functions as a tiny magnetic needle with neighbouring particles working together like a larger magnet.

The goal of research on magnetic molecules is to design them so that they exactly fit various applications: as transparent magnets, as nano data memoires, or even as cooling molecules.

Joseph W. Sharples, David Collison, Eric J. L. McInnes, Jurgen Schnack, Elias Palacios, Marco Evangelisti: Quantum signatures of a molecular nanomagnet in direct magnetocaloric measurements. Nature Communications

 

 

POLARBEAR seeks cosmic answers in microwave polarization

 
‎31 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎04:41:37 AMGo to full article
Berkeley CA (SPX) Oct 23, 2014 - An international team of physicists has measured a subtle characteristic in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation that will allow them to map the large-scale structure of the universe, determine the masses of neutrinos and perhaps uncover some of the mysteries of dark matter and dark energy.

In a paper published this week in the Astrophysical Journal, the POLARBEAR consortium, led by University of California, Berkeley, physicist Adrian Lee, describes the first successful isolation of a "B-mode" produced by gravitational lensing in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation.

Polarization is the orientation of the microwave's electric field, which can be twisted into a "B-mode" pattern as the light passes through the gravitational fields of massive objects, such as clusters of galaxies.

"We made the first demonstration that you can isolate a pure gravitational lensing B-mode on the sky," said Lee, POLARBEAR principal investigator, UC Berkeley professor of physics and faculty scientist at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). "Also, we have shown you can measure the basic signal that will enable very sensitive searches for neutrino mass and the evolution of dark energy."

The POLARBEAR team, which uses microwave detectors mounted on the Huan Tran Telescope in Chile's Atacama Desert, consists of more than 70 researchers from around the world.

They submitted their new paper to the journal one week before the surprising March 17 announcement by a rival group, the BICEP2 (Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization) experiment, that they had found the holy grail of microwave background research.

That team reported finding the signature of cosmic inflation - a rapid ballooning of the universe when it was a fraction of a fraction of a second old - in the polarization pattern of the microwave background radiation.

Subsequent observations, such as those announced last month by the Planck satellite, have since thrown cold water on the BICEP2 results, suggesting that they did not detect what they claimed to detect.

While POLARBEAR may eventually confirm or refute the BICEP2 results, so far it has focused on interpreting the polarization pattern of the microwave background to map the distribution of matter back in time to the universe's inflationary period, 380,000 years after the Big Bang.

POLARBEAR's approach, which is different from that used by BICEP2, may allow the group to determine when dark energy, the mysterious force accelerating the expansion of the universe, began to dominate and overwhelm gravity, which throughout most of cosmic history slowed the expansion.

Early universe was a high-energy laboratory
The POLARBEAR team is measuring the polarization of light that dates from an era 380,000 years after the Big Bang, "when the early universe was a high-energy laboratory, a lot hotter and denser than now, with an energy density a trillion times higher than what they are producing at the CERN collider," Lee said.

The Large Hadron Collider near Geneva is trying to simulate that early era by slamming together beams of protons to create a hot dense soup from which researchers hope new particles will emerge, such as the newly discovered Higgs boson. But observing the early universe, as the POLARBEAR group does may also yield evidence that new physics and new particles exist at ultra-high energies.

The team uses these primordial photon's light to probe large-scale gravitational structures in the universe, such as clusters or walls of galaxies that have grown from what initially were tiny fluctuations in the density of the universe.

These structures bend the trajectories of microwave background photons through gravitational lensing, distorting its polarization and converting E-modes into B-modes. POLARBEAR images the lensing-generated B-modes to shed light on the intervening universe.

BICEP2 and POLARBEAR both were designed to measure the pattern of B-mode polarization, that is, the angle of polarization at each point in an area of sky. BICEP2, based at the South Pole, can only measure variation over large angular scales, which is where theorists predicted they would find the signature of gravitational waves created during the universe's infancy. G

ravitational waves could only have been created by a brief and very rapid expansion, or inflation, of the universe 10-34 seconds after the Big Bang.

In contrast, POLARBEAR was designed to measure the polarization at both large and small angular scales. Since first taking data in 2012, the team focused on small angular scales, and their new paper shows that they can measure B-mode polarization and use it to reconstruct the total mass lying along the line of sight of each photon.

Last kiss
The polarization of the microwave background records minute density differences from that early era. After the Big Bang, 13.8 billion years ago, the universe was so hot and dense that light bounced endlessly from one particle to another, scattering from and ionizing any atoms that formed.

Only when the universe was 380,000 years old was it sufficiently cool to allow an electron and a proton to form a stable hydrogen atom without being immediately broken apart. Suddenly, all the light particles - called photons - were set free.

"The photons go from bouncing around like balls in a pinball machine to flying straight and basically allowing us to take a picture of the universe from only 380,000 years after the Big Bang," Lee said. "The universe was a lot simpler then: mainly hydrogen plasma and dark matter."

These photons, which, today, have cooled to a mere 3 degrees Kelvin above absolute zero, still retain information about their last interaction with matter. Specifically, the flow of matter due to density fluctuations where the photon last scattered gave that photon a certain polarization (called E-mode polarization).

"Think of it like this: the photons are bouncing off the electrons, and there is basically a last kiss, they touch the last electron and then they go for 14 billion years until they get to telescopes on the ground," Lee said. "That last kiss is polarizing."

While E-mode polarization contains some information, B-mode polarization contains more, because photons carry this only if matter around the last point of scattering was unevenly or asymmetrically distributed.

Specifically, the gravitational waves created during inflation squeezed space and imparted a B-mode polarization that BICEP2 may have detected. POLARBEAR, on the other hand, has detected B-modes that are produced by distortion of the E-modes by gravitational lensing.

While many scientists suspected that the gravitational-wave B-mode polarization might be too faint to detect easily, the BICEP2 team, led by astronomers at Harvard University's Center for Astrophysics, reported a large signal that fit predictions of gravitational waves. Current doubt about this result centers on whether or not they took into account the emission of dust from the galaxy that would alter the polarization pattern.

In addition, BICEP2's ability to measure inflation at smaller angular scales is contaminated by the gravitational lensing B-mode signal.

"POLARBEAR's strong suit is that it also has high angular resolution where we can image this lensing and subtract it out of the inflationary signal to clean it up," Lee said.

Two other papers describing related results from POLARBEAR were accepted in the spring by Physical Review Letters.

One of those papers is about correlating E-mode polarization with B-mode polarization, which "is the most sensitive channel to cosmology; that's how you can measure neutrino masses, how you might look for early behavior of dark energy," Lee said.

 

 

Seeking 'absolute zero', copper cube gets chillingly close

 
‎29 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎07:30:38 PMGo to full article
Rome (AFP) Oct 21, 2014 - An Italian lab has cooled a cubic metre of copper to within a tiny fraction of "absolute zero", setting a world record, the National Nuclear Physics Institute said Tuesday.

"The cooled copper mass... was the coldest cubic meter in the universe for over 15 days," the INFN said on its website.

"It is the first experiment ever to cool a mass and a volume of this size to a temperature this close to absolute zero (0 Kelvin)," it said.

The cubic meter, or 35 cubic feet, of copper weighing 400 kilogrammes (880 pounds) was brought to a temperature of six milliKelvins or minus 273.144 Celsius (minus 459.66 Fahrenheit).

Absolute zero -- considered the lowest possible temperature -- is -273.15 C or zero on the Kelvin scale, named after 19th-century Irish engineer and physicist William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, credited with establishing the correct value of the temperature.

The feat was accomplished at the Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE), a particle physics laboratory in central Italy gathering scientists from Italy, the United States, China, Spain and France.

The copper was enclosed in a container called a cryostat , "the only one of its kind in the world, not only in terms of its dimensions, extreme temperatures and cooling power, but also for the... very low levels of radioactivity," INFN said.

"No experiment on Earth has ever cooled a similar mass or volume to temperatures this low; similar conditions are also not expected to arise in Nature," it said.

CUORE is located at Italy's Gran Sasso mountain, the highest peak in the Apennines some 120 kilometres (70 miles) from Rome.

 

 

1980s aircraft helps quantum technology take flight

 
‎27 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:09:57 PMGo to full article
Sydney, Australia (SPX) Oct 21, 2014 - What does a 1980s experimental aircraft have to do with state-of-the art quantum technology? Lots, as shown by new research from the Quantum Control Laboratory at the University of Sydney, and published in Nature Physics.

Over several years a team of scientists has taken inspiration from aerospace research and development programs to make unusually shaped experimental aircraft fly.

"It always amazed me that the X-29, an American airplane that was designed like a dart being thrown backwards, was able to fly. Achieving this, in 1984, came through major advances in a discipline called control engineering that were able to stabilise the airplane," said Associate Professor Michael Biercuk, from the School of Physics and director of the Quantum Control Laboratory.

"We became interested in how similar concepts could play a role in bringing quantum technologies to reality. If control engineering can turn an unstable dart into a high-performance fighter jet, it's pretty amazing to think what it can do for next-generation quantum technologies."

The result is that the researchers have been able to turn fragile quantum systems into useful pieces of advanced technology useful for everything from computation and communications to building specialised sensors for industry. The trick was figuring out how to protect them from their environments using control theory.

The big challenge facing quantum technologies is they are very sensitive to random 'noise' in surrounding environments, said Associate Professor Biercuk.

"Noise, in this case, is a bit like local electromagnetic weather experienced by a piece of hardware. Imagine your television only worked when the weather was perfectly sunny. Something needs to be done to make that technology more functional, even on the grey days."

The new field of quantum control engineering provided a path forward. The first step was trying to pinpoint how noise would affect a quantum system while it performed some task, which is fiendishly difficult.

"We were able to calculate how much damage is done to a quantum state using so-called transfer functions tailored to specific operations - for instance, manipulating a quantum system as a part of a computation," according to co-lead author, PhD student Harrison Ball.

The next issue was to show that the theoretical techniques actually worked.

"One of our main achievements has been to show - using experiments on real quantum systems in the form of atoms in a special trap - that the transfer functions were excellent at predicting how quantum systems changed in response to environmental noise."

With new capabilities to predict the effect of the environment on quantum systems, it became possible to protect them by applying the right control techniques.

"Similar to the control system that kept an aerodynamically unstable plane aloft, experiments revealed that our new techniques were able to keep the atoms performing useful computations," said Biercuk. "Turn off the new control techniques and they would crash and burn."

"Achieving this is a grand challenge for the entire community," according to Ball, and it is especially important as researchers move from proof-of-principle demonstrations to trying to develop real quantum technologies.

Working to make those technologies a reality is the aim of Associate Professor Biercuk and his colleagues in the ARC Centre for Engineered Quantum Systems.

"This may sound like futuristic fantasy, but the navigation system in your car works because of an early quantum technology - atomic clocks," according to Biercuk.

"We know that exotic phenomena like quantum systems being in two places at once, and even the ability to teleport quantum states, are real and accessible in the laboratory. Now we are trying to actually put them to work, and that means figuring out how to coax quantum systems into doing new and useful things."

 

 

Rare 'baby rattle' molecules reveal new quantum properties of H2O and H2

 
‎27 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:09:57 PMGo to full article
Paris (SPX) Oct 15, 2014 - The experiments were carried out on endofullerenes, molecules of C60 into which smaller molecules of Hydrogen (H2) had been inserted. The results, published in Physical Review Letters, represent the first known example of a quantum selection rule found in a molecule.

Similar techniques were also used by the same team to uncover an exciting new symmetry-breaking interaction of water molecules with C60 cages, published last month in Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics.

The use of fullerenes such as C60 to trap smaller molecules, using cutting-edge molecular surgery techniques, was pioneered over the last decade. A complex series of chemical reactions is needed to open an orifice in the C60 cage which allows the smaller molecule to be inserted at high pressures to form a sealed structure that resembles a baby's rattle.

The resulting complex provides a 'nanolaboratory' environment ideal for examining the trapped molecule via spectroscopic techniques.

By exposing the samples to a continuous beam of neutrons, the energy levels of the molecular complex can be accurately determined. The use of neutrons is ideal for experiments of this kind owing to their fundamental magnetic spin, which allows them to drive a wider range of transitions than would be possible with photons.

The neutron scattering experiments conducted with a mixture of ortho and para hydrogen showed that a number of forbidden transitions from the para-H2 ground state were systematically absent from the resultant spectra.

This confirmed the existence of a molecular selection rule, a discovery which runs counter to the widely held view that such molecular compounds are not subject to any selection rules.

Prof Mark Johnson, who contributed to the experimental work undertaken at ILL, said "This is a fantastic example of an international collaboration to study a unique sample of which only tens of milligrams exist worldwide.

The Japanese first learned how to open up C60, and the collaboration with researchers in New York gave an improved understanding of these quantum systems. Tiny quantities of the sample were exposed to the world's highest neutron flux at the ILL in experiments that would not have been possible some years ago."

He added "The experiments provide a way of isolating hydrogen in what is effectively a spherical environment, whose symmetry makes the theoretical calculations a great deal easier. Such well-defined systems, which have not existed to date, provide an excellent test bed for quantum theory."

Similar experiments conducted with forms of H2O known as ortho- and para- water also revealed a previously undiscovered splitting of the ortho-H2O ground state, pointing to a symmetry-breaking interaction which arises when the molecules are isolated in the C60 cages.

Whether the molecular confinement or a set of longer range interactions is responsible for the observed symmetry breaking is a topic of considerable interest and one worthy of further research.

 

 

Probing the past

 
‎24 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎05:46:10 AMGo to full article
Washington DC (SPX) Oct 20, 2014 - Using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope astronomers have made what may be the most reliable distance measurement yet of an object that existed in the Universe's formative years. The galaxy is one of the faintest, smallest and most distant galaxies ever seen and measuring its distance with this accuracy was possible due only to the incredibly detailed mapping of how giant galaxy clusters warp the space-time around them.

Astronomers often use gravitational lensing - the magnifying power of galaxy clusters - to find distant galaxies [1]. However, when it comes to the very early Universe, distance measurements can become inaccurate as the objects are so dim [2]. Now, a team of astronomers has combined a traditional method of distance measurement with some clever reverse engineering to vastly improve accuracy.

The lensing power of the mammoth galaxy cluster Abell 2744, nicknamed Pandora's Cluster, focussed the light from the faraway galaxy that was being studied, making it appear about ten times brighter than it otherwise would have been, and allowing astronomers to see it. The lensing also produced three magnified images of the same galaxy.

"We were able to spot the galaxy's multiple gravitationally-lensed images using near-infrared and visible-light photos from Hubble," explained study leader Adi Zitrin of the California Institute of Technology, USA. "But at first we didn't know how far away it was from Earth."

By analysing the colour of the faraway galaxy the team could estimate its distance. Since the light left the galaxy the Universe's expansion has stretched its wavelength, shifting its colour towards red in the spectrum, and this colour change can be measured and quantified as a redshift.

For this object, the team estimated a redshift of 10, almost a record-breaking value and meaning the light from this object has taken over 13 billion years to reach us. But this is hard to do for faint and distant objects, and the method has some limitations, so can be inaccurate, misleading, and in some unfortunate cases, completely wrong.

To be sure their measurement could be trusted the team took advantage of the multiple images produced by the lens. The angular separations of the three magnified images of the galaxy in the Hubble photos were measured.

The astronomers had already characterised the cluster and the distorting effects of the gravitational lens so well that they could tell how far the remote galaxy was behind the lensing cluster. They did this by comparing these angular separations to those of the less distant galaxies lensed by the cluster - the greater the angular separation, the further away the object is.

"This is a demonstration of the power of relativistic optics," remarked team member Tom Broadhurst, from the University of Basque Country and Basque Foundation for Science, Spain.

"We now understand these lenses so well that we can use them to measure distances. It is the equivalent of using your camera to focus on an object, and then reading its distance from you on the lens focus ring. Being able to do this kind of reverse engineering at these distances is a huge accomplishment for us."

By combining the traditional analysis of the colours with the reverse engineering of the lens, the team calculated a robust distance measurement. "We are about 95 percent confident that this object is at redshift 10," said Zitrin. "The lensing takes away any doubt that this might be a heavily reddened, nearby object masquerading as a far more distant object."

The galaxy appears as a tiny blob only a small fraction of the size of the Milky Way, but it offers a peek back to a time when the Universe was only about 500 million years old, roughly three percent of its current age of 13.8 billion years. Although about ten other galaxy candidates have been uncovered at this early era, astronomers say this newly found object is significantly smaller and fainter than most of those other remote objects.

"This object is a unique example of what is suspected to be an abundant, underlying population of small and faint galaxies at about 500 million years after the Big Bang," explained Zitrin. "The discovery is telling us that galaxies as faint as this one exist, and we should continue looking for them and even fainter objects so that we can understand how galaxies, and the Universe, have evolved over time."

Analysis of the galaxy shows that it measures 850 light-years across and is estimated to have a mass of 40 million times that of the Sun. Tiny when compared to our own galaxy, which spans more than 100 000 light-years. It was also discovered that the galaxy is forming about one star every three years [3].

Although this is only one third of the star formation rate in the Milky Way it is actually pretty prolific for a galaxy this size and shows that the galaxy is rapidly evolving and efficiently forming stars.

"Galaxies such as this one are probably small clumps of matter that are starting to form stars and shine, but they don't have a defined structure yet. Therefore, it's possible that we only see one bright clump magnified due to the lensing, and this is one possible reason why it is smaller than typical field galaxies of that time," Zitrin explained.

Astronomers have long debated whether such early galaxies could have provided enough radiation to warm the hydrogen that cooled soon after the Big Bang. This process, called reionisation, made the Universe transparent to light, allowing astronomers to look far back in time without running into a fog of cold hydrogen [4].

"We tend to assume that galaxies ionised the Universe with their ultraviolet light. But we do not see enough galaxies or light that could do that," Zitrin explained. "So we need to look at fainter and fainter galaxies, and the Frontier Fields and galaxy cluster lensing can help us achieve this goal" [5].

The team's results appeared in the online edition of Astrophysical Journal Letters on 4 September 2014.

Notes
[1] Galaxy clusters are so massive that their gravity deflects light passing through them, distorting the images of the distant objects behind them and sometimes magnifying and brightening them in a phenomenon called gravitational lensing.

[2] Ideally, astronomers use spectroscopy to determine an object's distance. The further away a galaxy, the more its light has been stretched by the Universe's expansion and we can precisely measure this effect, called the redshift, spectroscopically. But objects found at this early epoch (including this gravitationally lensed galaxy) are too dim for astronomers to use spectroscopy. For these fainter objects, astronomers have to rely on a less accurate method that estimates their distance based on their colours.

[3] The actual number of stars produced by this galaxy may be more or less than one every three years; this figure really means that the mass of the stars it produces per year on average is the same as a third of the mass of the Sun.

[4] Reionisation is thought to have occurred 200 million to one billion years after the birth of the Universe.

[5] This galaxy was detected as part of the Frontier Fields programme, an ambitious three-year effort that teams Hubble, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and the Chandra X-ray Observatory with massive galaxy clusters to help astronomers probe the early Universe.

 

 

New light on the 'split peak' of alcohols

 
‎24 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎05:46:10 AMGo to full article
Washington DC (SPX) Oct 17, 2014 - For scientists probing the electronic structure of materials using a relatively new technique called resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering (RIXS) in the last few years, a persistent question has been how to account for "split peak" spectra seen in some hydrogen-bonded materials.

In RIXS, low-energy X-rays from synchrotron or X-ray free-electron laser light sources scatter off molecules within the studied material. If those molecules include light elements, such as the -OH group in alcohols, the complex spectra RIXS produces are difficult to interpret. Controversy has surrounded the split peak structures.

The prevailing interpretation has been that spectra revealed some twin aspect of the materials -- a split signal related to two separate structures within the molecules. But now a team of researchers in Germany has performed an investigation of several types of liquid alcohols with RIXS and brought new perspective to this long-lasting debate.

In the journal Structural Dynamics, from AIP Publishing and the American Crystallographic Association (ACA), they show that the split peaks are tied to dynamic motions produced in response to the scattering X-rays themselves -- an observation that helps resolve the intricacies of RIXS spectra, extending the utility of the technique for investigating the molecular structure and dynamics of many complex materials.

"We found that the split peak structure in the RIXS spectra of liquid alcohols originates predominantly from nuclear dynamics during the RIXS process," said Simon Schreck, a researcher with the Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin and with the University of Potsdam in Germany, who led the research as part of his doctoral work under supervision of Professor Alexander Fohlisch.

"We significantly improved the understanding of RIXS spectra from complex liquid systems, alcohols in particular," said Schreck. In addition, he said, the approach he and his colleagues worked out "can be readily applied to other systems where nuclear dynamics during the RIXS process have a big influence."

Split Peaks Revisited
In previous studies of liquid alcohols with RIXS, where the dominant peak was typically split into two sub-peaks, their origins were controversial and either assigned to the presence of two different structural motifs in the liquid -- such as rings and chains, ultrafast nuclear dynamics or the molecular electronic structure.

However, by investigating several straight-chain molecules containing an alcohol group, and by shifting the wavelength of the X-rays they used, Schreck and his colleagues solved the mystery.

They were able to compare the spectra produced when dynamic nuclear motions during the X-ray scattering process occur (as is typically the case in RIXS) to situations where these dynamics were minimized. This allowed them to produce "dynamic-suppressed spectra," which approximated the molecule's unexcited electronic state.

Doing so, they found that the scattering-suppressed spectra did not contain split peaks at all. This suggested that the dual spikes found in normal spectra originates from RIXS-induced nuclear dynamics in the O-H bond instead of from the presence of multiple structural motifs. Distinct structural motifs would leave their own signatures on both spectra.

"We found no evidence that this split peak structure is the signature of two distinct structural motifs (hydrogen bonded rings and chains) in the liquid alcohols, as it has been suggested previously for methanol," Schreck said.

"Dynamics of the OH group and the electronic structure of liquid alcohols," is authored by Simon Schreck, Annette Pietzsch, Kristjan Kunnus, Brian Kennedy, Wilson Quevedo, Piter S. Miedema, Philippe Wernet and Alexander Fohlisch. It appears in the journal Structural Dynamics on October 14, 2014 (DOI: 10.1063/1.4897981).

 

 

Getting sharp images from dull detectors

 
‎24 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎05:46:10 AMGo to full article
College Park MD (SPX) Oct 14, 2014 - Observing the quantum behavior of light is a big part of Alan Migdall's research at the Joint Quantum Institute. Many of his experiments depend on observing light in the form of photons---the particle complement of light waves---and sometimes only one photon at a time, using "smart" detectors that can count the number of individual photons in a pulse.

Furthermore, to observe quantum effects, it is normally necessary to use a beam of coherent light, light for which knowing the phase or intensity for one part of the beam allows you to know things about distant parts of the same beam.

In a new experiment, however, Migdall and his JQI colleagues perform an experiment using incoherent light, where the light is a jumble of waves. And they use what Migdall calls "stupid" detectors that, when counting the number of photons in a light pulse, can really only count up to zero, as anything more than zero befuddles these detectors and is considered as number that is known only to be more than zero.

Basically the surprising result is this: using incoherent light (with a wavelength of 800 nm) sent through a double-slit baffle, the JQI scientists obtain an interference pattern with fringes (the characteristic series of dark and light stripes denoting respectively destructive and constructive interference) as narrow as 30 nm.

This represents a new extreme in the degree to which sub-wavelength interference (to be defined below) has been pushed using thermal light and small-photon-number light detection. The physicists were surprised that they could so easily obtain such a sharp interference effect using standard light detectors.

The importance of achieving sub-wavelength imaging is underscored by the awarding of the 2014 Nobel Prize for chemistry to scientists who had done just that.

The results of Migdall's new work appear in the journal Applied Physics Letters. Achieving this kind of sharp interference pattern could be valuable for performing a variety of high-precision physics and astronomy measurements.

Beating The Diffraction Limit
When they pass through a hole or past a material edge, light waves will diffract---that is, a portion of the light will fan out as if the edge were a source of waves itself. This diffraction will limit the sharpness of any imaging performed by the light.

Indeed, this diffraction limitation is one of the traditional features of classical optical science dating back to the mid 19th century. What this principle says is that in using light with a certain wavelength (denoted by the Greek letter lambda) an object can in general be imaged with a spatial resolution roughly no finer than lambda.

One can improve resolution somewhat by increasing lens diameters, but unless you can switch to light of shorter lambda, you are stuck with the imaging resolution you've got. And since all the range of available wavelengths for visible light covers only a range of about 2, gaining much resolution by switching wavelengths requires exotic sources and optics.

The advent of quantum optics and the use of "nonclassical light" dodged the diffraction limit. It did this, in certain special circumstances, by considering light as consisting of particles and using the correlations between those particles

The JQI experiment starts out with a laser beam, but it purposely degrades the coherence of the light by sending it through a moving disk of ground glass. Thereafter the light waves propagating toward the measuring apparatus downstream originate from a number of places across the profile of the rough disk and are no longer coordinated in space and time (in contrast to laser light).

Experiments more than a decade ago, however, showed that "thermal" light (not unlike the light emitted haphazardly by an incandescent bulb) made this way, while incoherent over long times, is coherent for times shorter than some value easily controlled by the speed of the rotating ground glass disk.

Why should the JQI researchers use such thermal light if laser light is available? Because in many measurement environments (such as light coming from astronomical sources) coherent light is not available, and one would nevertheless like to make sharp imaging or interference patterns. And why use "stupid" detectors? Because they are cheaper to use.

The Experiment
In the case of coherent light, a coordinated train of waves approach a baffle with two openings (figure, top). The light waves passing through will interfere, creating a characteristic pattern as recorded by a detector, which is moved back and forth to record the arrival of light at various points.

The interference of coherent light yields a fixed pattern (right top in the figure). By contrast, incoherent light waves, when they pass through the slits will also interfere (lower left), but will not create a fixed pattern. Instead the pattern will change from moment to moment.

In the JQI experiment, the waves coming through the slits meets with a beam splitter, a thin layer of material that reflects roughly half the waves at an angle of 90 degrees and transmits the other half straight ahead.

Each of these two portions of light will strike movable detectors which scan across sideways. If the detectors could record a whole pattern, they would show that the pattern changes from moment to moment. Adding up all these patterns washes out the result. That is, no fringes would appear.

Things are different if you record not just the instantaneous interference pattern but rather a correlation between the two movable detectors. Correlation, in this case, means answering this question: when detector 1 observes light at a coordinate x1 how often does detector 2 observe light at a coordinate x2?

Plotting such a set of correlations between the two detectors does result in an interference-like pattern, but it is important to remember that this is not a pattern of light and dark regions.

Instead, it is a higher order effect that tells you the probability of finding light "here" given that you found it "over there." Because scientists want to record those correlations over a range of separations between "here" and "over there" that includes separations that pass through zero, there is a problem. If the two locations are too close, the detectors would run into each other.

To avoid that a simple partially silvered mirror, commonly called a beam splitter, effectively makes two copies of the light field. That way the two detectors can simultaneously sample the light from virtual positions that can be as close as desired and even pass through each other.

And what about the use of stupid detectors, those for which each "click" denoting an arrival tells us only that more than zero photons have arrived? However, here the time structure of the incoming light pulse becomes important in clarifying the measurement.

If we look at a short enough time, we can arrange that the probability of more than one photon is very low, so a click tells us that with good accuracy that indeed just one photon has arrived. But then if we design the light so that its limited coherence time is larger than the recovery time of our stupid detectors, it is possible for the detector to tell us that a specific number of photons were recorded, perhaps 3 or 10, not just the superfluous "more than zero" answer. "In this way, we get dumb detectors to act in a smart way," says Migdall.

This improved counting the number of photons, or equivalently the intensity of the light at various places at the measuring screen, ensures that the set of correlations between the two detectors does result in an interference-like pattern in those correlations. Not only that, but the fringes of this correlation pattern---the distance between the successive peaks---can be as small as 30 nm.

So while seeing an interference pattern could not be accomplished with dumb detectors, it could be accomplished by engineering the properties of the light source to accommodate the lack of ability of the detectors and then accumulating a pattern of correlation between two detectors.

Considering that the incoming light has a wavelength of 800 nm, the pattern is sharper by a factor of 20 or more from what you would expect if the diffraction limitation were at work. The fact that the light used is thermal in nature, and not coherent, makes the achievement more striking.

This correlation method is not the same as imaging an object. But the ease and the degree to which the conventional diffraction resolution limit could be surmounted will certainly encourage a look for specific applications that might take advantage of that remarkable feature.

"Direct measurement of sub-wavelength interference using thermal light and photon-number-resolved detection," Y. Zhai, F.E. Becerra, J. Fan, A. Migdall, Applied Physics Letters, 105, - (2014)

 

 

Failing was fun: Japan Nobel winner

 
‎24 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎05:46:10 AMGo to full article
Nagoya, Japan (AFP) Oct 10, 2014 - The hundreds of experimental failures that paved the road to winning the Nobel Prize for physics was fun, rather than frustration, one of this year's three Japanese-born laureates said Friday.

Hiroshi Amano, 54, sat next to Isamu Akasaki, 85, his one-time mentor-professor, when they met the press at Nagoya University in central Japan days after they were honoured alongside Shuji Nakamura for inventing the blue LED.

"I've never thought I wanted to quit in my research," Amano said. "I would always fail in experiments, which I did at least three times a day.

"I would go back to my apartment disappointed at night, but I would always get some new ideas in the morning. I would say it was fun rather than pain."

When he first succeeded "after failing more than a thousand times, I was speechless," he said.

The Nobel committee honoured the trio this week for their pioneering work on energy-efficient blue LED lights, which it said were a potent weapon against global warming and poverty.

Red and green diodes had been around for a long time, but devising a blue LED was the Holy Grail that would allow the cheap and efficient production of white light -- and achieving it took three long decades.

The breakthrough came in the 1990s when the three researchers coaxed bright blue beams from semiconductors.

LED lamps emit a bright light, last for tens of thousands of hours and use just a fraction of energy compared with the incandescent light bulb invented by Thomas Edison in the 19th century.

The most advanced LED lamps now consume around five percent of the electricity of regular light bulbs and their performance is improving constantly.

Akasaki said he remembered the day Amano "dashed into" his laboratory.

"He was the first student who showed interest in my study of a blue LED," Akasaki said.

"I thought he was my type, a student who never gives up."

LEDs are now also commonplace in computers, TVs, watches and mobile phone screens.

Nakamura, who is now a naturalised US citizen won fame in Japan after suing his employer for a greater share of the spoils of the LED prize.

A court ruled he should be given 844 million yen (more than $8 million). His initial company bonus was only 20,000 yen.

 

 

 

 

 

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Panning Across XZ Tauri

 
‎06 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎12:39:33 PMGo to full article
0 This video pans over NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope observations of multiple star system XZ Tauri.

XZ Tauri is blowing a hot bubble of gas into the surrounding space, which is filled with bright and beautiful clumps that are emitting strong winds and jets. These objects illuminate the region, creating a truly dramatic scene.

Credit: ESA/Hubble and NASA
Acknowledgement: Judy Schmidt
 

Zooming In On XZ Tauri

 
‎06 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎12:35:50 PMGo to full article
0 This video begins with a ground-based view of the night sky, before zooming in on multiple star system XZ Tauri as the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope sees it.

XZ Tauri is blowing a hot bubble of gas into the surrounding space, which is filled with bright and beautiful clumps that are emitting strong winds and jets. These objects illuminate the region, creating a truly dramatic scene.

Credit: NASA, ESA, Digitized Sky Survey 2, N. Risinger (Skysurvey.org)
 

Artist's 3D Impression Of The Disc Around The Young Star HL Tauri

 
‎06 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎12:29:13 PMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: ALMA Captures New Higher-Resolution Images Of The Planetary Genesis Process ]

This video shows an artist’s three-dimensional impression of the disc around the young star HL Tauri as seen using ALMA. From the material in the disc — mostly gas and fine dust — planets are forming and sweeping up the surrounding material to create dark gaps and ring structures in this disc.

Credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser
 

Artist's Impression Of The Disc Around A Young Star

 
‎06 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎12:24:09 PMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: ALMA Captures New Higher-Resolution Images Of The Planetary Genesis Process ]

This video shows an artist’s impression of the evolution of the disc around a young star like HL Tauri. From the material in the disc — mostly gas and fine dust — planets begin to form and sweep up surrounding material to create dark patches and ring structures in this disc.

Note that the planets are not shown to scale.

Credit: ESO/L. Calçada
 

Zooming In On The Location Of HL Tauri

 
‎06 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎12:20:47 PMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: ALMA Captures New Higher-Resolution Images Of The Planetary Genesis Process ]

This video takes you to the location of HL Tauri in the constellation of Taurus and reveals the astonishing depth and detail that ALMA can now attain. HL Tauri is located at a distance of 450 light-years. The start of the sequence shows a wide view, including the Pleiades and Hyades naked eye star clusters. We then zoom into a very detailed visible-light image from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and the final part shows the new ALMA image at millimeter wavelengths.

Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO)/NASA/ESA/N. Risinger (skysurvey.org). Music: movetwo
 

ESOcast 69: Revolutionary ALMA Image Reveals Planetary Genesis

 
‎06 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎12:17:25 PMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: ALMA Captures New Higher-Resolution Images Of The Planetary Genesis Process ]

ESOcast 69 presents the result of the latest ALMA observations, which reveal extraordinarily fine detail that has never been seen before in the planet-forming disc around the young star HL Tauri.

This revolutionary image is the result of the first observations that have used ALMA with its antennas at close to the widest configuration possible. As a result, it is the sharpest picture ever made at submillimeter wavelengths.

Credit: ESO
 

Could Cooked Meat Make You Lose Your Mind?

 
‎06 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎07:00:59 AMGo to full article
0 Chemicals produced during the cooking of meat may increase the risk for developing Alzheimer’s say researchers in the United States and Italy. The chemicals produced are called advanced glycation end products, or AGE products. These are created when proteins or fats react with sugar at high temperatures during the Maillard reaction. In the study, mice exposed to a higher AGE diet had difficulties with cognition and coordination as they aged, produced less of an anti-aging protein and showed higher levels of a protein considered a primary biomarker of Alzheimer’s. Human trials in people over 60 indicated a link between AGEs in the blood and cognitive decline over the course of months. Good reason to maybe go veggie?

[ Read the Article: Eating Cooked Meat Increases Odds Of Developing Alzheimer’s Disease ]
 

Paleontologists Discover Fossil Of Bizarre Groundhog-Like Mammal On Madagascar

 
‎06 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎06:45:35 AMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: Newly Discovered Fossil Helps Bridge Evolutionary Gap Of The Ichthyosaur ]

NSF-funded scientists from Stony Brook University have discovered an almost complete skull of a previously unknown mammal that likely resembled a large modern-day groundhog and lived alongside dinosaurs.

Credit: National Science Foundation
 

Once Upon A Time... Preparing For Comet Landing

 
‎06 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎06:30:59 AMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: How Hard Is It To Land On A Comet? ]

After a ten-year journey, Rosetta and Philae had finally reached their destination, Comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. Rosetta spent many weeks studying the comet, sending lots of information back to Earth. But where was Philae going to land? Eventually the scientists on Earth found the best place on the comet for Philae to land. Soon it was time to make the final preparations for Philae's great adventure. Both spacecraft couldn't wait any longer. The whole world would be watching as Rosetta and Philae prepared for their biggest challenge yet.

Credit: ESA
 

Five X-Class Solar Flares

 
‎06 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎06:15:02 AMGo to full article
0 This movie shows 8 days – from Oct. 19-27, 2014 — in the life of the largest active region seen on the sun since 1990, including five X-class flares that erupted during that time.

Credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
 

Computer Scientist Sees New Possibilities For Ocular Biometrics

 
‎06 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎06:00:04 AMGo to full article
0 While many of us rely on passwords to protect our identity, there's more sophisticated identity recognition technology called biometrics that we could use. Security measures that use biometrics rely on a person's unique characteristics and traits rather than on what that person can remember, such as a password. Ocular biometrics, in particular, relies on iris and retinal scanning.

With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), computer scientist Oleg Komogortsev and a team at Texas State University are taking the technology a step further, making it even more secure, reliable and nearly impossible to fool.

They are developing a three-layered, multi-biometric approach that tracks the movement of the eye globe and its muscles, and monitors how and where a person's brain focuses visual attention, in addition to scanning patterns in the iris. The iris is the colored part of the eye.

The team's system essentially upgrades the security of existing iris recognition technology with nothing more than a software upgrade, and the benefits extend well beyond security. This technology can detect not only the identity of the person, but the state of the person, including the individual's level of fatigue or stress. Komogortsev says it could even be used inside the helmets of football players to detect concussions.

Credit: National Science Foundation
 

Weight Gain Happens More Over The Weekend

 
‎05 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎07:00:47 AMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: Weight Rhythms Show Habits Of The Skinny And Fat ]

A study from Cornell University found that weight fluctuations depend on the days of the week. Participants exhibited higher weight after the weekends and decreased weight during weekdays with the lowest point being on Friday. Those who lost weight overall were people who had better compensation patterns, losing more weight during the weekdays. So everybody may gain weight on the weekends, but it’s about how much you lose on the weekdays that ends up being what matters when considering overall weightless goals.

 
 

'Matter Waves' - A Strange Disappearing Act

 
‎05 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎06:45:38 AMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: Physicist Performs Ultracold Disappearing Act ]

How can two clumps of matter pass through each other without sharing space? Rice University physicists have documented a strange disappearing act by colliding Bose Einstein condensates that appear to keep their distance even as they pass through one another.

Credit: Rice University
 

ScienceCasts: How To Land On A Comet

 
‎05 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎06:30:47 AMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: How Hard Is It To Land On A Comet? ]

The European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft is about to attempt something "ridiculously difficult" - landing a probe on the surface of a speeding comet.

Credit: NASA
 

Bee Killers: Using Phages Against Deadly Honeybee Diseases

 
‎05 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎06:15:50 AMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: Saving The Bees Using Microscopic Bugs ]

BYU researchers have identified five new phages that can potentially treat honeybee hives infected with American Foulbrood, a deadly disease that costs the industry millions of dollars each year.

Credit: Brigham Young University
 

Space To Ground: Supply Shipping: 10/31/14

 
‎05 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎06:00:42 AMGo to full article
0 NASA's Space to Ground is your weekly update on what's happening aboard the International Space Station.

Credit: NASA
 

New Secrets Revealed About Cloudy Exoplanet

 
‎03 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎07:00:10 AMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: New Hubble Data Offer More Details About Cloudy Alien World ]

Scientists had been studying super-Earth exoplanet GJ1214b and knew a little bit about it. But after 96 hours of study with the Hubble Telescope, they know a lot more. GJ1214b is located 40 light-years from Earth towards the constellation Ophiuchus. It orbits its parent star every 38 hours, which makes its atmosphere easier to study. That study revealed evidence of clouds blanketing the planet. These clouds, however, hid the composition and behavior of the planet below. Even though Hubble wasn’t originally designed with such studies in mind, the team pushed the telescope to its limits.

 
 

Dietary Flavanols Reverse Age-Related Memory Decline

 
‎03 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎06:45:06 AMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: Age-Related Memory Decline Could Be Reversed By A Dietary Compound Found In Cocoa ]

Dietary cocoa flavanols—naturally occurring bioactives found in cocoa—reversed age-related memory decline in healthy older adults, according to a study led by Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) scientists. The study, published today in the advance online issue of Nature Neuroscience, provides the first direct evidence that one component of age-related memory decline in humans is caused by changes in a specific region of the brain and that this form of memory decline can be improved by a dietary intervention.

Credit: Columbia University Medical Center
 

The Arctic And The Antarctic Respond In Opposite Ways

 
‎03 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎06:30:22 AMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: Sea Ice Surrounding Antarctica Reaches New Record Maximum ]

The Arctic and the Antarctic are regions that have a lot of ice and acts as air conditioners for the Earth system. This year, Antarctic sea ice reached a record maximum extent while the Arctic reached a minimum extent in the top ten lowest since satellite records began. One reason we are seeing differences between the Arctic and the Antarctic is due to their different geographies. As for what's causing the sea increase in the Antarctic, scientists are also studying ocean temperatures, possible changes in wind direction and, overall, how the region is responding to changes in the climate.

Credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
 

NASA's Earth Minute: Earth Has A Fever

 
‎03 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎06:15:24 AMGo to full article
0 Earth's average temperature has risen over 1º F in the past century. It is projected to rise an additional 3º and 10º over the next 100 years. Data from NASA's global network of satellites, airborne missions and surface monitoring systems is used to build climate models that help us understand the causes & effects of global warming.

Credit: NASA
 

Earth From Space: Weeping Taranaki

 
‎03 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎06:00:40 AMGo to full article
0 Earth from Space is presented by Kelsea Brennan-Wessels from the ESA Web-TV virtual studios. In the one hundred twenty-second edition, discover the myth behind New Zealand’s melancholy mountain.

Credit: ESA
 

Astronaut Scott Kelly Speaks Out Against Bullying

 
‎27 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎07:00:39 AMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: Despite Awareness Campaigns, New Report Reveals That Many Children Are Still Being Bullied ]

Scott Kelly, a veteran NASA astronaut and future year-long resident of the International Space Station, speaks out against bullying as part of the Federal Partners in Bullying Prevention campaign. October is National Bullying Prevention Awareness Month, and Kelly plans to support the anti-bullying effort during his upcoming one-year mission aboard the space station that begins with a March 2015 launch.

Credit: NASA
 

Computer Viruses Go Airborne

 
‎27 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:45:35 AMGo to full article
0 A team of researcher from the University of Liverpool demonstrated how Wi-Fi networks could be used to make a computer virus contagious through the air, moving through densely populated areas as effectively as the common cold. They created a virus called Chameleon, which they tested out in a lab setting to see how it spread across Wi-Fi networks. The virus not only spread quickly through homes and businesses, but it was able to avoid detection and identify Wi-Fi access points not protected by encryption or passwords. Chameleon collected and reported credentials of all other WIFI users who connected to it. It had been previously assumed that it wasn’t possible to develop a virus to spread through Wi-Fi...guess most people were wrong.

[ Read the Article: WiFi Networks Could Be Used To Transmit Computer Viruses ]
 

Synthetic Gene Controls On Ordinary Slips Of Paper

 
‎27 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:30:49 AMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: Synthetic Biology On Ordinary Paper, Results Off The Page ]

Wyss Institute scientists have embedded effective synthetic gene networks in pocket-sized slips of paper. An array of RNA–activated sensors uses visible color changing proteins to indicate presence of a targeted RNA, capable of identifying pathogens such as antibiotic–resistant bacteria and strain–specific Ebola virus.

Credit: Harvard's Wyss Institute
 

Earth From Space: Mumbai

 
‎27 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:15:47 AMGo to full article
0 Earth from Space is presented by Kelsea Brennan-Wessels from the ESA Web-TV virtual studios. Explore the city of Mumbai in the one hundred twenty-first edition.

Credit: ESA
 

Development Of Small Atomic Clock Essential To Deep Space Exploration

 
‎27 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:00:24 AMGo to full article
0 The Deep Space Atomic Clock, or DSAC project, managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, is developing -- for use aboard spacecraft -- a smaller and lighter version of the refrigerator-sized atomic clocks used at ground-based space tracking stations. That could eliminate the need to send signals from Earth to a spacecraft and back, enabling more efficient and accurate data transfer for experiments and navigation both close to home and on deep space missions. Precise timekeeping is essential to navigation and, over a typical 10-year deep space mission, DSAC would gain or lose only about a microsecond.

Credit: NASA Marshall Space Flight Center
 

Space To Ground: Spacewalks Continue: 10/24/14

 
‎25 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎11:45:59 AMGo to full article
0 Episode 46 of Space-to-Ground.

Credit: NASA
 

Space Station Spacewalk

 
‎25 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎11:43:10 AMGo to full article
0 Outside the International Space Station, Expedition 41 Commander Max Suraev and Flight Engineer Alexander Samokutyaev of the Russian Federal Space Agency conducted a spacewalk on Oct. 22 to remove experiment hardware and antennas no longer needed on the Russian segment of the complex. The pair also performed a detailed photographic survey of the exterior of the Russian modules.

Credit: NASA
 

Animation Of Synthetic Toehold Switch Gene Regulator

 
‎24 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎11:08:59 AMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: Synthetic Biology On Ordinary Paper, Results Off The Page ]

In this animation, Wyss Institute Postdoctoral Fellow Alex Green, Ph.D., the lead author of "Toehold Switches: De–Novo–Designed Regulators of Gene Expression", narrates a step–by–step guide to the mechanism of the synthetic toehold switch gene regulator.

Credit: Harvard's Wyss Institute
 

Texting And Walking Just Makes You Look Silly

 
‎24 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎07:00:04 AMGo to full article
0 A new study from the University of Queensland looked at the effects that texting and reading texts had on walking. From a 3D movement analysis system, they found that modified body movement includes walking slower, moving the neck less, and deviating more from a straight line—or in other words walking crooked. I’m not sure they needed 3D imaging to tell that. This is the funny part though, the researchers said that “this may impact the safety of people who text and walk at the same time.”

[ Read the Article: Warning: Walking And Texting May Cause You To Walk Like A Robot ]
 

NASA's Earth Minute: Gas Problem

 
‎24 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:45:47 AMGo to full article
0 Greenhouse gases are vital to life on Earth, but the growing concentration of certain gases, such as carbon dioxide, is throwing the planet's delicate balance out of whack. NASA is on the case, studying carbon dioxide on a global scale and its effects on our weather and climate.

Credit: NASA
 

Lactose Intolerance In Ancient Europe

 
‎24 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:30:03 AMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: Ancient Europeans Were Lactose Intolerant For Thousands Of Years ]

By analyzing DNA extracted from the petrous bones of skulls of ancient Europeans, scientists have identified that these peoples remained intolerant to lactose (natural sugar in the milk of mammals) for 5,000 years after they adopted agricultural practices and 4,000 years after the onset of cheese-making among Central European Neolithic farmers.

Credit: University College Dublin
 

How Can Coastlines Improve Health?

 
‎24 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:15:46 AMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: Does Living Near The Coast Cause People To Be More Physically Active? ]

Learn more about the University of Exeter's research into the coast and how it can boost health and wellbeing.

Credit: University of Exeter
 

Geologist Richard Alley - ScienceLives

 
‎24 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:00:52 AMGo to full article
0 Richard Alley studies glaciers and ice sheets to learn how the climate works and whether melting ice will flood our coasts. He has shared his expertise with groups ranging from U.S. senators to school classes and Boy Scout troops, and has won awards for teaching, research and public service. Alley has published over 200 refereed papers, and is a "highly cited" scientist as indexed by ISI. He is presenter for the PBS TV special on climate and energy "EARTH: The Operators' Manual," and author of the book. His popular account of climate change and ice cores, The Two-Mile Time Machine, was Phi Beta Kappa's science book of the year in 2001.

Credit: National Science Foundation
 

Debris In Motion - Space Junk - Orbital Debris

 
‎23 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎09:28:25 AMGo to full article
0 The following graphics are computer generated images of objects in Earth orbit that are currently being tracked. Approximately 95 percent of the objects in this illustration are orbital debris, i.e., not functional satellites. The dots represent the current location of each item. The orbital debris dots are scaled according to the image size of the graphic to optimize their visibility and are not scaled to Earth. These images provide a good visualization of where the greatest orbital debris populations exist.

Credit: Van Hendler / NASA
 

Surgeons And Space Tech Working Together

 
‎23 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎07:00:17 AMGo to full article
0 Physicians in the Netherlands were having problems performing detailed eye surgeries due to vibrations of their microscope so they turned to astronomers for help. Sounds like an unlikely collaboration, but astronomers had developed a rig to still vibrations for one of their planet hunter telescopes. The rig, called a Hummingbird device, was originally devised for ESA’s Darwin telescope that never really took off. Hummingbird is helping to steady the microscope for doctors performing such precise surgeries as repairing retinal detachment. One surgeon said, “When you’re working within less than 1 mm, a shaky microscope is not an option.”

[ Read the Article: Planet Hunter Telescope Provides Eye Surgeons A New Way To Steady Surgical Microscope ]
 

ScienceCasts: Sunset Solar Eclipse

 
‎23 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:45:20 AMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: Partial Solar Eclipse Set For Thursday, Will Be Visible Throughout Much Of US ]

On October 23rd, the Moon will pass in front of the sun, off-center, producing a partial solar eclipse visible in most of the United States.
 

Women@NASA: Nancy Holloway

 
‎23 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:15:41 AMGo to full article
0 An interview with Nancy Holloway for Women@NASA.
 

Earth From Space: Kalma

 
‎10 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎12:41:03 PMGo to full article
0 Earth from Space is presented by Kelsea Brennan-Wessels from the ESA Web-TV virtual studios. The image featured in the one-hundred-nineteenth edition was acquired over an area just south of Sudanese city of Nyala, showing part of the Kalma refugee camp. Download full size image here.

Credit: ESA
 

Space To Ground: Out And About: 10/10/14

 
‎10 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎12:28:24 PMGo to full article
0 NASA's Space to Ground is your weekly update on what's happening aboard the International Space Station.

Credit: NASA

 

 
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Earth From Space: Kalma

 
‎10 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎12:41:03 PMGo to full article
0 Earth from Space is presented by Kelsea Brennan-Wessels from the ESA Web-TV virtual studios. The image featured in the one-hundred-nineteenth edition was acquired over an area just south of Sudanese city of Nyala, showing part of the Kalma refugee camp. Download full size image here. Credit: ESA
 

Space To Ground: Out And About: 10/10/14

 
‎10 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎12:28:24 PMGo to full article
0 NASA's Space to Ground is your weekly update on what's happening aboard the International Space Station. Credit: NASA
 

Comet Siding Spring: A Close Encounter With Mars

 
‎10 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎11:55:34 AMGo to full article
0 [ Read the NASA Statement: NASA Prepares its Science Fleet for Oct. 19 Mars Comet Encounter ] Comet C/2013 A1 Siding Spring will make a very close flyby of Mars on Oct. 19, 2014. Passing at a distance of only 87,000 miles (by comparison that's little more than 1/3 the distance between Earth and our moon), it’ll be a near miss of the Red Planet. Find out how NASA’s Mars orbiters will evade the onslaught of dust particles from the comet. Credit: NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory
 

The Case Of The Missing Satellites

 
‎10 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:30:23 AMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: Milky Way May Have Less Dark Matter Than Previously Believed ] This animation shows a supercomputer simulation of a galaxy like the Milky Way and its invisible dark matter halo. We zoom in to the galaxy and can see knots of dark matter where we would expect to see many satellite galaxies, but they don't exist in the real Universe. That's the missing satellite problem in a nutshell! Credit: Professor Chris Power and Dr. Rick Newton, ICRAR. Music by Reuben Christman
 

What's Up For October 2014

 
‎10 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:00:09 AMGo to full article
0 What's Up for October? A lunar eclipse, a solar eclipse and Mars has a close encounter with a comet. Credit: NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory
 

Orion: Trial By Fire

 
‎09 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:15:25 AMGo to full article
0 NASA’s newest spacecraft, Orion, will be launching into space for the first time in December 2014, on a flight that will take it farther than any spacecraft built to carry humans has gone in more than 40 years and through temperatures twice as hot as molten lava to put its critical systems to the test. Credit: NASA
 

Beacons Of X-Ray Light

 
‎08 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎04:07:47 PMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: Shockingly Bright Dead Star Discovered By NASA’s NuSTAR Telescope ] This animation shows a neutron star -- the core of a star that exploded in a massive supernova. This particular neutron star is known as a pulsar because it sends out rotating beams of X-rays that sweep past Earth like lighthouse beacons. X-ray telescopes like NASA's Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, or NuSTAR, pick up these beams, registering them as pulses of X-ray light. What causes a pulsar to pulse? In the case of "accreting pulsars," the process is set in motion when matter from a companion star falls onto the pulsar. The gravity of the pulsar pulls this material from a surrounding disk, as shown in the animation. The strong magnetic fields surrounding the pulsar funnel the infalling material onto two spots above and below the stellar core. This causes the material to heat up to extreme temperatures and release X-rays. As the star rotates, the two X-ray hot spots behave like a lamp in a lighthouse, sweeping around. Only when the "lamps" are facing Earth will NuSTAR pick up the signal -- a pulsing of X-rays. Credit: NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory
 

WSU Undergrad Helps Develop Method For Detecting Water On Mars

 
‎08 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:45:24 AMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: WSU Undergrad Helps Develop Method For Detecting Water On Mars ] A Washington State University undergraduate has helped develop a new method for detecting water on Mars. Her findings appear in Nature Communications, one of the most influential general science journals. Kellie Wall, 21, of Port Orchard, Wash., looked for evidence that water influenced crystal formation in basalt, the dark volcanic rock that covers most of eastern Washington and Oregon. She then compared this with volcanic rock observations made by the rover Curiosity on Mars’ Gale Crater. “This is really cool because it could potentially be useful for not only the study of rocks on Earth but on Mars and other planets,” said Wall. She is the lead author of the article in Nature Communications. Among multidisciplinary science journals, it has the third-highest impact factor, a measure of its influence, after the journals Nature and Science, according to the 2013 Journal Citation Reports. Credit: Washington State University
 

RapidScat Installed On The International Space Station

 
‎08 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:00:59 AMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: NASA’s New Winds Mission Installed, Gathers First Data ] NASA's RapidScat "wind watcher" was unpacked from the Dragon capsule and installed on the International Space Station last week by the station's robotic arm. This video shows time-lapse of the installation followed by the team's reaction when the instrument was activated for the first time. RapidScat will boost global monitoring of ocean winds for improved weather and marine forecasting, including hurricane monitoring, as well as climate studies. From the unique vantage point of the space station, this space-based scatterometer instrument will use radar pulses reflected from the ocean's surface from different angles to calculate ocean surface wind speeds and directions. Credit: NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory
 

Twisting Solar Eruption And Flare

 
‎06 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:45:17 AMGo to full article
0 The sun emitted a mid-level solar flare, peaking at 3:01 p.m. EDT on Oct. 2, 2014. NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory, which watches the sun 24-hours a day, captured images of the flare. Solar flares are powerful bursts of radiation. Harmful radiation from a flare cannot pass through Earth's atmosphere to physically affect humans on the ground, however -- when intense enough -- they can disturb the atmosphere in the layer where GPS and communications signals travel. This flare is classified as an M7.3 flare. M-class flares are one-tenth as powerful as the most powerful flares, which are designated X-class flares. Credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center [ Read the Article: NASA Releases Images Of A New Mid-Level Solar Flare ]
 

Earth From Space: Athabasca Oil Sands

 
‎06 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:30:58 AMGo to full article
0 Earth from Space is presented by Kelsea Brennan-Wessels from the ESA Web-TV virtual studios. The one-hundred-eighteenth edition features an image over the world’s largest known reservoir of crude bitumen – and the open-pit mining that’s disturbing the local forest cover. Credit: ESA
 

ScienceCasts: A Colorful Lunar Eclipse

 
‎06 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:15:37 AMGo to full article
0 Mark your calendar: On Oct. 8th, the Moon will pass through the shadow of Earth for a total lunar eclipse. Sky watchers in the USA will see the Moon turn a beautiful shade of celestial red and maybe turquoise, too. Credit: NASA [ Read the Article: Colorful Lunar Eclipse Expected On October 8 ]
 

What Happens When Asteroids Go Rogue?

 
‎03 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎07:00:47 AMGo to full article
0 Scientists at MIT and the Paris Observatory claim that rogue asteroids are more common than previously thought. While working on a map of asteroids, these scientists say they now think the Solar System has been very dynamic. They theorize that Jupiter once drifted very close to the Sun, bringing along asteroids from the outer edges of the Solar System and displacing other asteroids that were already near the Sun. They said it’s like Jupiter bowled a strike right through the Solar System. They also said that this type of displacement could have once led to an icy asteroid colliding with Earth and depositing water onto our planet’s surface. They said all asteroid types exist in every region of the main belt and, through their mapping, they have discovered many asteroids in unexpected locations. [ Read the Article: MIT Scientists Claim Rogue Asteroids Are More Common Than Once Thought ]
 

James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Sunshield Deployment Test

 
‎03 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:30:19 AMGo to full article
0 A major test of the sunshield for NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope was conducted in July 2014 by Northrop Grumman in Redondo Beach, Calif. For the first time, the five sunshield test layers were unfolded and separated; unveiling important insights for the engineers and technicians as to how the deployment will take place when the telescope launches into space. Credit: Northrop Grumman
 

ISS Science Garage - Gieger Counters In Space

 
‎03 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:00:00 AMGo to full article
0 How is radiation measured on the Space Station? Mass and Don know. Credit: NASA
 

ScienceLives Interview With Tom Statler

 
‎02 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎12:28:38 PMGo to full article
0 Tom Statler is an expert on galaxies as well as solar system dynamics, especially near-Earth asteroids. He has made use of the Hubble Space Telescope and the Chandra X-ray Observatory in space, and ground-based telescopes ranging from the 6.5-meter MMT observatory's telescopes down to the 4-inch reflector his older brother got for Christmas when they were kids. For five years he wrote a regular astronomy column for the Columbus Dispatch newspaper, and has done numerous radio shows on astronomy. Credit: National Science Foundation
 

NASA Helicopter Crash Test A Smashing Success

 
‎02 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎12:19:59 PMGo to full article
0 NASA researchers and others from the military and national and international government agencies spent more than three years preparing for less than 10 seconds. That's about how long it took for a 45-foot-long former Marine helicopter to fall 30 feet into a bed of dirt during the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT 2) full-scale crash test at NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Research (LANDIR) facility. Credit: NASA Langley Research Center
 

Swift Catches Mega Flares From A Mini Star

 
‎02 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:15:45 AMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: Superflares From A Nearby Red Dwarf Star Observed By NASA’s Swift Satellite ] On April 23, NASA's Swift satellite detected the strongest, hottest, and longest-lasting sequence of stellar flares ever seen from a nearby red dwarf star. The initial blast from this record-setting series of explosions was as much as 10,000 times more powerful than the largest solar flare ever recorded. At its peak, the flare reached temperatures of 360 million degrees Fahrenheit (200 million Celsius), more than 12 times hotter than the center of the sun. The "superflare" came from one of the stars in a close binary system known as DG Canum Venaticorum, or DG CVn for short, located about 60 light-years away. Both stars are dim red dwarfs with masses and sizes about one-third of our sun's. They orbit each other at about three times Earth's average distance from the sun, which is too close for Swift to determine which star erupted. At 5:07 p.m. EDT on April 23, the rising tide of X-rays from DG CVn's superflare triggered Swift's Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). Swift turned to observe the source in greater detail with other instruments and, at the same time, notified astronomers around the globe that a powerful outburst was in progress. For about three minutes after the BAT trigger, the superflare's X-ray brightness was greater than the combined luminosity of both stars at all wavelengths under normal conditions. The largest solar explosions are classified as extraordinary, or X class, solar flares based on their X-ray emission. The biggest flare ever seen from the sun occurred in November 2003 and is rated as X 45. But if the flare on DG CVn were viewed from a planet the same distance as Earth is from the sun and measured the same way, it would have been ranked 10,000 times greater, at about X 100,000. How can a star just a third the size of the sun produce such a giant eruption? The key factor is its rapid spin, a crucial ingredient for amplifying magnetic fields. The flaring star in DG CVn rotates in under a day, about 30 or more times faster than our sun. The sun also rotated much faster in its youth and may well have produced superflares of its own, but, fortunately for us, it no longer appears capable of doing so. Credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
 

Close-Up View Of The Open Cluster Messier 11

 
‎01 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎11:15:49 AMGo to full article
0 This video gives a close-up view of an image of the open cluster Messier 11 as seen with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2-meter telescope at the La Silla Observatory. The blue stars in the center of the image are the young, hot stars of the cluster. The surrounding redder stars are older, cooler background stars. Credit: ESO. Music: movetwo > More Information...
 

Zooming In On The Open Cluster Messier 11

 
‎01 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎11:10:34 AMGo to full article
0 This video takes you on a journey to the open cluster Messier 11 as seen with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2-meter telescope at the La Silla Observatory. Credit: ESO/N. Risinger (skysurvey.org)/J. Bohanon. Music: movetwo > More Information...
 

Investigating The Martian Atmosphere

 
‎01 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:15:53 AMGo to full article
0 The Martian surface bears ample evidence of flowing water in its youth, from crater lakes and riverbeds to minerals that only form in water. But today Mars is cold and dry, and scientists think that the loss of Mars' water may have been caused by the loss of its early atmosphere. NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN mission, or MAVEN, will be the first spacecraft devoted to studying the Red Planet's upper atmosphere, in an effort to understand how the Martian climate has changed over time. Credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center > Explore further...
 

Curiosity Rover Report: A Taste Of Mount Sharp (Sept. 25, 2014)

 
‎30 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎06:45:28 AMGo to full article
0 NASA's Curiosity Mars rover has collected its first drill sample from the base of Mount Sharp. The scientific allure of the layered mountain inside a crater drew the team to choose this part Mars as its landing site. Credit: NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory > More Information...
 

A Giant Among Earth Satellites

 
‎30 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎06:00:57 AMGo to full article
0 The weekend launch of ISS-RapidScat onboard SpaceX-4 has kickstarted a new era for the International Space Station as a giant Earth-observing satellite. Credit: NASA > More Information...
 

Earth From Space: Athens On The Radar

 
‎29 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎06:30:12 AMGo to full article
0 Earth from Space is presented by Kelsea Brennan-Wessels from the ESA Web-TV virtual studios. Explore this Sentinel-1 image of Greece’s Attica peninsula in the one-hundred-seventeenth edition. Credit: ESA
 

ENLIL Model Of March 5, 2013 CME

 
‎26 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎11:13:03 AMGo to full article
0 Space weather models combined with real time observations help scientists track CMEs. These images were produced from a model known as ENLIL named after the Sumerian storm god. It shows the journey of a CME on March 5, 2013, as it moved toward Mars. Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio, the Space Weather Research Center (SWRC) and the Community-Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC)
 

Expedition 41 Docks To International Space Station

 
‎26 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎11:09:13 AMGo to full article
0 After launching in their Soyuz TMA-14M spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, Expedition 41/42 Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev and Flight Engineers Elena Serova of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and Barry Wilmore of NASA arrived at the International Space Station on Sept. 26, Kazakh time, following a six-hour rendezvous. They docked their craft to the Poisk module on the Russian segment of the complex. Once aboard the orbital outpost, the trio will start a 5 ½ month mission. Credit: NASA > More Information...
 

New Technique For Studying Out-Of-This-World Particles

 
‎26 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎06:45:04 AMGo to full article
0 Earth is constantly blasted with dust from comets and asteroids. Researchers at NASA say that, despite their small size, these dust particles “may have provided higher quantities and steadier supply of extraterrestrial organic material to early Earth” than meteorite impacts. But their extremely small size has kept them from being studied heavily. Scientists at NASA’s Goddard Astrobiology Analytical Laboratory used a nanoflow liquid chromatography instrument to sort the molecules, then applied nanoelectrospray ionization to identify the molecules based on their mass. They said they “are pioneering the application of these techniques for the study of meteorite organics.” They also said that these techniques and any others they develop will be beneficial to future sample return missions, such as ones to Mars, where sample size will be limited. [ Read the Article: New Techniques Tease Out Building Blocks Of Life In Meteorites ]
 

NASA Issues "Space Tool Challenge" For Future Engineers

 
‎26 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎06:00:24 AMGo to full article
0 NASA in conjunction with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Foundation, has issued a series of "Future Engineers" 3D Space Challenges for students focused on solving real-world space exploration problems. Students will become the creators and innovators of tomorrow by using 3D modeling software to submit their designs and have the opportunity for their design to be printed on the first 3D printer aboard the International Space Station. The winning student will watch from NASA’s Payload Operations Center with the mission control team as the item is printed in space. Credit: NASA Future Engineers > More Information...
 

Panning Across DDO 68

 
‎25 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎11:30:55 AMGo to full article
0 This video pans over NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope observations of dwarf galaxy DDO 68. This ragged collection of stars and gas clouds looks at first glance like a recently-formed galaxy in our own cosmic neighborhood. But, is it really as young as it looks? Credit: NASA, ESA Acknowledgement: A. Aloisi (Space Telescope Science Institute) > More Information...
 

Zooming In On Dwarf Galaxy DDO 68

 
‎25 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎11:20:12 AMGo to full article
0 This video begins with a ground based view of the night sky, before zooming in on dwarf galaxy DDO 68 as the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope sees it. This ragged collection of stars and gas clouds looks at first glance like a recently-formed galaxy in our own cosmic neighborhood. But, is it really as young as it looks? Credit: NASA, ESA, Digitized Sky Survey 2, N. Risinger (Skysurvey.org) Acknowledgement: A. Aloisi (Space Telescope Science Institute) > More Information...
 

Zoom Into HAT-P-11

 
‎25 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎07:00:52 AMGo to full article
0 This video shows a zoom from a ground-based image of the region surrounding HAT-P-11, to a close up of the star taken with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. Not visible here is a Neptune-sized planet named HAT-P-11b, which orbits the star. Astronomers have discovered clear skies and steamy water vapor on the planet. It is the smallest planet ever for which water vapour has been detected. The small bright object next to the star is not the planet in question; in fact it is not a planet at all, but another star. Credit: NASA, ESA, J. Fraine > More Information...
 

Many Views Of A Massive CME

 
‎25 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎06:45:04 AMGo to full article
0 On July 23, 2012, a massive cloud of solar material erupted off the sun's right side, zooming out into space. It soon passed one of NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, or STEREO, spacecraft, which clocked the CME as traveling between 1,800 and 2,200 miles per second as it left the sun. This was the fastest CME ever observed by STEREO. Two other observatories – NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory and the joint European Space Agency/NASA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory -- witnessed the eruption as well. The July 2012 CME didn't move toward Earth, but watching an unusually strong CME like this gives scientists an opportunity to observe how these events originate and travel through space. STEREO's unique viewpoint from the sides of the sun combined with the other two observatories watching from closer to Earth helped scientists create models of the entire July 2012 event. They learned that an earlier, smaller CME helped clear the path for the larger event, thus contributing to its unusual speed. Such data helps advance our understanding of what causes CMEs and improves modeling of similar CMEs that could be Earth-directed. Credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center > More Information...
 

Space Scoop: The Butterfly Hunter

 
‎25 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎06:15:08 AMGo to full article
0 Astronomers using Chandra X-ray Observatory have set out on a hunt, to look at as many planetary nebulae as they can. Credit: NASA
 

Robots On Way To Help Astronauts Work, Explore And Live In Space

 
‎24 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎05:43:39 PMGo to full article
0 The Human Exploration Telerobotics project, managed by NASA's Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California, is developing and testing robots to improve the way humans live and work in space. Some of the project's robots have human-like "hands" and "legs" while others have wheels or are small, free-flying satellites. All have the potential to help astronauts reduce the amount of time they spend on routine maintenance tasks; to safely and quickly make repairs outside the spacecraft; or to remotely explore and work on a planet or asteroid's surface. Credit: NASA Marshall Space Flight Center
 

US Cargo Ship Arrives And Grapples At The International Space Station

 
‎24 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎12:50:34 PMGo to full article
0 An unmanned U.S. resupply ship arrived at the International Space Station Sept. 23, two days after its launch from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, carrying more than 5000 pounds of supplies and critical experiments to the orbital laboratory. Space Exploration Technologies Corporation’s (SpaceX) Dragon cargo vehicle was grappled by station Flight Engineers Alexander Gerst of the European Space Agency and Reid Wiseman of NASA, who operated the station’s Canadarm2 robotic arm from the cupola. Dragon was subsequently berthed to the Earth-facing port of the Harmony module, where it will remain until around October 18th. This is the fourth commercial resupply mission of the station by SpaceX. Credit: NASA > More Information...
 

The Difference Between CMEs And Solar Flares

 
‎24 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎06:30:18 AMGo to full article
0 Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and flares are both solar events, but they are not the same. This video shows the differences between the two by highlighting specific features of each. Credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
 

Mars Evolution

 
‎24 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎06:15:05 AMGo to full article
0 Billions of years ago when the Red Planet was young, it appears to have had a thick atmosphere that was warm enough to support oceans of liquid water - a critical ingredient for life. The animation shows how the surface of Mars might have appeared during this ancient clement period, beginning with a flyover of a Martian lake. The artist's concept is based on evidence that Mars was once very different. Rapidly moving clouds suggest the passage of time, and the shift from a warm and wet to a cold and dry climate is shown as the animation progresses. The lakes dry up, while the atmosphere gradually transitions from Earthlike blue skies to the dusty pink and tan hues seen on Mars today. Credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center > More Information...
 

Arctic Sea Ice, Summer 2014

 
‎23 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎09:38:35 AMGo to full article
0 An animation of daily Arctic sea ice extent in summer 2014, from March 21, 2014 to Sept. 17, 2014 – when the ice appeared to reach it’s minimum extent for the year. It’s the sixth lowest minimum sea ice extent in the satellite era. The data was provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency from their GCOM-W1 satellite’s AMSR2 instrument. Credit: NASA
 

Mars Balance Challenge

 
‎23 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎06:45:19 AMGo to full article
0 The Challenge is to develop ideas for how NASA can turn available entry, descent, and landing balance mass on a future Mars mission into a scientific or technological payload. Proposed concepts should indicate uses for ejectable mass up to 150 kg prior to Mars atmospheric entry and/or another 150 kg during the entry and landing phases of the mission. NASA is seeking concepts that expand scientific knowledge or technological capabilities while exhibiting a high degree of practicality. Credit: NASA
 

Space Scoop: Archaeologists Of The Universe

 
‎23 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎06:30:31 AMGo to full article
0 This picture shows the aftermath of a collision between two huge groups of galaxies, which are called galaxy clusters. Credit: NASA
 
 

 

 

RedOrbit Videos Science

 
 

Paleontologists Discover Fossil Of Bizarre Groundhog-Like Mammal On Madagascar

 
‎06 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎06:45:35 AMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: Newly Discovered Fossil Helps Bridge Evolutionary Gap Of The Ichthyosaur ] NSF-funded scientists from Stony Brook University have discovered an almost complete skull of a previously unknown mammal that likely resembled a large modern-day groundhog and lived alongside dinosaurs. Credit: National Science Foundation
 

'Matter Waves' - A Strange Disappearing Act

 
‎05 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎06:45:38 AMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: Physicist Performs Ultracold Disappearing Act ] How can two clumps of matter pass through each other without sharing space? Rice University physicists have documented a strange disappearing act by colliding Bose Einstein condensates that appear to keep their distance even as they pass through one another. Credit: Rice University
 

Bee Killers: Using Phages Against Deadly Honeybee Diseases

 
‎05 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎06:15:50 AMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: Saving The Bees Using Microscopic Bugs ] BYU researchers have identified five new phages that can potentially treat honeybee hives infected with American Foulbrood, a deadly disease that costs the industry millions of dollars each year. Credit: Brigham Young University
 

The Arctic And The Antarctic Respond In Opposite Ways

 
‎03 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎06:30:22 AMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: Sea Ice Surrounding Antarctica Reaches New Record Maximum ] The Arctic and the Antarctic are regions that have a lot of ice and acts as air conditioners for the Earth system. This year, Antarctic sea ice reached a record maximum extent while the Arctic reached a minimum extent in the top ten lowest since satellite records began. One reason we are seeing differences between the Arctic and the Antarctic is due to their different geographies. As for what's causing the sea increase in the Antarctic, scientists are also studying ocean temperatures, possible changes in wind direction and, overall, how the region is responding to changes in the climate. Credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
 

NASA's Earth Minute: Earth Has A Fever

 
‎03 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎06:15:24 AMGo to full article
0 Earth's average temperature has risen over 1º F in the past century. It is projected to rise an additional 3º and 10º over the next 100 years. Data from NASA's global network of satellites, airborne missions and surface monitoring systems is used to build climate models that help us understand the causes & effects of global warming. Credit: NASA
 

Chapman Survey Of American Fears

 
‎31 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:15:29 AMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: Fear Factor - New Survey Reveals What Scares Americans The Most ] An interdisciplinary team of researchers at Chapman University took an in-depth national survey of American fears. Explore highlights of the results including crime fears, fear of disasters, personal fears, and what makes people afraid. Credit: Chapman University
 

Earth From Space: High Desert

 
‎31 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:15:05 AMGo to full article
0 Earth from Space is presented by Kelsea Brennan-Wessels from the ESA Web-TV virtual studios. The one-hundred-twentieth edition features a Sentinel-1A image over the ‘high desert region’ of the northwestern United States. Credit: ESA
 

Professor John Long's Discovery Of The Origins Of Sex

 
‎30 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:15:46 AMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: Researchers Discover The Origins Of Sex In The Primordial World ] In one of the biggest discoveries in the evolutionary history of sexual reproduction, Flinders Professor John Long has found that internal fertilization and copulation was invented by ancient armored fishes, called placoderms, about 385 million years ago in Scotland. Credit: Flinders University
 

Synthetic Gene Controls On Ordinary Slips Of Paper

 
‎27 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:30:49 AMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: Synthetic Biology On Ordinary Paper, Results Off The Page ] Wyss Institute scientists have embedded effective synthetic gene networks in pocket-sized slips of paper. An array of RNA–activated sensors uses visible color changing proteins to indicate presence of a targeted RNA, capable of identifying pathogens such as antibiotic–resistant bacteria and strain–specific Ebola virus. Credit: Harvard's Wyss Institute
 

Animation Of Synthetic Toehold Switch Gene Regulator

 
‎24 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎11:08:59 AMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: Synthetic Biology On Ordinary Paper, Results Off The Page ] In this animation, Wyss Institute Postdoctoral Fellow Alex Green, Ph.D., the lead author of "Toehold Switches: De–Novo–Designed Regulators of Gene Expression", narrates a step–by–step guide to the mechanism of the synthetic toehold switch gene regulator. Credit: Harvard's Wyss Institute
 

NASA's Earth Minute: Gas Problem

 
‎24 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:45:47 AMGo to full article
0 Greenhouse gases are vital to life on Earth, but the growing concentration of certain gases, such as carbon dioxide, is throwing the planet's delicate balance out of whack. NASA is on the case, studying carbon dioxide on a global scale and its effects on our weather and climate. Credit: NASA
 

Lactose Intolerance In Ancient Europe

 
‎24 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:30:03 AMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: Ancient Europeans Were Lactose Intolerant For Thousands Of Years ] By analyzing DNA extracted from the petrous bones of skulls of ancient Europeans, scientists have identified that these peoples remained intolerant to lactose (natural sugar in the milk of mammals) for 5,000 years after they adopted agricultural practices and 4,000 years after the onset of cheese-making among Central European Neolithic farmers. Credit: University College Dublin
 

Geologist Richard Alley - ScienceLives

 
‎24 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:00:52 AMGo to full article
0 Richard Alley studies glaciers and ice sheets to learn how the climate works and whether melting ice will flood our coasts. He has shared his expertise with groups ranging from U.S. senators to school classes and Boy Scout troops, and has won awards for teaching, research and public service. Alley has published over 200 refereed papers, and is a "highly cited" scientist as indexed by ISI. He is presenter for the PBS TV special on climate and energy "EARTH: The Operators' Manual," and author of the book. His popular account of climate change and ice cores, The Two-Mile Time Machine, was Phi Beta Kappa's science book of the year in 2001. Credit: National Science Foundation
 

Glucose Molecular Structure - Sweet Side Of Chemistry

 
‎22 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎05:01:35 PMGo to full article
0 Glucose, the simplest sugar, can be found in plants and is absorbed into bloodstreams during digestion. While most of us can be blissfully ignorant of our exact blood sugar levels after scarfing a Snickers, people who have diabetes or physicians with seriously injured patients need technology that provides accurate blood glucose data. Gymama Slaughter, an NSF-funded engineer at the University of Maryland Baltimore County, has created a new wireless, implantable sensor to monitor blood sugar levels. The sensor has a sweetly simple power source – it runs on energy from the glucose itself. Credit: National Science Foundation
 

Fructose Molecular Structure - Sweet Side Of Chemistry

 
‎22 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎04:58:19 PMGo to full article
0 Fructose, or fruit sugar, is found in tree fruits, honey and berries, though you may know it from its corn-based origins as the common ingredient high-fructose corn syrup. Credit: National Science Foundation
 

Engineers Make Curved Ordered Crystals Called Nanolobes

 
‎22 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:15:36 AMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: Facetless Crystals That Mimic Starfish Shells Could Advance 3D-Printed Medication ] In designs that mimic the texture of starfish shells, Michigan engineers have had made curved ordered crystals. Such shapes are found readily in nature, but not in a lab. Crystals engineers typically make either have facets with flat surfaces and hard angles, or are smooth but lack a repeating molecular order. The researchers call them “nanolobes.” Both the nanolobes’ shape and the way they’re made have promising applications. The geometry could potentially be useful to guide light in advanced LEDs, solar cells and nonreflective surfaces. A layer might help a material repel water or dirt. And the process used to manufacture them – organic vapor jet printing – might lend itself to 3D-printing medications that absorb better into the body and make personalized dosing possible. The principal investigator in this work is Max Shtein, associate professor of material science and engineering, macromolecular science engineering, chemical engineering and art and design. Credit: University of Michigan School of Engineering
 

Blinded Me With Science - Aner Tal

 
‎21 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:45:05 AMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: Trivial Scientific Information Can Increase Our Sense Of Trust In Products ] Do you believe in science? Your faith in science may actually make you more likely to trust information that appears scientific but really doesn’t tell you much. According to a new Cornell Food and Brand Lab study, published in Public Understanding of Science, trivial elements such as graphs or formulas can lead consumers to believe products are more effective. “Anything that looks scientific can make information you read a lot more convincing,” says the study’s lead author Aner Tal, PhD, “The scientific halo of graphs, formulas, and other trivial elements that look scientific may lead to misplaced belief." Credit: Brian Wansink, Cornell Food and Brand Lab
 

Engineer Chris Mattson - ScienceLives

 
‎21 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:00:55 AMGo to full article
0 Brigham Young University engineer Christopher Mattson designs technology that targets the needs of the world's poorest populations. He and his students have produced new water-well designs for villages in Africa and new tools for farmers in Guatemala. Credit: National Science Foundation
 

HD Animation Showing The Earliest Known Copulation

 
‎20 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎12:15:16 PMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: Researchers Discover The Origins Of Sex In The Primordial World ] In one of the biggest discoveries in the evolutionary history of sexual reproduction, Flinders Professor John Long has found that internal fertilization and copulation was invented by ancient armored fishes, called placoderms, about 385 million years ago in Scotland. Credit: Flinders University
 

How Did Life On Earth Begin? - Science Nation

 
‎20 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:15:25 AMGo to full article
0 It's one of the most profound questions of all--how did life on Earth begin? With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Georgia Tech biochemist Nicholas Hud and a team at the Center for Chemical Evolution (CCE) are working to chip away at the question. They are homing in on how chain-like chemicals called polymers first came together and evolved 3.5 to 4 billion years ago. Hud says the researchers are working on the premise that the molecules that gave rise to the first polymers of life, such as RNA and DNA, started when small molecules began interacting with each other and forming ordered structures. In other words, they assembled themselves. So far, none of the labs working on chemical evolution has been able to coax actual RNA to self-assemble from the set of molecules that make up RNA in present day life. But, Hud and his team have identified a couple of molecules that make a structure that almost looks like RNA. The CCE is co-funded by the NASA Astrobiology program and the NSF Centers for Chemical Innovation (CCI) program. The NSF-funded centers are focused on major, long-term fundamental chemical research challenges. CCIs are producing transformative research that is leading to innovation and attracting broad scientific and public interest. The research in this episode was supported by NSF award #1004570, CCI: Center for Chemical Evolution. Credit: National Science Foundation
 

Psychologist And Neuroscientist Sarah Brosnan - ScienceLives

 
‎17 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:00:28 AMGo to full article
0 Do non-human primates like chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys respond to inequity or unfairness the way humans do? Georgia State psychologist and neuroscientist, Sarah Brosnan is interested in finding out. Brosnan studies the behavior of primates to better understand how they make decisions and cooperate with one another. Credit: National Science Foundation
 

Helping Hawks Weather The Storm

 
‎16 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎07:00:54 AMGo to full article
0 Scientists from the University of Alberta and the Alberta Biodiversity Monitoring Institute are collaborating to find out how climate change is affecting endangered prairie hawks. Officially known as “ferruginous hawks,” this particular prairie-breeding bird species is vulnerable during harsh weather events as there are few places for them to take cover. Longer rain seasons affect the parent hawks ability to hunt food for their young, and strong winds endanger the hawk’s nest. Researchers are monitoring 300 nests every year, checking on them once a week. They are also using satellite tracking to follow the movements of these raptors as they defend their territory. The team's goal is to figure out how they can build artificial nest platforms to act as a buffer against high winds. [ Read the Article: How Climate Change Impacts Endangered Prairie Hawks ]
 

ScienceCasts: The Cloudy Future Of Arctic Sea Ice

 
‎16 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:15:04 AMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: The Cloudy Future Of Arctic Sea Ice ] As climate change continues to hammer Arctic sea ice, pushing back its summertime boundaries to record-high latitudes, NASA is flying an innovative airborne mission to find out how these developments will affect worldwide weather. Credit: NASA
 

ScienceCasts: The Cloudy Future Of Arctic Sea Ice

 
‎15 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎01:21:04 PMGo to full article
0 As climate change continues to hammer Arctic sea ice, pushing back its summertime boundaries to record-high latitudes, NASA is flying an innovative airborne mission to find out how these developments will affect worldwide weather. Credit: NASA
 

What Do LCD TVs And Candles Have In Common?

 
‎10 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎07:00:39 AMGo to full article
0 What does your LCD and a paraffin wax have in common? Well, researchers at the Physics and Material Science Unit of the University of Luxembourg found that wax molecules in paraffin align in a similar way to the processes that take place in liquid crystal technology, or LCD. The discovery was made while studying the crystallization process of wax on a macroscopic level, since little has been known about that process in the past. [ Read the Article: What Paraffin Wax And LCD TVs Have In Common ]
 

Salmon Can Sense Earth's Magnetic Field

 
‎09 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎07:00:32 AMGo to full article
0 Researchers from Oregon State University found that salmon have innate ability to sense Earth’s magnetic field. So they essentially have a biological compass. How did they find this out? Well, they jerked some salmon around basically. They exposed hundreds of young salmon to different magnetic fields that occur at the latitudinal ends of their oceanic range. The fish reacted to the “simulated magnetic displacements.” These were fish in a hatchery that had never left that environment, so researchers knew it was an inherited, not learned, behavior. They said “these fish are programmed to know what to do before they ever reach the ocean.” [ Read the Article: Pacific Salmon Rely On The Earth’s Magnetic Field To Navigate ]
 

RapidScat Installed On The International Space Station

 
‎08 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:00:59 AMGo to full article
0 [ Read the Article: NASA’s New Winds Mission Installed, Gathers First Data ] NASA's RapidScat "wind watcher" was unpacked from the Dragon capsule and installed on the International Space Station last week by the station's robotic arm. This video shows time-lapse of the installation followed by the team's reaction when the instrument was activated for the first time. RapidScat will boost global monitoring of ocean winds for improved weather and marine forecasting, including hurricane monitoring, as well as climate studies. From the unique vantage point of the space station, this space-based scatterometer instrument will use radar pulses reflected from the ocean's surface from different angles to calculate ocean surface wind speeds and directions. Credit: NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory
 

Helping Babies Learn Language Skills

 
‎03 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:15:59 AMGo to full article
0 Research shows that a new game developed in the Infancy Studies Lab at Rutgers University-Newark helps babies develop the skills needed to learn language. The work could prove especially helpful for babies who come from families with a history of language impairment. Credit: Rutgers University [ Read the Article: Improving Babies’ Language Skills Before They’re Even Old Enough To Speak ]
 

What Can Earwax Say About You?

 
‎01 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎07:00:58 AMGo to full article
0 Chemists from the Monell Chemical Senses Center in Philadelphia found that your earwax can tell a lot about you—for instance...where you came from. Their research showed that earwax substances varied between individuals of East Asian origin and Caucasians. Their previous work found that underarm body odors convey a lot of info about a person, like identity and health issues, and now they think earwax can too. They analyzed the release of volatile organic compounds from earwax samples taken from males of both East Asian and Caucasian descent. They found that 12 VOCs were present in all of the men, but that the Caucasians possessed greater amounts of 11 of 12 VOCs than East Asians. They said, “In essence, we could obtain information about a person’s ethnicity simply by looking in his ears.” [ Read the Article: Earwax Substance Can Help Determine A Person’s Ethnic Origin ]
 

What's The New Buzz On Saving Honeybees?

 
‎01 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎06:45:35 AMGo to full article
0 Researchers at CSIRO are fitting tiny sensors onto honeybees in Australia to try to understand the drivers behind Colony Collapse Disorder. CCD is a growing problem amongst honeybee populations, but these sensors will help scientists monitor the bees’ pollination and productivity on farms. The tiny little insects play a big role, providing free pollination services for agriculture that various crops rely on. They're nature’s farmhand if you will. Get this—around one-third of the food we eat relies on pollination. But CCD is wiping out honeybees. The researchers are also going to look at the impacts of agricultural pesticides on the honeybees. The tiny sensors work sort of like vehicle tags. Each time the bee passes a checkpoint, information is sent to a central location where researchers use the sensor signals to build a comprehensive 3D model. [ Read the Article: Swarm Sensing Project To Monitor Australian Honey Bees Using Tiny Sensors ]
 

Alaska Mountain Glaciers Retreating Due To Climate Change

 
‎30 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎06:15:10 AMGo to full article
0 Tighten your seat belt! This runway is made of ice. Welcome to Ruth Glacier, deep inside Alaska’s Denali National Park and Preserve. Some of the visitors are here for recreational activities, such as backcountry skiing, but this is no vacation for University of Maine paleoclimatologist Karl Kreutz and his team. For them, time on the ice is all part of the job. With support from the National Science Foundation, the scientists are working to reconstruct the climate history of this area over the last thousand years. They’re researching the relationship between the temperatures and precipitation rates, and the response of glaciers in this area to climate changes. In 2013, the team drilled ice cores high atop Denali’s Mount Hunter. By carefully analyzing ice layers inside the cores, the team is developing a record of temperature change in the Alaska Range over the last millennium. While the vast majority of glacier ice on our planet lies in Greenland and Antarctica, Kreutz says the glaciers in Alaska could also make a significant contribution to global sea level rise in the coming decades. Credit: National Science Foundation
 

Efficient Solar To Hydrogen Conversion

 
‎29 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎06:15:07 AMGo to full article
0 Science published on Sept. 25, 2014 the latest developments in Michael Grätzel's laboratory at EPFL in the field of hydrogen production from water. By combining a pair of perovskite solar cells and low price electrodes without using rare metals, scientists have obtained a 12.3% conversion efficiency from solar energy to hydrogen, a record with earth-abundant materials. Jingshan Luo, post-doctoral researcher, explains how. Credit: EPFL > More Information...
 

Do Selfies Spread Lice?

 
‎26 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎07:00:54 AMGo to full article
0 When you’re capturing a selfie, you might be capturing a little something extra. That’s according to one expert at a lice-treatment center in California who says that there has been a big increase in lice incidents in young people due in part to the rising popularity of the selfie. Lice is spread from head-to-head contact, they don’t just jump from one head to another. But put your heads together, and you’re bridging the divide for the little critters. Of the teens treated for lice, all admitted they were taking selfies every day. So when there’s more than one person in a selfie, is it still technically considered a selfie? [ Read the Article: Claim That Teen Selfies Cause Head Lice Epidemic May Be Nonsense ]
 

Penn State Research Team Creates "Diamond Nanothreads"

 
‎25 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎06:30:22 AMGo to full article
0 John Badding, professor of chemistry at Penn State University, leads a research team that has discovered how to produce super-strong, super-thin "diamond nanothreads" that promise extraordinary properties such as strength and stiffness higher than that of carbon nanotubes or conventional high-strength polymers. A paper describing this discovery will be published in the 21 September 2014 issue of the journal Nature Materials. Credit: Penn State University > More Information...
 

Arctic Sea Ice, Summer 2014

 
‎23 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎09:38:35 AMGo to full article
0 An animation of daily Arctic sea ice extent in summer 2014, from March 21, 2014 to Sept. 17, 2014 – when the ice appeared to reach it’s minimum extent for the year. It’s the sixth lowest minimum sea ice extent in the satellite era. The data was provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency from their GCOM-W1 satellite’s AMSR2 instrument. Credit: NASA
 

Brain Training - Does It Really Work?

 
‎23 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎07:00:43 AMGo to full article
0 A new study from the University of Oregon says that those brain training programs work, but there’s a catch. These games do enhance performance for the particular task involved in the game, but that advantage doesn’t necessarily carry over to other cognitive abilities. The team looked specifically at inhibitory control. There were two groups, an experimental group that was trained in inhibitory control and a control group that performed another task that did not affect inhibitory control. The researchers found performance improvement in the training group but not in the control group, though it was relatively small. And since the focus was solely on inhibitory control, they were unable to conclude whether or not improvement extended further than that to other executive functions of the brain. Researchers say they hope the revealing study will lead to the design of better prevention tools to promote mental health. [ Read the Article: Do Brain Training Programs Really Make You Smarter? ]
 

Science Showdown Over Spider Silk

 
‎22 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎07:00:42 AMGo to full article
0 There’s a show down of sorts in the science community. In one corner we have Iowa State University saying that spider silk conducts heat as well as metal. In the other corner, the Challenger University of the Basque Country in Spain, says that just not so. Last year, we reported a finding from Iowa State University saying that spider silk was as good of a heat conductor as metal. Now, physicists from the University of the Basque Country say that they were not able to repeat those findings. Basque Country is bringing Iowa State’s findings into question. The Basque team found that the thermal diffusivity of the spider silk was about 300 times smaller than the Iowa study. They said this is because spider silk is formed of amino acid chains, which are poor conductors of heat. Iowa State, are you gonna answer back? [ Read the Article: Spider Silk Not Great Heat Conductor, Despite 2012 Study’s Findings ]
 

Science Nation - Rising CO2 Levels Make Forests Work Overtime

 
‎22 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎06:30:46 AMGo to full article
0 You might never know it, but the seemingly quiet Harvard Forest in Massachusetts is actually hard at work. Like other forests, it's busy doing some serious global housekeeping, which is being monitored by scientists at Harvard University. "There's this enormous sucking sound, metaphorically speaking, that is happening across the New England landscape and the eastern US. It's the carbon being brought down out of the atmosphere, into our forests, which is reducing the amount that is up in the atmosphere," says David Foster, who is director of the Harvard Forest, which stretches for 3,000 acres, near Petersham, Massachusetts, about 60 miles west of Boston. With support from the National Science Foundation, Foster and other researchers here study forest ecology. "We're trying to understand what shaped the land, where the landscape is going, and what's going to be the fate of the land in the eastern United States," he explains. That research includes determining how the forest responds to carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Credit: National Science Foundation
 

Wildfires Heated Up The Early Earth

 
‎19 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎07:00:06 AMGo to full article
0 New research from Yale University found that wildfires contributed to Earth’s scorching ancient climate of three million years ago. The team used a NASA model to simulate Earth’s ecosystem emissions and atmospheric composition of the Pliocene and pre-industrial eras. They determined that forests and smoke from wildfires released volatile compounds into the atmosphere causing more global warming than atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide. And since deforestation didn’t exist then, well, obviously there were no humans and a lot of trees to burn. These compounds altered Earth’s radiation balance which resulted in two to three times the warming of carbon dioxide, making a much hotter climate, even though carbon dioxide levels are about the same as today. So in conclusion, trees are typically good for climate change, but as with anything - too much of a good thing can be bad. [ Read the Article: Wildfires Could Help Explain A Warm Ancient Earth ]
 

Science Minute: Dr. Elizabeth Hobson

 
‎19 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎06:45:25 AMGo to full article
0 In this Science Minute from the National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis (NIMBioS), Dr.Elizabeth Hobson explains what monk parakeets can teach us about complex sociality. Credit: National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis > Explore further...

 

 

Beyond Perception - DVD

by Chuck Missler  

 

 

DVD

PRICE R 159.00

 

Media Type: DVD
Published 20-Sep-2010
Published by Koinonia House
KHID#: DVD84
Why do scientists now believe we live in a 10-dimensional universe?

Has physics finally reached the very boundaries of reality?

There seems to be evidence to suggest that our world and everything in it are only ghostly images; projections from a level of reality so beyond our own that the real reality is literally beyond both space and time. The main architect of this astonishing idea is one of the world's most eminent thinkers- physicist David Bohm, a protege of Einstein's. Earlier, he noticed that, in plasmas, particles stopped behaving like individuals and started behaving as if they were part of a larger and inter connected whole. He continued his work in the behavior of oceans of these particles, noting their behaving as if they know what each on the untold trillions of individual particles were doing.

This briefing pack DVD comes with:
-two mp3 audio files
-one notes file in pdf format

This DVD includes notes in PDF format and MP3 files.

Encoding: This DVD will be viewable in other countries WITH the proper DVD player and television set.
Format: Color, Fullscreen
Aspect Ratio: 4:3
Audio Encoding: Dolby Digital 2.0 stereo
Run Time: 2 hour(s)
Number of discs: 1


 
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Genetics Research Confirms Biblical Timeline

Exciting research from the summer of 2012 described DNA variation in the protein coding regions of the human genome linked to population growth. One of the investigation's conclusions was that the human genome began to rapidly diversify not more than 5,000 years ago.1,2 This observation closely agrees with a biblical timeline of post-flood human diversification. Yet another study, this one published in the journal Nature, accessed even more extensive data and unintentionally confirmed the recent human history described in Genesis.3

Differences in human DNA can be characterized across populations and ethnic groups using a variety of techniques. One of the most informative genetic technologies in this regard is the analysis of rare DNA variation in the protein coding regions of the genome. Variability in these regions is less frequent than the more numerous genetic differences that occur in the non-coding regulatory regions. Researchers can statistically combine this information with demographic data derived from population growth across the world to generate time scales related to human genetic diversification.4

What makes this type of research unique is that evolutionary scientists typically incorporate hypothetical deep time scales taken from the authority of paleontologists or other similar deep-time scenarios to calibrate models of genetic change over time. Demographics-based studies using observed world population dynamics do not rely on this bias and are therefore more accurate and realistic.

In a 2012 Science report, geneticists analyzed DNA sequences of 15,585 protein-coding gene regions in the human genome for 1,351 European Americans and 1,088 African Americans for rare DNA variation.1,2 This new study accessed rare coding variation in 15,336 genes from over 6,500 humans—almost three times the amount of data compared to the first study.3 A separate group of researchers performed the new study.

The Nature results convey a second spectacular confirmation of the amazingly biblical conclusions from the first study. These scientists confirmed that the human genome began to rapidly diversify not more than 5,000 years ago. In addition, they found significant levels of  variation to be associated with degradation of the human genome, not forward evolutionary progress. This fits closely with research performed by Cornell University geneticist John Sanford who demonstrated through biologically realistic population genetic modeling that genomes actually devolve over time in a process called genetic entropy.5

According to the Bible, the pre-flood world population was reduced to Noah's three sons and their wives, creating a genetic bottleneck from which all humans descended. Immediately following the global flood event, we would expect to see a rapid diversification continuing up to the present. According to Scripture, this began not more than 5,000 years ago. We would also expect the human genome to devolve or degrade as it accumulates irreversible genetic errors over time. Now, two secular research papers confirm these biblical predictions.

References

  1. Tomkins, J. 2012. Human DNA Variation Linked to Biblical Event Timeline. Creation Science Update. Posted on icr.org July 23, 2012, accessed December 31, 2012.
  2. Tennessen, J. et al. 2012. Evolution and Functional Impact of Rare Coding Variation from Deep Sequencing of Human Exomes. Science. 337 (6090): 64-69.
  3. Fu, W, et al. Analysis of 6,515 exomes reveals the recent origin of most human protein-coding variants. Nature. Published online before print, July 13, 2012.
  4. Keinan, A and A. Clark. 2012. Recent Explosive Human Population Growth Has Resulted in an Excess of Rare Genetic Variants. Science. 336 (6082): 740-743.
  5. Sanford, J. C. 2008. Genetic Entropy and the Mystery of the Genome, 3rd ed. Waterloo, NY: FMS Publications.

* Dr. Tomkins is a Research Associate and received his Ph.D. in Genetics from Clemson University.

 

 

Human Fairness: Innate or Evolved?

 
‎05 ‎November ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

How does it make you feel when you put forth just as much effort as the next guy, but he receives twice the reward? Unfair! But how did people acquire the sensibilities involved when assessing fairness? Certain animals recognize unequal rewards too, prompting researchers to try and unravel the origins of fairness.

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Pro-Evolution Pope

 
‎31 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

During an October 28 meeting of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences held in the Vatican, Pope Francis claimed that evolution and the Big Bang do not contradict the Bible. If the Pope says it's okay for Catholics to embrace naturalistic explanations, does that settle the controversy?

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Did God Make the Ebola Virus?

 
‎29 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

When this article was written, the number of West Africans who contract the deadly Ebola virus was doubling about every three and a half weeks, making it the worst outbreak of the disease since the first recorded occurrence in 1976. Where did this virus come from?

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Gamma-Ray Bursts Limit Life in Universe

 
‎27 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

What are the odds that life somehow self-generated? Many experiments have shown that the likelihood of just the right chemicals combining by chance to form even the simplest cell on Earth is so close to zero that some origin-of-life researchers have punted the possibility to some distant unknown planet. But a new study of gamma-ray burst frequency estimates has eliminated the possibility of life on other planets.

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Weather Channel Founder Blasts 'Climate Change'

 
‎24 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

John Coleman, co-founder of the Weather Channel, claims that politics is influencing the supposedly unbiased realm of science—particularly in the debate over climate change.

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Brain Bath: A Clever Design Solution

 
‎17 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

What makes sleep so mentally refreshing? University of Rochester neuroscientist Jeff Iliff addressed the crowd gathered at a September 2014 TEDMED event and explained his amazing new discoveries. The words he used perfectly match what one would expect while describing the works of an ingenious designer.

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Giant Clams Are Brilliant Algae Farmers

 
‎15 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

Giant clams living in the Pacific Ocean's shallow-water tropics display brilliant, iridescent colors. Why do they display such radiance? Researchers uncovered five high-tech specifications that show how these giant clams use specialized iridescent cells to farm colonies of algae.

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A Fuss Over Dust: Planck Satellite Fails to Confirm Big Bang 'Proof'

 
‎13 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

Planck satellite data confirm that the "smoking gun" Big Bang evidence is likely the result of something much more mundane: dust within our own galaxy.

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Throwing Darwin a Curve

 
‎10 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

Great pitchers make it look so easy, and “practice makes perfect,” but it helps that the brain power necessary for control, neurological connections, and muscular arrangements for the human arm are exceedingly better than any system that exists on the planet. Is throwing a ball really that complex?

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Were Intestines Designed for Bacteria?

 
‎08 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

Scientists purposefully made mice sick to test how the creatures’ intestines—and the microbes they harbor—would react. They discovered details behind a remarkable relationship that, when working well, keeps both parties healthy.

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Vital Function Found for Whale 'Leg' Bones

 
‎06 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

Few animal traits are trotted out as illustrations of evolution as often as the whale’s supposed vestigial hip bones. Recent research has uncovered new details about the critical function of these whale hips—details that undermine this key evolutionary argument and confirm divine design.

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Jurassic Squirrels?

 
‎03 ‎October ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

Jurassic mammals made headlines recently, as Chinese paleontologists described six tiny skeletons comprising three new species. The squirrel-like fossils break the long-held idea that most so-called "dinosaur-era" mammals resembled shrews. These newfound mammals look like they lived in trees—not underground like shrews. Do the new fossils help evolutionists clarify their story for the origin of mammals, or do they crank more twists into evolution's troubled saga?

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Australopith Child Gets an Academic Spanking

 
‎29 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

A fossil group of alleged evolutionary human ancestors called australopithecines—all quite ape-like in their features—have traditionally been uncooperative as transitional forms. Now the famous Taung child, a supposed example of early transitional skull features, has been debunked.

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Cambrian Fossil Intensifies Evolutionary Conundrum

 
‎26 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

New fossil finds further verify one of evolution's biggest problems: the Cambrian explosion. According to evolutionary reckoning, a massive explosion of new life supposedly spawned dozens of brand-new fully formed body plans about 530 million years ago. Details from a newly described Canadian fossil fish intensify this Cambrian conundrum.

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Genome Scrambling and Encryption Befuddles Evolution

 
‎24 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

One-cell creatures called ciliates are expanding the concept of genome complexity at an exponential rate. Now a newly sequenced ciliate genome reveals unimaginable levels of programmed rearrangement combined with an ingenious system of encryption.

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Big Bang Fizzles under Lithium Test

 
‎22 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

Secular astrophysicists often talk about “primordial nucleosynthesis” as though it were a proven historical event. In theory, it describes how certain conditions during an early Big Bang universe somehow cobbled together the first elements. But no historical evidence corroborates this primordial nucleosynthesis, an idea beset by a theoretical barrier called the “lithium problem.” Secular scientists recently put this problem to a practical test.

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Are We Evolving Stupidity?

 
‎19 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

Social psychologists are tracking IQ scores and noticed a decline in the last decade after a steady rise since the 1950s. Some wonder if the recent downturn reflects genes that have been eroding all along. Are we evolving stupidity?

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Ten Evidences for Creation

 
‎17 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

Get some fast facts on the evidences for creation science!

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Bible May Solve Colossal Ancient Iceberg Riddle

 
‎15 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

Five seafloor scour troughs show tell-tale signs of having been gouged out by colossal icebergs. But none of today’s icebergs are nearly big enough to scour the seafloor at such a great depth.

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Dual-Gene Codes Defy Evolution...Again

 
‎12 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

Discoveries of DNA sequences that contain different languages, each one with multiple purposes, are utterly defying evolutionary predictions. What was once hailed as redundant code is proving to be key in protein production.

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Ciliate Genome Reveals Mind-Bending Complexity

 
‎10 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

Certain types of fungi can be parasitic to both plants and animals. Two new studies show that this has developed, in part, by a loss of genetic information—not a gain as predicted by evolution.

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New Giant Dinosaur from Argentina

 
‎08 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

Scientists described a new and remarkable fossil skeleton of a giant titanosaur, a group that includes the largest creatures ever to have lived on land. Because this specimen is nearly 45 percent complete, it gives more details than any other fossil of its kind, as well as some details that confirm the biblical creation model.

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Fungal Parasitism Marked by Gene Loss, Not Gain

 
‎05 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

Certain types of fungi can be parasitic to both plants and animals. Two new studies show that this has developed, in part, by a loss of genetic information—not a gain as predicted by evolution.

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Decoding Snake-Venom Origins

 
‎03 ‎September ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

The origin of snake venom has long been a mystery to both creationists and evolutionists. However, by stepping outside the standard research paradigm, scientists recently showed that snake venom proteins may have arisen from existing salivary proteins, supporting the idea that they arose post-Fall through modification of existing features.

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Darwin's Finches: Answers From Epigenetics

 
‎29 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

Authentic speciation is a process whereby organisms diversify within the boundaries of their gene pools, and this can result in variants with specific ecological adaptability. While it was once thought that this process was strictly facilitated by DNA sequence variability, Darwin's classic example of speciation in finches now includes a surprisingly strong epigenetic component as well.

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Octopus Skin Inspires High-Tech Camouflage Fabric

 
‎27 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

An octopus can change the color of its skin at will to mimic any kind of surrounding. It actively camouflages itself with astoundingly complicated biological machinery. Wouldn't it be great if, say, a soldier's uniform or an armored vehicle used similar technology?

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New Finds Reveal Fully-Human Neandertal

 
‎25 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

The case for Neandertals as more primitive members of an evolutionary continuum that spans from apes to modern man continues to weaken. Genetic and archaeological finds are completely reshaping modern concepts of Neandertal men and women.

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There's More to the Story

 
‎22 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

The Dallas Morning News recently reported that a group of Ph.D. scientists is swimming upstream against the scientific community. Instead of believing in millions of years of evolution, the team at the Institute for Creation Research dares to suggest that science confirms biblical creation's view of a world only thousands of years old. And there's more to the story.

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What Is 'Real Scientific Research'?

 
‎20 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

A recent article in The Dallas Morning News and a follow-up NBC interview presented some history and touched on the tenets of the Institute for Creation Research. Both news reports sparked inquiries from readers and viewers. For example, some are now asking, "What defines credible scientific research?"

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DNA Was Created as a Reservoir for the Information of Life

 
‎18 ‎August ‎2014, ‏‎10:00:00 AMGo to full article

Secular scientists claimed in the 1970s that chimp genomes are 98% similar to humans, and it was apparently verified by more modern techniques. But that estimate actually used isolated segments of DNA that we already share with chimps—not the whole genomes. The latest comparison that included all of the two species’ DNA revealed a huge difference from the percentage scientists have been claiming for years.

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Transhumanism is an international intellectual and cultural movement supporting the use of science and technology to improve human mental and physical characteristics and capacities.

by Dr. Martin Erdmann


The human species can, if it wishes, transcend itself. We need a name for this new belief. Perhaps transhumanism will serve: man remaining man, but transcending himself, by realizing new possibilities of and for his human nature.
Julian Huxley
1st director of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (wrote nearly fifty years ago)
Transhumanism is a word that is beginning to bubble to the top of our prophetic studies and horizon. Simply described, transhumanism is an international intellectual and cultural movement supporting the use of science and technology to improve human mental and physical characteristics and capacities - in essence, to create a "posthuman" society.
This is not a passing fad. Transhumanist programs are sponsored in institutions such as Oxford, Standford, and Caltech. Sponsorships come from organizations such as Ford, Apple, Intel, Xerox, Sun Microsystems, and others. DARPA, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, a technical department within the U.S. Department of Defense is also involved in transhumanist projects.
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The Origins of Information: Exploring and Explaining Biological Information


 

In the 21st century, the information age has finally come to biology. We now know that biology at its root is comprised of information rich systems, such as the complex digital code encoded in DNA. Groundbreaking discoveries of the past decade are revealing the information bearing properties of biological systems.

Dr. Stephen C. Meyer, a Cambridge trained philosopher of science is examining and explaining the amazing depth of digital technology found in each and every living cell such as nested coding, digital processing, distributive retrieval and storage systems, and genomic operating systems.

Meyer is developing a more fundamental argument for intelligent design that is based not on a single feature like the bacterial flagellum, but rather on a pervasive feature of all living systems. Alongside matter and energy, Dr. Meyer shows that there is a third fundamental entity in the universe needed for life: information.

 

http://www.stephencmeyer.org/

Got Science? Genesis 1 and Evidence

 

 

 
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Many scientists say complex life just randomly happened.
Primordial soup + lightning strike = Bingo! Is there any shred of scientific evidence that life was CREATED as Genesis 1 claims? Dr. Stephen Meyer, author of SIGNATURE IN THE CELL, says not a shred. Rather, a ton. Learn good reasoning techniques here.
 
08 June 2012, 08:09:11 PM
 

Intelligent Design is not Creationism

 
08 June 2012, 08:09:11 PM | Robert CrowtherGo to full article

This article was originally published in the Daily Telegraph (UK) on January 29. Original Article In 2004, the distinguished philosopher Antony Flew of the University of Reading made worldwide news when he repudiated a lifelong commitment to atheism and affirmed the reality of some kind of a creator. Flew cited evidence of intelligent design in DNA and the arguments of "American [intelligent] design theorists" as important reasons for this shift. Since then, British readers have learnt about the theory of intelligent design (ID) mainly from media reports about United States court battles over the legality of teaching students about it. According to most reports, ID is a "faith-based" alternative to evolution based solely on religion. But is this accurate? As one of the architects of the theory, I know it isn't. Contrary to media reports, ID is not a religious-based idea, but an evidence-based scientific theory about life's origins. According to Darwinian biologists such as Oxford University's Richard Dawkins, living systems "give the appearance of having been designed for a purpose". But, for modern Darwinists, that appearance of design is illusory, because the purely undirected process of natural selection acting on random mutations is entirely sufficient to produce the intricate designed-like structures found in living organisms. By contrast, ID holds that there are tell-tale features of living systems and the universe that are best explained by a designing intelligence. The theory does not challenge the idea of evolution defined as change over time, or even common ancestry, but it disputes Darwin's idea that the cause of biological change is wholly blind and undirected. What signs of intelligence do design advocates see? In recent years, biologists have discovered an exquisite world of nanotechnology within living cells - complex circuits, sliding clamps, energy-generating turbines and miniature machines. For example, bacterial cells are propelled by rotary engines called flagellar motors that rotate at 100,000rpm. These engines look like they were designed by engineers, with many distinct mechanical parts (made of proteins), including rotors, stators, O-rings, bushings, U-joints and drive shafts. The biochemist Michael Behe points out that the flagellar motor depends on the co-ordinated function of 30 protein parts. Remove one of these proteins and the rotary motor doesn't work. The motor is, in Behe's words, "irreducibly complex". This creates a problem for the Darwinian mechanism. Natural selection preserves or "selects" functional advantages as they arise by random mutation. Yet the flagellar motor does not function unless all its 30 parts are present. Thus, natural selection can "select" the motor once it has arisen as a functioning whole, but it cannot produce the motor in a step-by-step Darwinian fashion. Natural selection purportedly builds complex systems from simpler structures by preserving a series of intermediates, each of which must perform some function. With the flagellar motor, most of the critical intermediate structures perform no function for selection to preserve. This leaves the origin of the flagellar motor unexplained by the mechanism - natural selection - that Darwin specifically proposed to replace the design hypothesis. Is there a better explanation? Based on our uniform experience, we know of only one type of cause that produces irreducibly complex systems: intelligence. Whenever we encounter complex systems - whether integrated circuits or internal combustion engines - and we know how they arose, invariably a designing intelligence played a role. Consider an even more fundamental argument for design. In 1953, when Watson and Crick elucidated the structure of the DNA molecule, they made a startling discovery. Strings of precisely sequenced chemicals called nucleotides in DNA store and transmit the assembly instructions - the information - in a four-character digital code for building the protein molecules the cell needs to survive. Crick then developed his "sequence hypothesis", in which the chemical bases in DNA function like letters in a written language or symbols in a computer code. As Dawkins has noted, "the machine code of the genes is uncannily computer-like". The informational features of the cell at least appear designed. Yet, to date, no theory of undirected chemical evolution has explained the origin of the digital information needed to build the first living cell. Why? There is simply too much information in the cell to be explained by chance alone. The information in DNA (and RNA) has also been shown to defy explanation by forces of chemical necessity. Saying otherwise would be like saying a headline arose as the result of chemical attraction between ink and paper. Clearly, something else is at work. DNA functions like a software program. We know from experience that software comes from programmers. We know that information - whether, say, in hieroglyphics or radio signals - always arises from an intelligent source. As the pioneering information theorist Henry Quastler observed: "Information habitually arises from conscious activity." So the discovery of digital information in DNA provides strong grounds for inferring that intelligence played a causal role in its origin. Thus, ID is not based on religion, but on scientific discoveries and our experience of cause and effect, the basis of all scientific reasoning about the past. Unlike creationism, ID is an inference from biological data. Even so, ID may provide support for theistic belief. But that is not grounds for dismissing it. Those who do confuse the evidence for the theory with its possible implications. Many astrophysicists initially rejected the Big Bang theory because it seemed to point to the need for a transcendent cause of matter, space and time. But science eventually accepted it because the evidence strongly supported it. Today, a similar prejudice confronts ID. Nevertheless, this new theory must also be evaluated on the basis of the evidence, not philosophical preferences. As Professor Flew advises: "We must follow the evidence, wherever it leads." Stephen C Meyer edited 'Darwinism, Design and Public Education' (Michigan State University Press). He has a PhD in philosophy of science from Cambridge University and is a senior fellow at the Discovery Institute in Seattle.

 

09 December 2011, 11:13:24 PM

New Research Supports Meyer's Discussion of Pre-Biotic Chemistry in Signature in the Cell

 
09 December 2011, 11:13:24 PM | Andrew McDiarmidGo to full article
A recent Nature publication reports a new technique for measuring the oxygen levels in Earth's atmosphere some 4.4 billion years ago. The authors found that by studying cerium oxidation states in zircon, a compound formed from volcanic magma, they could ascertain the oxidation levels in the early earth. Their findings suggest that the early Earth's oxygen levels were very close to current levels. This research supports Dr. Meyer's discussion in Signature in the Cell. On pgs. 224-226 of Ch. 10: Beyond the Reach of Chance, Meyer states that when Stanley Miller conducted his famous 1953 experiment simulating early Earth's atmosphere, he "assumed that the earth's atmosphere contained virtually no free oxygen." Meyer reveals that new geochemical evidence showed that the assumptions Miller had made about the early atmosphere were incorrect. This new research is additional confirmation that oxygen was present in significant quantities. Because oxygen quenches organic reactions necessary to produce essential building blocks of life, the ability of inorganic materials to produce organic life, as chemical evolutionary theory assumes, is not possible. Read the complete article at ENV.

 

Dr. Meyer Debates Signature in the Cell Arguments with Keith Fox on Premier Radio UK

24 November 2011, 12:37:19 AM | Andrew McDiarmidGo to full article
During a recent visit to London, Dr. Stephen Meyer debated Keith Fox on Premier Radio UK's "Unbelievable" program. Fox is a professor of biochemistry at Southampton University and Chair of the UK's Christians in Science network. Two years after its publication, Meyer's Signature in the Cell continues to make an impact with its powerful argument for design in DNA. In this lively conversation, Meyer and Fox discuss origins of life and the design inference in science.

 

« Overflowtoday.com asks Stephen Meyer if he's got science | Main

Dr. Meyer Debates Signature in the Cell Arguments with Keith Fox on Premier Radio UK


During a recent visit to London, Dr. Stephen Meyer debated Keith Fox on Premier Radio UK's "Unbelievable" program. Fox is a professor of biochemistry at Southampton University and Chair of the UK's Christians in Science network. Two years after its publication, Meyer's Signature in the Cell continues to make an impact with its powerful argument for design in DNA. In this lively conversation, Meyer and Fox discuss origins of life and the design inference in science.


 

 

July 14, 2010

What is the key thing that needs to be explained in origin of life research?

Dr. Stephen Meyer explains the importance of biological information in origin of life research, as discussed in his groundbreaking intelligent design book Signature in the Cell.

 

 

Watch here in high resolution.

 

Searching For The Truth On Origins
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