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On This Day

 

Expectations

 of the

 Antichrist

 

Dr. Chuck Missler and Ron Matsen

Price R 499.00

There are many diverse anticipations concerning the Coming World Leader, commonly referred to as “The Antichrist.” This study will explore the Biblical descriptions with the specific expectations of the globalists, Islam, the Vatican, Freemasonry, and others.
• Will he be a Nephilim?
• Why is the Vatican openly preparing to receive an “alien” visitor?
• Will he be a resurrection of Nimrod? Is his DNA a factor?
• What are the expectations of transhumanist technologists in this regard?
Clearly, the Bible has much more to illuminate this issue far beyond the popular conceptions; and yet the composite perspective will astonish most. Furthermore, is there a climactic cosmic deception being prepared that, if it were possible, “it would deceive the very elect”? Jesus commanded us, “Be not deceived.” But, how?
How close are these events to our current horizon?
Join Dr. Chuck Missler and Ron Matsen in an intensive summary of some of the Strategic Trends that will impact all of us.
Available in the following formats:

DVD:
•3 Discs
•6 M4A Files
•1 PDF Notes File
•Color, Fullscreen 16:9, Dolby Digital 2.0 stereo, Region  encoding ( This DVD will be viewable in other countries WITH the proper DVD player and television set.)


 

   
 

The Fulcrum of the Entire Universe

 

 

Price R 179.00

 

 

Isaiah 53 describes the astonishing personal sacrifice that is the fulcrum—the pivot—of the entire cosmic drama. However, it is the personal aspect of this passage that grips our soul.

The Fulcrum of the Universe. The Pivot of All History. These sound like rather fanciful labels, don’t they? We are talking about Isaiah 53, often called the “Holy of Holies of the Old Testament.” In just 12 verses, it summarizes the entire New Testament as the clarion of the Old.

Price R179.00

 

 

Price R179.00

 

 

 

 

 

Angels, Volume III:

The Denizens of the Metacosm

 

DVD

 

 

 

Price R 179.00

 

 

 

 

Angels, Volume III: The Denizens of the Metacosm

 

DVD

by Dr. Chuck Missler

Description

Volumes 1 & 2 of this series explored the finite limits and boundaries of our physical reality. After probing the limits of both the Macrocosm and the Microcosm, we discovered that our reality is but a shadow of larger reality, the Metacosm, a domain of extra-dimensional transfers and other paradoxical phenomena.

 

Volume 3 explores the contradictory behavior of UFOs and other demonic deceptions characteristic of the End Times. Explore these topics in more detail in either this two-hour briefing, Angels Vol 3: The Denizens of the Metacosm or our six-hour extensive study, Expectations of the Antichrist.

 

   • Are they real?

• Why do UFOs enjoy a military classification higher than our most sensitive weapons systems?

• Why are the events which occurred in Roswell New Mexico still classified after 66 years?

• Why is the Vatican openly preparing to receive an Alien Visitor?

• How should a Christian deal with the occurrences of Alien abductions?

• Jesus admonished us to “Be not deceived.” How?

• How do we prepare for the deception which, “if it were possible, would deceive the very elect”?

 

Join Dr. Chuck Missler in the Executive Briefing Room of the River Lodge, New Zealand, exploring the misinformation, (and deliberate disinformation) about the various “denizens of the Metacosm” and other insights of the invisible war unfolding on our near horizon.

 

This briefing pack contains 2 hours of teaching

 

Available in the following formats

 

DVD:

•1 Disc

•2 M4A Files

•Color, Fullscreen 16:9, Dolby Digital 2.0 stereo, Region. This DVD will be viewable in other countries WITH the proper DVD player and television set.)

   
 

 

***Brand New Release ***

 

DVD Price R 899.00

 

 

CD ROM SET R349.00

 

 

 

Read More...>>>

 

The Dead Sea Scroll is used in this Commentary.

 

 

Isaiah scroll discovered at Qumran

 

 

 

 

  21st
 
362 Athanasius returns to Alexandria.

 

 

Saint Athanasius of Alexandria (Greek: Ἀθανάσιος Ἀλεξανδρείας, Athanásios Alexandrías) (c. 296–298 – 2 May 373), also called Athanasius the Great, Athanasius the Confessor or, primarily in the Coptic Orthodox Church, Athanasius the Apostolic, was the twentieth bishop of Alexandria (as Athanasius I). His episcopate lasted 45 years (c. 8 June 328 – 2 May 373), of which over 17 were spent in five exiles ordered by four different Roman emperors. He is considered to be a renowned Christian theologian, a Church Father, the chief defender of Trinitarianism against Arianism, and a noted Egyptian leader of the fourth century.

 

He is remembered for his role in the conflict with Arius and Arianism. In 325, at the age of 27, Athanasius had a leading role against the Arians in the First Council of Nicaea. At the time, he was a deacon and personal secretary of the 19th Bishop of Alexandria, Alexander. Nicaea was convoked by Constantine I in May–August 325 to address the Arian position that the Son of God, Jesus of Nazareth, is of a distinct substance from the Father.

 

In June 328, at the age of 30, three years after Nicæa and upon the repose of Bishop Alexander, he became archbishop of Alexandria. He continued to lead the conflict against the Arians for the rest of his life and was engaged in theological and political struggles against the Emperors Constantine the Great and Constantius II and powerful and influential Arian churchmen, led by Eusebius of Nicomedia and others. He was known as "Athanasius Contra Mundum". Within a few years of his departure, St. Gregory of Nazianzus called him the "Pillar of the Church". His writings were well regarded by all Church fathers who followed, in both the West and the East. His writings show a rich devotion to the Word-become-man, great pastoral concern, and profound interest in monasticism.

 

1245 Thomas, the first known Bishop of Finland, is granted resignation after confessing to torture and forgery.

 

 

No further information on the bishop's activities has survived before he was granted resignation by Pope Innocent IV on 21 February 1245. According to the Pope, Thomas had admitted committing several felonies, such as torturing a man to death, and forging a papal letter. Church representatives to oversee the resignation were the Archbishop of Uppsala and the Dominican prior of the Dacian province. Thomas donated his books to the newly established Dominican convent in Sigtuna and went on to live his last years in the Dominican convent in Visby, Gotland. He died there in 1248, shortly before the Second Swedish Crusade which cemented the Swedish rule in Finland for more than 550 years.

 

1543 Battle of Wayna Daga – A combined army of Ethiopian and Portuguese troops defeats a Muslim army led by Ahmed Gragn.

 

The Battle of Wayna Daga (Amharic for "Grape-cultivating altitude") occurred on 21 February 1543 east of Lake Tana in Ethiopia. Led by the Emperor Galawdewos, the combined army of Ethiopian and Portuguese troops defeated the Somali-Ottoman army led by Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi. Tradition states that Ahmad was killed by a Portuguese musketeer, who had charged alone into the Muslim lines. Once the Imam's soldiers learned of his death, they fled the battlefield.

 

 

1848 Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels publish The Communist Manifesto.

 

 

 

1885 – The newly completed Washington Monument is dedicated.

 

 

The Washington Monument is an obelisk on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., built to commemorate George Washington, once commander-in-chief of the early Continental Army and the first American president.

The monument, made of marble, granite, and bluestone gneiss, is both the world's tallest stone structure and the world's tallest obelisk, standing 555 feet 5 18 inches (169.294 m) tall. Taller monumental columns exist, but they are neither all stone nor true obelisks.

 

Construction of the monument began in 1848, was halted from 1854 to 1877, and was finally completed in 1884. The hiatus in construction happened because of co-option by the Know Nothing party, a lack of funds, and the intervention of the American Civil War. A difference in shading of the marble, visible approximately 150 feet (46 m) or 27% up, shows where construction was halted. Its original design was by Robert Mills, an architect of the 1840s, but his design was modified significantly when construction resumed. The cornerstone was laid on July 4, 1848; the capstone was set on December 6, 1884, and the completed monument was dedicated on February 21, 1885. It officially opened October 9, 1888. Upon completion, it became the world's tallest structure, a title previously held by the Cologne Cathedral. The monument held this designation until 1889, when the Eiffel Tower was completed in Paris, France.

 

1913 Ioannina is incorporated into the Greek state after the Balkan Wars.

 

 

According to oral folklore Jewish communities inhabited the site of the modern city as early as 70 AD. According to Greek scholar P. Aravantinos a synagogue destroyed in the 18th century bore an inscription, which dated its foundation in the late 9th century AD. The existing synagogue is located in the old fortified part of the city known as "Kastro", at 16 Ioustinianou street. Its name means "the Old Synagogue". It was constructed in 1829. Its architecture is typical of the Ottoman era, a large building made of stone. The interior of the synagogue is laid out in the Romaniote way: the Bimah (where the Torah scrolls are read out during service) is on a raised dais on the western wall, the Aron haKodesh (where the Torah scrolls are kept) is on the eastern wall and at the middle there is a wide interior aisle. The names of the Ioanniote Jews who were killed in the Holocaust are engraved in stone on the walls of the synagogue.

 

 

There was a Romaniote Jewish community living in Ioannina before World War II, in addition to a very small number of Sephardi. According to Rae Dalven, 1,950 Jews were living in Ioannina in April 1941. Of these, 1,870 were deported by the Nazis to concentration camps on 25 March 1944, during the final months of German occupation. Almost all of the people deported were murdered on or shortly after 11 April 1944, when the train carrying them reached Auschwitz-Birkenau. Only 181 Ioannina Jews are known to have survived the war, including 112 who survived Auschwitz and 69 who fled to join the resistance leader Napoleon Zervas and the National Republican Greek League (EDES). Approximately 164 of these survivors eventually returned to Ioannina.

 

 

1916 World War I: In France, the Battle of Verdun begins.

 

Unternehmen Gericht (Operation Judgement) was due to begin on 12 February, but fog, heavy rain and high winds delayed the offensive until 7:15 a.m. on 21 February, when a 10-hour artillery bombardment by 808 guns began. The German artillery fired c. 1,000,000 shells along a front about 30 km (19 mi) long by 5 km (3.1 mi) wide. The main concentration of fire was on the right (east) bank of the Meuse river. More than half of the German guns and howitzers were heavy, 470 guns being 150 mm (5.91 in) and 210 mm (8.3 in) howitzers. Twenty-six super-heavy, long-range guns, up to 420 mm (16.5 in), fired on the forts and the city of Verdun; a rumble could be heard 160 km (99 mi) away. The bombardment was paused at midday, as a ruse to prompt French survivors to reveal themselves, and German artillery-observation aircraft were able to fly over the battlefield unmolested by French aircraft. The 3rd, 7th and 18th corps attacked at 4:00 p.m.; the Germans used flamethrowers for the first time and storm troops followed closely with rifles slung, to use hand grenades to clear the remaining defenders. French survivors engaged the attackers, but by the end of the first day, the German assault troops had only suffered about 600 casualties.

 

 

1918 – The last Carolina Parakeet dies in captivity at the Cincinnati Zoo.

 

 

1919 – German socialist Kurt Eisner is assassinated. His death results in the establishment of the Bavarian Soviet Republic and parliament and government fleeing Munich, Germany.

 

 

Kurt Eisner was born in Berlin at 10:15 p.m. on 14 May 1867 to Emanuel Eisner and Hedwig Levenstein, both Jewish. He was married to painter Elisabeth Hendrich from 1892, with whom he had five children, but they eventually divorced in 1917 and Eisner then married Elise Belli, an editor. With her, he had two daughters.

 

Eisner was assassinated in Munich when German nationalist Anton Graf von Arco auf Valley shot Eisner in the back on 21 February 1919. Eisner was on his way to present his resignation to the Bavarian parliament. His assassination resulted in the establishment of the brief Bavarian Soviet Republic and parliament and government fleeing Munich.

In 1989 a monument at the site of his assassination was built. It reads, "Kurt Eisner, der am 9. November 1918 die Bayerische Republik ausrief, nachmaliger Ministerpräsident des Volksstaates Bayern, wurde an dieser Stelle am 21. Februar 1919 ermordet." ("Kurt Eisner, who proclaimed the Bavarian republic on 8 November 1918 – later Prime Minister of the Republic of Bavaria – was murdered here on 21 February 1919.")

 

1921 – Rezā Shāh takes control of Tehran during a successful coup

 

 

1945 World War II: Japanese Kamikaze planes sink the escort carrier USS Bismarck Sea and damage the USS Saratoga.

 

 

1958 – The peace symbol, commissioned by Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament in protest against the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment, is designed and completed by Gerald Holtom.

 

 

 

1965 Malcolm X is assassinated at the Audubon Ballroom in New York City by members of the Nation of Islam.

 

 

In April 1964, with financial help from his half-sister Ella Little-Collins, Malcolm X flew to Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, as the start of his Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca obligatory for every Muslim who is able to do so. However, he was delayed in Jeddah when his U.S. citizenship and inability to speak Arabic caused his status as a Muslim to be questioned. He contacted Abdul Rahman Hassan Azzam, whose book The Eternal Message of Muhammad he had received with his visa approval. Azzam's son arranged for his release and lent him his personal hotel suite. The next morning he learned that Prince Faisal had designated him a state guest and several days later, after completing the Hajj rituals, Malcolm X had an audience with the prince.

Malcolm X later said that seeing Muslims of "all colors, from blue-eyed blonds to black-skinned Africans" interacting as equals led him to see Islam as a means by which racial problems could be overcome.

 

 

On February 21, 1965, Malcolm X was preparing to address the Organization of Afro-American Unity in Manhattan's Audubon Ballroom when someone in the 400-person audience yelled "Nigger! Get your hand outta my pocket!" As Malcolm X and his bodyguards attempted to quiet the disturbance,a man who was seated in the front row rushed forward and shot him once in the chest with a double-barreled sawed-off shotgun.Two other men charged the stage and fired semi-automatic handguns, hitting Malcolm X several times. He was pronounced dead at 3:30 pm, shortly after arriving at Columbia Presbyterian Hospital. The autopsy report showed 21 gunshot wounds to the chest, left shoulder, and arms and legs, of which ten were buckshot wounds from the initial shotgun blast.

 

1970 Swissair Flight 330: A mid-air bomb explosion and subsequent crash kills 38 passengers and nine crew members near Zürich, Switzerland.

 

On February 21, 1970, HB-ICD a Convair CV-990 Coronado jet named “Baselland” was flying on the route with 38 passengers and nine crew members. A bomb detonated in the aft cargo compartment of the aircraft about nine minutes after take-off climb-out on southerly course approximately at 12:15 UTC in the area of Lucerne north of the St. Gotthard Pass. The crew tried to turn around and attempt an emergency landing at Zürich but had difficulty seeing the instruments due to smoke in the cockpit. The aircraft deviated more and more to the west and crashed a short time later in a wooded area at Würenlingen near Zürich, Switzerland, due to the loss of electrical power. All aboard the aircraft were killed.

 

A Government air inspector was flown to the scene in a helicopter. He was followed shortly afterward by a team of 50 investigators. The police said that a woman handed in a 9-mm. pistol found at the scene of the crash immediately after the disaster. Some of the wreckage, including pieces of cloth, was strung out on the tops and branches of trees.

 

Sabotage was immediately suspected here because of the anger caused in Arab countries by the sentencing the previous December of three Palestinians to 12 years imprisonment by a Swiss court. An Arab guerrilla splinter group, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command, said in Beirut, Lebanon, that it had been responsible for the explosion. Reuters reported later, however, from Amman, Jordan, that a spokesman for the guerrilla group had denied that it was involved.

 

A barometric triggered IED had been used. On the same day, a bomb exploded aboard a Vienna-bound Caravelle after takeoff from Frankfurt. The Caravelle landed safely.

 

 

Memorial near the crash site.

 

1971 – The Convention on Psychotropic Substances is signed at Vienna.

 

 

The Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971 is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and psychedelics signed in Vienna, Austria on 21 February 1971. The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 could not ban the many newly discovered psychotropics, since its scope was limited to drugs with cannabis, coca, and opium-like effects.

 

During the 1960s such drugs became widely available, and government authorities opposed this for numerous reasons, arguing that along with negative health effects, drug use led to lowered moral standards. The Convention, which contains import and export restrictions and other rules aimed at limiting drug use to scientific and medical purposes, came into force on 16 August 1976. As of 2013, 183 states are Parties to the treaty. Many laws have been passed to implement the Convention, including the U.S. Psychotropic Substances Act, the UK Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, and the Canadian Controlled Drugs and Substances Act. Adolf Lande, under the direction of the United Nations Office of Legal Affairs, prepared the Commentary on the Convention on Psychotropic Substances. The Commentary, published in 1976, is an invaluable aid to interpreting the treaty and constitutes a key part of its legislative history.

 

Provisions to end the international trafficking of drugs covered by this Convention are contained in the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances. This treaty, signed in 1988, regulates precursor chemicals to drugs controlled by the Single Convention and the Convention on Psychotropic Substances. It also strengthens provisions against money laundering and other drug-related crimes.

 

1973 – Over the Sinai Desert, Israeli fighter aircraft shoot down Libyan Arab Airlines Flight 114 jet killing 108.

 

 

Libyan Arab Airlines Flight 114 (LN 144) was a regularly scheduled flight from Tripoli to Cairo via Benghazi. An aircraft serving this flight was shot down by Israeli fighter jets in 1973.

 

At 10:30 on 21 February 1973, the 727–224 left Tripoli, and became lost because of a combination of bad weather and equipment failure over northern Egypt around 13:44 (1:44 pm local). It entered Israeli-controlled airspace over the Sinai Peninsula, where it was intercepted by two Israeli F-4 Phantom IIs, and was shot down after refusing to co-operate. Of the 113 people on board, there were five survivors, including the co-pilot.

 

 

  20th
 
 

1798 Louis Alexandre Berthier removes Pope Pius VI from power.

 

 

He accompanied Napoleon throughout the brilliant campaign of 1796, and was left in charge of the army after the Treaty of Campo Formio. He was in this post in 1798 when he entered Italy, invaded the Vatican, organized the Roman republic, and took the pope Pius VI as prisoner back to Valence (France) where, after a torturous journey under Berthier's supervision, the pope died, dealing a major blow to the Vatican's political power which, however did not prove as ephemeral as that of the First Empire. After this he joined his chief in Egypt, serving there until Napoleon's return. He assisted in the coup d'état of 18 Brumaire (9 November 1799), afterwards becoming Minister of War for a time. In the campaign of Marengo he was the nominal head of the Army of Reserve, but the first consul accompanied the army and Berthier acted in reality, as always, as Chief of Staff to Napoleon.

 

1835 Concepción, Chile is destroyed by an earthquake.

 

 

Earthquakes and tsunamis, which razed the town in 1570, 1657, 1687, 1730 and 1751, led the authorities to move the town to its current site in the Valle de la Mocha, alongside the Bío Bío River; the old site lay empty until March 29, 1842, when the present town of Penco was founded.

 

 

 

The new site for the town of Concepción became the main town of the Intendancy of Concepción, whose jurisdiction extended from the Maule River to La Frontera. The first Intendant of Concepción was the Irishman Ambrose O'Higgins, Marquis of Osorno, who later became Royal Governor of Chile and Viceroy of Peru.

 

 

1933 – Adolf Hitler secretly meets with German industrialists to arrange for financing of the Nazi Party's upcoming election campaign.

 

The Secret Meeting of 20 February 1933 (German: "Geheimtreffen vom 20. Februar 1933") was a secret meeting between Adolf Hitler and 20 to 25 industrialists at the official residence of Hermann Göring in the Reichstag Presidential Palace aimed at financing the election campaign of the Nazi Party.

The German elections were to be held on 5 March 1933. The Nazi Party wanted to achieve two-thirds majority to pass the Enabling Act and desired to raise three million Reichsmark to fund the campaigns. According to records, two million Reichsmarks were contributed at the meeting.

 

Transactions involving the account of Nationale Treuhand, Dr. Hjalmar Schacht at the Bank of Delbrück Schickler & Co.
Date Depositor Sum
February 23 Bergbauverein 200,000 Reichsmark
February 24 Karl Hermann 150,000 Reichsmark
Automobil-Ausstellung, Berlin 100,000 Reichsmark
February 25 Dir. A. Steinke 200,000 Reichsmark
Demag 50,000 Reichsmark
February 27 Telefunken 35,000 Reichsmark
Osram 40,000 Reichsmark
February 28 IG Farben 400,000 Reichsmark
March 1 Hjalmar Schacht 125,000 Reichsmark
March 3 Dir. Karl Lange,
Engineering industry
50,000 Reichsmark
Bergbauverein 100,000 Reichsmark
Karl Hermann,
Berlin Dessauer Str.
150,000 Reichsmark
AEG 60,000 Reichsmark
March 7 Fritz Springorum 36,000 Reichsmark
Accumulatorenfabrik AG, Berlin
(Owner: Günther Quandt)
25,000 Reichsmark
March 13 Bergbauverein 300,000 Reichsmark
Final Balance 2,071,000 Reichsmark

 

 

1943 – The Parícutin volcano begins to form in Parícutin, Mexico.

 

 

Parícutin (or Volcán de Parícutin, also accented Paricutín) is a cinder cone volcano in the Mexican state of Michoacán, close to a lava-covered village of the same name. The volcano is unique in the fact that its evolution from creation to extinction was witnessed, observed and studied by human beings. It appears on many versions of the Seven Natural Wonders of the World. Parícutin is part of the Michoacán-Guanajuato volcanic field, which covers much of west central Mexico. It is part of the Ring of Fire.

 

Three weeks before the actual eruption, rumbling noises that resembled thunder were heard by people near Parícutin village. These were actually deep earthquakes. The volcano began as a fissure in a cornfield owned by a P'urhépecha farmer, Dionisio Pulido, on February 20, 1943. He and his wife witnessed the initial eruption of ash and stones first-hand: "Dionisio Pulido and his wife Paula were burning shrubbery in their cornfield. The volcano grew quickly, reaching five stories tall in just a week, and it could be seen from afar in a month. Much of the volcano's growth occurred during its first year, while it was still in the explosive pyroclastic phase. The nearby villages Parícutin (after which the volcano was named) and San Juan Parangaricutiro were both buried in lava and ash; the residents relocated to vacant land nearby.

 

At the end of this phase, after roughly one year, the volcano had grown 336 metres (1,102 feet) tall. For the next eight years the volcano continued erupting, although this was dominated by relatively quiet eruptions of lava that scorched the surrounding 25 square kilometres (9.7 square miles; 6,200 acres) of land.  The volcano's activity slowly declined during this period until the last six months of the eruption, during which violent and explosive activity was frequent. In 1952, the eruption ended and Parícutin went quiet, attaining a final height of 424 metres (1,391 feet) above the cornfield where it began. The volcano has been quiet since then. Like most cinder cones, Parícutin is believed to be a monogenetic volcano, which means that once it has finished erupting, it will never erupt again. Any new eruptions in a monogenetic volcanic field will erupt in a new location.

 

1944 World War II: The "Big Week" began with American bomber raids on German aircraft manufacturing centers.

 

1944 – World War II: The United States takes Eniwetok Island.

 

 

1962 Mercury program: While aboard Friendship 7, John Glenn becomes the first American to orbit the earth, making three orbits in 4 hours, 55 minutes.

 

 

1987 Unabomber: In Salt Lake City, a bomb explodes in a computer store.

 

 

Theodore John "Ted" Kaczynski (/kəˈzɪnski/ ka-ZIN-skee, or ka-CHIN-skee; Polish: Kaczyński, pronounced [kaˈt͡ʂɨȷ̃skʲi]; born May 22, 1942), also known as the "Unabomber," is an American mathematician and serial murderer. He is known for his wide-ranging social critiques, which opposed industrialism and modern technology. Between 1978 and 1995, Kaczynski engaged in a nationwide bombing campaign against people involved with modern technology, planting or mailing numerous home-made bombs, ultimately killing a total of three people and injuring 23 others.

 

Kaczynski was born and raised in Evergreen Park, Illinois. While growing up in Evergreen Park he was a child prodigy, excelling academically from an early age. Kaczynski was accepted into Harvard University at the age of 16, where he earned an undergraduate degree. He subsequently earned a PhD in mathematics from the University of Michigan. He became an assistant professor at the University of California, Berkeley in 1967 at age 25. He resigned two years later.

In 1971, he moved to a remote cabin without electricity or running water, in Lincoln, Montana, where he lived as a recluse while learning survival skills in an attempt to become self-sufficient. From 1978 to 1995, Kaczynski sent 16 bombs to targets including universities and airlines, killing three people and injuring 23. Kaczynski sent a letter to The New York Times on April 24, 1995 and promised "to desist from terrorism" if the Times or the Washington Post published his manifesto, Industrial Society and Its Future (also called the "Unabomber Manifesto"), in which he argued that his bombings were extreme but necessary to attract attention to the erosion of human freedom necessitated by modern technologies requiring large-scale organization.

 

 

1988 – The Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast votes to secede from Azerbaijan and join Armenia, triggering the Nagorno-Karabakh War.

 

 

The Nagorno-Karabakh War, known as the Artsakh Liberation War in Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh, was an armed conflict that took place after the disintegration of the USSR in 1991 to May 1994, in the enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh in southwestern Azerbaijan, between the majority ethnic Armenians of Nagorno-Karabakh backed by the Republic of Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan. As the war progressed, Armenia and Azerbaijan, both former Soviet Republics, entangled themselves in a protracted, undeclared war in the mountainous heights of Karabakh as Azerbaijan attempted to curb the secessionist movement in Nagorno-Karabakh. The enclave's parliament had voted in favor of uniting itself with Armenia and a referendum, boycotted by the Azerbaijani population of Nagorno-Karabakh, was held, whereby most of the voters voted in favor of independence. The demand to unify with Armenia, which began anew in 1988, began in a relatively peaceful manner; however, in the following months, as the Soviet Union's disintegration neared, it gradually grew into an increasingly violent conflict between ethnic Armenians and ethnic

 

 

2009 Two Tamil Tigers aircraft packed with C4 explosives en route to the national airforce headquarters are shot down by the Sri Lankan military before reaching their target, in a kamikaze style attack.

 

 

The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, also known as the LTTE or the Tamil Tigers, was a separatist militant organization that was fighting to create an independent Tamil state in the north and east of Sri Lanka. Between 1983 and 2009, they engaged in violent conflict with the military of Sri Lanka, which resulted in the deaths of an estimated 70,000 people. During their campaign, the Tamil Tigers used a variety of controversial tactics, including the extensive use of suicide bombers. They were credited with inventing the suicide jacket, which has since been copied by Hamas and Islamic Jihad and by Iraqi insurgents. The Tamil Tigers are designated as a terrorist organization by 32 countries, including the United States, Canada, and the member nations of the European Union.

 

2010 – In Madeira Island, Portugal, heavy rain causes floods and mudslides, resulting in at least 43 deaths, in the worst disaster in the history of the archipelago.

 

 

2013 – The smallest Extrasolar planet, Kepler-37b is discovered.

 

 

 

  19th
 

356 – Emperor Constantius II issues a decree closing all pagan temples in the Roman Empire.

 

 

 

Constantius seems to have had a particular interest in the religious state of the Roman Empire. As a Christian Roman Emperor, Constantius made a concerted effort to promote Christianity at the expense of Roman polytheism (‘paganism’). He issued a number of edicts designed to carry out this agenda (see below). Constantius also took an active part in attempting to shape the Christian church.

 

 

Paganism

In spite of the some of the edicts issued by Constantius, he was not fanatically anti-pagan – he never made any attempt to disband the various Roman priestly colleges or the Vestal Virgins he never acted against the various pagan schools, and, at times, he actually made some effort to protect paganism. In fact, he even ordered the election of a priest for Africa.Also, he remained pontifex maximus and was deified by the Roman Senate after his death. His relative moderation toward paganism is reflected by the fact that it was over twenty years after his death, during the reign of Gratian, that any pagan senator protested his treatment of their religion.

Pagan-related edicts issued by Constantius (by himself or with others) included:

  • The banning of sacrifices;
  • The closing of pagan temples;
  • Edicts against soothsayers and magicians.

 

1600 – The Peruvian stratovolcano Huaynaputina explodes in the most violent eruption in the recorded history of South America.

 

.

 

1847 – The first group of rescuers reaches the Donner Party.

 

The Donner Party (sometimes called the Donner-Reed Party) was a group of American pioneers who set out for California in a wagon train. Delayed by a series of mishaps, they spent the winter of 1846–47 snowbound in the Sierra Nevada. Some of the emigrants resorted to cannibalism to survive, eating those who had succumbed to starvation and sickness.

The journey west usually took between four and six months, but the Donner Party was slowed by following a new route called Hastings Cutoff, which crossed Utah's Wasatch Mountains and Great Salt Lake Desert. The rugged terrain, and difficulties later encountered while traveling along the Humboldt River in present-day Nevada, resulted in the loss of many cattle and wagons, and splits within the group.

 

 

Jean Baptiste Trudeau, pictured here as an adult, gave conflicting accounts of cannibalism at Alder Creek.

 

Although some survivors disputed the accounts of cannibalism, Charles McGlashan, who corresponded with many of the survivors over a 40-year period, documented many recollections that it occurred. Some correspondents were not forthcoming, approaching their participation with shame, but others eventually spoke about it freely. McGlashan in his 1879 book History of the Donner Party declined to include some of the more morbid details – such as the suffering of the children and infants before death, or how Mrs. Murphy, according to Georgia Donner, gave up, lay down on her bed and faced the wall when the last of the children left in the third relief. He also neglected to mention any of the cannibalism at Alder Creek.The same year McGlashan's book was published, Georgia Donner wrote to him to clarify some points, saying that human flesh was prepared for people in both tents at Alder Creek, but to her recollection (she was four years old during the winter of 1846–1847) it was given only to the youngest children: "Father was crying and did not look at us the entire time, and we little ones felt we could not help it. There was nothing else." She also remembered that Elizabeth Donner, Jacob's wife, announced one morning that she had cooked the arm of Samuel Shoemaker, a 25-year-old teamster. Eliza Donner Houghton, in her 1911 account of the ordeal, did not mention any cannibalism at Alder Creek. Archaeological findings at the Alder Creek camp proved inconclusive for evidence of cannibalism.

 

 

Stumps of trees cut at the Alder Creek site by members of the Donner Party, photograph taken in 1866. The height of the stumps indicates the depth of snow.

 

1859 Daniel E. Sickles, a New York Congressman, is acquitted of murder on grounds of temporary insanity. This is the first time this defense is successfully used in the United States.

 

 

 

Daniel Edgar Sickles (October 20, 1819 – May 3, 1914) was a colourful and controversial American politician, soldier, and diplomat.

As an antebellum New York politician, Sickles was involved in a number of public scandals, most notably the killing of his wife's lover, Philip Barton Key II, son of Francis Scott Key.[2] He was acquitted with the first use of temporary insanity as a legal defense in U.S. history.

 

1884 – More than sixty tornadoes strike the Southern United States, one of the largest tornado outbreaks in U.S. history.

 

 

1915 World War I: The first naval attack on the Dardanelles begins when a strong Anglo-French task force bombards Ottoman artillery along the coast of Gallipoli.

 

 

The naval operations in the Dardanelles Campaign of the First World War were mainly carried out by the Royal Navy with substantial support from the French and minor contributions from Russia and Australia. The Dardanelles Campaign began as a purely naval operation. When that failed to overcome Ottoman defences, an invasion of the Gallipoli peninsula was launched in which naval forces were heavily involved. Throughout the campaign, attempts were made by submarines to pass through the Dardanelles and disrupt Ottoman Empire shipping in the Sea of Marmara.

 

 

1937 Yekatit 12: During a public ceremony at the Viceregal Palace (the former Imperial residence) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, two Ethiopian nationalists of Eritrean origin attempt to kill viceroy Rodolfo Graziani with a number of grenades.

 

Yekatit 12 is a date in the Ethiopian calendar, equivalent to 19 February in the Gregorian calendar, which is commonly used to refer to the indiscriminate massacre and imprisonment of Ethiopians by elements of the Italian occupation forces following an attempted assassination of Viceroy Rodolfo Graziani 19 February 1937. Viceroy Graziani had led the Italian forces to victory over their Ethiopian opponents in the Second Italo-Abyssinian War and was supreme governor of Italian East Africa. This was one of the worst atrocities committed by the Italian occupation forces.

 

 

Estimates of the number of people killed in the three days that followed the attempt on General Graziani's life vary. Ethiopian sources afterwards estimated as many as 30,000 people were killed by the Italians, while Italian sources claimed only a few hundred were killed. Over the following week, numerous Ethiopians suspected or accused of opposing Italian rule were rounded up and executed, including members of the Black Lions, and other members of the aristocracy; most of the 125 young men whom Emperor Haile Selassie had sent abroad to receive college education, and were still resident in Ethiopia, were killed.[1] Many more were imprisoned, even collaborators like Ras Gebre Haywot, the son of Ras Mikael of Wollo (who had been imprisoned by Emperor Haile Selassie for nine years prior to the Italian invasion), Brehane Markos, and even Ayale Gebre; the latter had helped the Italians identify the two men who made the attempt on General Graziani's life.

 

 

1942 World War II: nearly 250 Japanese warplanes attack the northern Australian city of Darwin killing 243 people.

 

 

The Bombing of Darwin, also known as the Battle of Darwin, on 19 February 1942 was both the first and the largest single attack mounted by a foreign power on Australia. On this day, 242 Japanese aircraft attacked ships in Darwin's harbour and the town's two airfields in an attempt to prevent the Allies from using them as bases to contest the invasions of Timor and Java. The town was only lightly defended and the Japanese inflicted heavy losses upon the Allied forces at little cost to themselves. The urban areas of Darwin also suffered some damage from the raids and there were a number of civilian casualties.

The raid is often described as "Australia's Pearl Harbor". In general terms, the raid was similar to the attack on Pearl Harbor in terms of numbers and types of aircraft, approximate weight of bombs dropped, and the chaos caused. Unlike Pearl, Australia had already declared war, and the raid on Darwin could not be considered a surprise. The loss of life was also much smaller; 235 people died in the attack on Darwin, over 2,400 died at Pearl. In spite of smaller losses, the effects of the attack were equally dramatic in terms of strategic footing, and it would be some time before Darwin could safely be used as a base for major operations.

Major newspapers described the raid as a “Blitz of most ferocious kind” and “Worse than London Blitz”. In March 1942 the Prime Minister responded to the Lowe Commission report, stating truthfully that no more than 240 people were killed in the raid. This was widely reported. An account of the raid was published by the Australian War Memorial in December 1942 in “Soldiering on” The first anniversary of the raid was marked by headline articles in most newspapers. The raids were the first and largest of almost 100 air raids against Australia during 1942–43.

 

 

1943 – World War II: Battle of the Kasserine Pass in Tunisia begins.

 

 

The Battle of Kasserine Pass was a battle that took place during the Tunisia Campaign of World War II in February 1943. It was a series of battles fought around Kasserine Pass, a 2 mi (3.2 km) wide gap in the Grand Dorsal chain of the Atlas Mountains in west central Tunisia. The Axis forces involved, led by Field Marshal Erwin Rommel, were primarily from the Afrika Korps Assault Group, elements of the Italian Centauro Armoured Division and two Panzer divisions detached from the 5th Panzer Army. The Allied forces involved came from the U.S Army's II Corps commanded by Major General Lloyd Fredendall, and the British 6th Armoured Division commanded by Major-General Charles Keightley, which were part of the British 1st Army commanded by Lieutenant-General Kenneth Anderson.

Significant as the first large-scale meeting of American and German forces in World War II, the relatively untested and poorly led American troops suffered heavy casualties and were pushed back over 50 mi (80 km) from their positions west of Faid Pass in the initial days of the battle. Despite early defeats, elements of the US II Corps, reinforced by British reserves, rallied and held the exits through mountain passes in western Tunisia, defeating the Axis offensive plans. In the aftermath, the U.S. Army instituted sweeping changes from unit-level organization to the replacing of commanders. When the same combatants next met, in some cases only weeks later, the U.S. forces were considerably more effective.

 

 

1945 – World War II: Battle of Iwo Jima – about 30,000 United States Marines land on the island of Iwo Jima.

 

 

The Battle of Iwo Jima (19 February – 26 March 1945), or Operation Detachment, was a major battle in which the United States Armed Forces fought for and captured the island of Iwo Jima from the Japanese Empire. The American invasion had the goal of capturing the entire island, including its three airfields (including South Field and Central Field), to provide a staging area for attacks on the Japanese main islands. This five-week battle comprised some of the fiercest and bloodiest fighting of the War in the Pacific of World War II.

After the heavy losses incurred in the battle, the strategic value of the island became controversial. It was useless to the Army as a staging base and useless to the Navy as a fleet base

 

1972 – The Asama-Sansō hostage standoff begins in Japan.

 

The Asama-Sansō incident (あさま山荘事件 Asama sansō jiken) was a hostage crisis and police siege in a mountain lodge near Karuizawa, Nagano prefecture, Japan that lasted from February 19, 1972 to February 28, 1972. The police rescue operation on the final day of the standoff was the first marathon live television broadcast in Japan, lasting 10 hours and 40 minutes.

 

The incident began when five members of the United Red Army (URA), following a bloody purge that left 14 members of the group plus one bystander dead, broke into a holiday lodge below Mount Asama, taking the wife of the lodge-keeper as a hostage. A standoff between police and the URA radicals took place, lasting ten days. The lodge was a natural fortress, solidly constructed of thick concrete on a steep hillside with only one entrance, which, along with their guns, enabled the hostage-takers to keep police at a distance.

On February 28, the police stormed the lodge. Two police officers were killed in the assault, the hostage was rescued and the URA radicals were taken into custody. The incident contributed to a decline in popularity of leftist movements in Japan.

 

 

 

1978 Egyptian forces raid Larnaca International Airport in an attempt to intervene in a hijacking, without authorisation from the Republic of Cyprus authorities. The Cypriot National Guard and Police forces kill 15 Egyptian commandos and destroy the Egyptian C-130 transport plane in open combat.

 

1986 Akkaraipattu massacre: the Sri Lankan Army massacres 80 Tamil farm workers the eastern province of Sri Lanka.

Akkaraipattu massacre happened on 19 February 1986 when approximately 80 Sri Lankan Tamil farm workers were allegedly killed by the Sri Lankan Army personnel and their bodies burned in the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka.

 

Although the alleged massacre happened on 19 February 1986, the incident came to light only few days later after community leaders visited the remote location near the town of Akkaraipattu, where the farm workers were shot. According to community leaders, the farm workers were threshing the paddy fields when troops appeared from the nearby jungle firing into the air. The women were freed, but the soldiers rounded up the men, tied their hands and made them sit on the road. The farm workers were taken back to the paddy fields and shot. Several empty cases of ammunition have been found in the field. Later the bodies were piled on top of the dry rice harvest and burned

 

 

 

  18th
 
1229 – The Sixth Crusade: Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor signs a ten-year truce with al-Kamil, regaining Jerusalem, Nazareth, and Bethlehem with neither military engagements nor support from the papacy.

 

 

In addition, Frederick received Nazareth, Sidon, Jaffa and Bethlehem. Other lordships may have been returned to Christian control, but sources disagree. It was, however, a treaty of compromise. The Muslims retained control over the Temple Mount area of Jerusalem, the al-Aqsa mosque and Dome of the Rock. The Transjordan castles stayed in Ayyubid hands, and Arab sources suggest that Frederick was not permitted to restore Jerusalem's fortifications. The treaty, completed on 18 February 1229, safeguarded a truce of ten years.

Frederick entered Jerusalem on 17 March 1229, and attended a crown-wearing ceremony the following day. It is unknown whether he intended this to be interpreted as his official coronation as King of Jerusalem; in any case the absence of the patriarch, Gerald, rendered it questionable. There is evidence to suggest that the crown Frederick wore was actually the imperial one, but in any case proclaiming his lordship over Jerusalem was a provocative act. Legally, he was actually only regent for his son Conrad II of Jerusalem, only child of Yolande and the grandson of Maria of Montferrat and John of Brienne, who had been born shortly before Frederick left in 1228.

 

 

1268 – The Livonian Brothers of the Sword are defeated by Dovmont of Pskov in the Battle of Rakvere.

 

 

The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Latin: Fratres militiæ Christi Livoniae, German: Schwertbrüderorden) were a military order founded by Bishop Albert of Riga in 1202. Pope Innocent III sanctioned the establishment in 1204. The membership of the order comprised German "warrior monks". Alternative names of the Order include the Christ Knights, Sword Brethren, and The Militia of Christ of Livonia.

Following their defeat by the Samogitians and Semigallians in the Battle of Schaulen (Saule) in 1236, the surviving Brothers merged into the Teutonic Order as an autonomous branch and became known as the Livonian Order.

 

 

1332 Amda Seyon I, Emperor of Ethiopia begins his campaigns in the southern Muslim provinces.

 

 

The most important primary source for his reign, The Glorious Victories, describes the extensive military campaigns Amda Seyon undertook in the plains drained by the Awash River. Beginning on 24 Yakatit (18 February), Emperor Amda Seyon led this army against a number of enemies; another document, referring to this year, states that he defeated 10 kings.  Rebellion in the Muslim provinces stemmed from the threat to Islam by Amda Seyon, magnified by the earlier loss of trade from his campaigns. This defiance was encouraged and perhaps even instigated by religious leaders in Ifat and other Muslim provinces. The "false prophet" reported as having fled from Hadiya during the 1316/7 campaigns continued spreading propaganda against the king in Ifat, where he was one of Sabr ad-Din's advisors. The chronicle states that:

"The false prophet fled to the land of Ifat and lived there propagating his false teaching... And when Säbrädīn asked him for council he told him saying: 'The kingdom of the Christians has now come to an end; and it has been given to us, for you will reign on in Siyon [i.e. Ethiopia]. Go, ascend [the mountains], and fight the king of the Christians; you will defeat him, and rule him together with his peoples.'"

A second religious leader is noted as having fomented trouble in the region, specifically in Adal and Mora. He is called "Salīh whose title was Qazī (which it notes is a title similar to an Archbishop), and is described as being revered and feared like God by the kings and rulers in the region. The chronicle ascribes blame to Salīh, stating that it was he "who gathered the Muslim troops, kings, and rulers" against the Emperor

 

As a result of these instigations and conditions, Sabr ad-Din I, governor of Ifat as well as brother and successor to Haqq ad-Din, showed defiance to Amda Seyon by confiscated some of the Emperor's goods in transit from the coast (i.e. Zeila), similar to what his brother had done before him. Amda Seyon was furious with Sabr ad-Din, saying to him:

"You took away the commodities belonging to me obtained in exchange for the large quantity of gold and silver I had entrusted to the merchants... you imprisoned the traders who did business for me."

 

1861 – With Italian unification almost complete, Victor Emmanuel II of Piedmont, Savoy and Sardinia assumes the title of King of Italy.

 

 

 

1900 Second Boer War: Imperial forces suffer their worst single-day loss of life on Bloody Sunday, the first day of the Battle of Paardeberg.

 

 

Bloody Sunday of February 18, 1900, was a day of high Imperial casualties in the Second Boer War.

It occurred on the first day of the Battle of Paardeberg. A combined British-Canadian force of 6,000 finally trapped a group of approximately 5,000 Boer soldiers and some civilians, under Piet Cronjé, in a bend of the Modder River near Kimberley, having advanced from south of the Modder River on the 11th. The Boers defended a series of trenches on Paardeberg Hill.

The Imperial commander, Kitchener (temporarily replacing the unwell Roberts), began the battle by ordering a charge straight at the Boer trenches. The land sloped down to the Boer position and lacked any cover for 800 metres (870 yd) or more. The Highland Brigade and the 2nd (Special Service) Battalion, The Royal Canadian Regiment of Infantry, led the attack.

The Boer soldiers withheld fire until the British soldiers were within 100 metres (110 yd). The British were pinned and the exchange of fire continued until nightfall when the British withdrew. The Highlanders took almost 300 casualties; the Canadian losses were 18 dead and 60 wounded. Attacks elsewhere along the line resulted in a total 1,100 casualties, with 280 killed - the worst single day loss for the Imperial forces.

After the first assault Roberts retook command that evening. With the Boers trapped he ordered the digging of trenches and a bombardment, which continued for nine days. On 27 February, after a confused night attack, the surviving Boer soldiers surrendered - around 4,000 in total.

A further 2,000 Imperial soldiers died or were invalided at Paardeberg from illness, mostly due to drinking the water of the Modder River, downstream from where the Boer were throwing horse and cattle corpses killed by the artillery fire.

 

 

1930 – While studying photographs taken in January, Clyde Tombaugh discovers Pluto.

 

 

1942 World War II: The Imperial Japanese Army begins the systematic extermination of perceived hostile elements among the Chinese in Singapore.

 

The figures of the death toll vary. Official Japanese statistics show fewer than 5,000 while the Singaporean Chinese community claims the numbers to be around 100,000. Lee Kuan Yew, Singapore's first prime minister, said in a Discovery Channel programme that the estimated death toll was, "Somewhere between 50,000 to 100,000 young men, Chinese".

In an interview on 6 July 2009 with National Geographic, Lee said:

I was a Chinese male, tall and the Japanese were going for people like me because Singapore had been the centre for the collection of ethnic Chinese donations to Chongqing to fight the Japanese. So they were out to punish us. They slaughtered 70,000 - perhaps as high as 90,000 but verifiable numbers would be about 70,000. But for a stroke of fortune, I would have been one of them.

 

Hirofumi Hayashi wrote in another paper that the death toll "needs further investigation".

According to the diary of the Singapore garrison commander, Major General Kawamura Saburo, the total number reported to him as killed by the various Kempeitai section commanders on 23 February was five thousand. This was the third day of mop-up operations when executions were mostly finished. It is said in Singapore that the total number killed was forty or fifty thousand; this point needs further investigations.

Having witnessed the brutality of the Japanese, Lee made the following comments:

But they also showed a meanness and viciousness towards their enemies equal to the Huns'. Genghis Khan and his hordes could not have been more merciless. I have no doubts about whether the two atom bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki were necessary. Without them, hundreds of thousands of civilians in Malaya and Singapore, and millions in Japan itself, would have perished.

1943 – Joseph Goebbels delivers his Sportpalast speech.

 

The Sportpalast speech (German: Sportpalastrede, Sports-Palace speech) or total war speech was a speech delivered by Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels at the Berlin Sportpalast to a large but carefully selected audience on 18 February 1943 calling for a total war, as the tide of World War II had turned against Nazi Germany and its Axis allies.

 

It is considered the most famous of Joseph Goebbels's speeches.  The speech was the first public admission by the Nazi leadership that Germany faced serious dangers. Goebbels exhorted the German people to continue the war even though it would be long and difficult because—as he asserted—both Germany's survival and the survival of a non-Bolshevist Europe were at stake.

 

1954 – The first Church of Scientology is established in Los Angeles, California.

 

 

The Church of Scientology is an organization devoted to the practice and the promotion of the Scientology belief system. The Church of Scientology International is the Church of Scientology's parent organization, and is responsible for the overall management, dissemination and propagation of Scientology. Every Church of Scientology is separately incorporated and has its own local board of directors and executives responsible for its own activities and corporate well-being. The first Scientology church was incorporated in December 1953 in Camden, New Jersey by L. Ron Hubbard. Its international headquarters are located at the Gold Base, located in an unincorporated area of Riverside County, California, the location of which is kept secret from most Scientologists.

 

The Church of Scientology promotes Scientology, a body of beliefs and related practices created by L. Ron Hubbard, starting in 1952 as a successor to his earlier self-help system, Dianetics

 

1955 Operation Teapot: Teapot test shot "Wasp" is successfully detonated at the Nevada Test Site with a yield of 1.2 kilotons. Wasp is the first of fourteen shots in the Teapot series.

 

 

1983 – Thirteen people die and one is seriously injured in the Wah Mee massacre in Seattle, Washington. It is said to be the largest robbery-motivated mass-murder in U.S. history.

 

The Wah Mee massacre (traditional Chinese: 華美大屠殺; simplified Chinese: 华美大屠杀; Mandarin Pinyin: Huáměi dàtúshā; Jyutping: Wa4mei5 daai6tou4saat3) was a multiple homicide on February 18, 1983, in which Kwan Fai "Willie" Mak, Wai-Chiu "Tony" Ng, and Benjamin Ng gunned down fourteen people in the Wah Mee gambling club in Seattle. Thirteen of their victims lost their lives, but one survived to testify against the three in the high-profile trial. It remains the deadliest mass murder in Washington state history.

 

 

 

  17th
 
 

1370 Northern Crusades: Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Teutonic Knights meet in the Battle of Rudau.

 

The Battle of Rudau (German: Schlacht bei Rudau, Lithuanian: Rūdavos mūšis) was a medieval pitched battle fought between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Teutonic Knights on 17 or 18 February 1370 near Rudau village north of Königsberg (now Melnikovo village in the Kaliningrad oblast). According to the Teutonic chronicler Wigand of Marburg and the Livonian chronicle of Hermann de Wartberge, the Lithuanians suffered a great defeat.

 

 

1500 – Duke Friedrich and Duke Johann attempt to subdue the peasantry of Dithmarschen, Denmark, in the Battle of Hemmingstedt.

 

 

The Battle of Hemmingstedt took place on February 17, 1500 south of the village of Hemmingstedt, near the present village of Epenwöhrden, in the western part of present-day Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It was an attempt by Frederick I of Denmark and John of Denmark, simultaneously Dukes of Schleswig and Holstein, to subdue the peasantry of Dithmarschen, who had established a peasants' republic on the coast of the North Sea. John was at the time also king of the Kalmar Union.

 

 

1600 – The philosopher Giordano Bruno is burned alive, for heresy, at Campo de' Fiori in Rome.

 

Giordano Bruno (Latin: Iordanus Brunus Nolanus; Italian: [dʒorˈdano ˈbruno]; 1548 – February 17, 1600), born Filippo Bruno, was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, mathematician, poet and astronomer. His cosmological theories went beyond the Copernican model: while supporting its heliocentrism, he also correctly proposed that the Sun was just another star moving in space, and claimed as well that the universe contained an infinite number of inhabited worlds populated by other intelligent beings. The Roman Inquisition found him guilty of heresy, and he was burned at the stake. After his death he gained considerable fame, particularly among 19th- and early 20th-century commentators who, focusing on his astronomical beliefs, regarded him as a martyr for free thought and modern scientific ideas.

 

Some assessments suggest that Bruno's ideas about the universe played a smaller role in his trial than his pantheist beliefs, which differed from the interpretations and scope of God held by the Catholic Church. In addition to his cosmological writings, Bruno also wrote extensively on the art of memory, a loosely organized group of mnemonic techniques and principles. The historian Frances Yates argues that Bruno was deeply influenced by Arab astrology, Neoplatonism and Renaissance Hermeticism. Other studies of Bruno have focused on his qualitative approach to mathematics and his application of the spatial paradigms of geometry to language.

 

 

 

1838 Weenen massacre: Hundreds of Voortrekkers along the Blaukraans River, Natal are killed by Zulus.

 

 

The Weenen Massacre (Afrikaans: Bloukransmoorde) was the massacre of Voortrekkers by the Zulu on 17 February 1838. After the murder of Piet Retief and his delegation, the Zulu King Dingane sent his impis to exterminate the remaining voortrekkers who were camped at Doringkop, Bloukrans (Blaauwekrans), Moordspruit, Rensburgspruit and other sites along the Bushman River (Zulu: Mtshezi), in the present province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The present day town of Weenen, situated close to these sites, derives its name from the Dutch word for "weeping".

 

Among the Voortrekkers, 41 men, 56 women and 185 children were killed. In addition another 250 or 252 Khoikhoi and Basuto that accompanied the Voortrekkers were killed. The murdered included George Biggar, the son of Alexander Biggar, a trader at Port Natal. Biggar and his second son, Robert, subsequently participated and died in retaliatory attacks on the Zulus. Most people camped at the Klein- and Groot-Moordspruit were murdered. Here a Boer woman Johanna van der Merwe sustained 21 assegai wounds but survived. The camps at Rensburgspruit, where Hans van Rensburg and Andries Pretorius were camped, were successful in defending themselves.

 

Hans van Rensburg's party were compelled to leave their wagons and retreat on foot to a hill, Rensburgkoppie, which was protected by a cliff on one side. Here they were cornered by the Zulus, whom they kept at bay with limited ammunition. When their ammunition was almost depleted, a young man by the name of Marthinus Oosthuizen arrived on horseback. By shouting instructions they informed him where to locate and salvage ammunition from their camp. This Oosthuizen was able to deliver by charging with his horse through the Zulu file, while covered by the defenders of the hill. With the defense strengthened, the Zulus retreated.

 

Two months afterwards, on 15 April 1838, Andries Pretorius reflects in his journal: "As we were separated from one another, they succeeded in their attack at daybreak at Blaauwekrans, thereby killing 33 men, 75 women and 123 children." This implies a total of 231 deaths at the Blaauwekrans camps. The name Blaauwekrans (Zulu: Msuluzi) refers to bluish cliff faces present in the area.

The town of Weenen was established two months after the massacre.

 

 

1854 – The United Kingdom recognizes the independence of the Orange Free State.

 

 

 

The Orange Free State (Dutch: Oranje-Vrijstaat Afrikaans: Oranje-Vrystaat) was an independent Boer sovereign republic in southern Africa during the second half of the 19th century, and later a British colony and a province of the Union of South Africa. It is the historical precursor to the present-day Free State province. Extending between the Orange and Vaal rivers, its borders were determined by the United Kingdom in 1848 when the region was proclaimed as the Orange River Sovereignty, with a seat of a British Resident in Bloemfontein.

 

In the northern part of the territory a Voortrekker Republic was established at Winburg in 1837. This state merged with the Republic of Potchefstroom which later formed part of the South African Republic (Transvaal).

Following the granting of sovereignty to the Transvaal Republic, the British recognized the independence of the Orange River Sovereignty on 17 February 1854 and the country officially became independent as the Orange Free State on 23 February 1854, with the signing of the Orange River Convention. The new republic incorporated both the Orange River Sovereignty and the traditions of the Winburg-Potchefstroom Republic. The U.S.A. and the Orange Free State mutually recognized each other in 1871.

 

1949 Chaim Weizmann begins his term as the first President of Israel.

 

 

Chaim Azriel Weizmann (Hebrew: חיים עזריאל ויצמן‎, Arabic: حاييم وايزمان Ḥayīm Wayzman; 27 November 1874 – 9 November 1952) was a Zionist leader and Israeli statesman who served as President of the Zionist Organization and later as the First President of Israel. He was elected on 1 February 1949, and served until his death in 1952. Weizmann convinced the United States government to recognize the newly formed state of Israel.

Weizmann was also a chemist who developed the acetone–butanol–ethanol fermentation process, which produces acetone through bacterial fermentation. He founded the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel.

 

1965 Project Ranger: The Ranger 8 probe launches on its mission to photograph the Mare Tranquillitatis region of the Moon in preparation for the manned Apollo missions. Mare Tranquillitatis or the "Sea of Tranquility" would become the site chosen for the Apollo 11 lunar landing.

 

 

1978 The Troubles: The Provisional IRA detonates an incendiary bomb at the La Mon restaurant, near Belfast, killing 12 and seriously injuring 30.

 

 

 

That evening the two main adjoining function rooms, the Peacock Room and Gransha Room, were packed with people of all ages attending dinner dances. Including the hotel guests and staff, there was a total of 450 people inside the building. The diners had just finished their first course when the bomb detonated, shattering the window outside of which it was attached and vaporising the canisters. The explosion created an instantaneous and devastating fireball of blazing petrol, 40 feet high and 60 feet wide, which engulfed the Peacock Room. Twelve people were killed, having been virtually burnt alive,and a further 30 were injured, many of them critically. Some of the wounded lost limbs, but for the most part received severe burns. One badly burnt survivor described the inferno inside the restaurant as "like a scene from hell", whilst another who lost her daughter Elizabeth and son-in-law, Ian McCracken, said the blast was "like the sun had exploded in front of my eyes". There was further pandemonium after the lights had gone out and choking black smoke filled the room. The survivors, with their hair and clothing on fire, rushed to escape the burning room. It took firemen almost two hours to put out the blaze.The dead included eleven Protestant civilians and one RUC officer. Half of the victims were young married couples. Most of the dead and injured were members of the Irish Collie Club and the Northern Ireland Junior Motor Cycle Club, which were holding their yearly dinner dances in the Peacock Room and Gransha Room respectively. The former took the full force of the explosion and subsequent fire; many of those who died had been seated closest to the window where the bomb had gone off. Some of the injured were still receiving treatment 20 years later.

 

 

2006 – A massive mudslide occurs in Southern Leyte, Philippines; the official death toll is set at 1,126.

 

 

 

At around 10:30 on February 17, 2006, a cliff face of a ridge straddling the Philippine Fault collapsed in a combination rockslide-debris mass movement event, translocating and subsequently burying Guinsaugon village in the town of Saint Bernard. Up to ten smaller landslides had occurred within the previous week in the vicinity of St. Bernard, but Guinsaugon was the worst-hit community.

Among the worst of the tragedies was the burial of the local elementary school, located nearest to the mountain ridge, as the landslide occurred when school was in session and full of children. Provincial Governor Rosette Lerias said at the time the school had 246 students and seven teachers; only a child and an adult were rescued immediately after the disaster transpired. About 80 women who participated in the celebration of the fifth anniversary of the Guinsaugon Women's Health Association were also lost in the landslide.

Lerias said that although several residents had left the area the week before due to the fear of landslides, several of them had returned when the rains had eased.

 

2011 Libyan protests begin. In Bahrain, security forces launched a deadly pre-dawn raid on protesters in Pearl Roundabout in Manama, the day is locally known as Bloody Thursday.

 

 

  16th
 

116 – Emperor Trajan sends laureatae to the Roman Senate at Rome on account of his victories and being conqueror of Parthia.

 

 

His war against the Parthian Empire ended with the sack of the capital Ctesiphon and the annexation of Armenia and Mesopotamia. His campaigns expanded the Roman Empire to its greatest territorial extent. In late 117, while sailing back to Rome, Trajan fell ill and died of a stroke in the city of Selinus. He was deified by the Senate and his ashes were laid to rest under Trajan's Column. He was succeeded by his adopted son Hadrian.

 

As an emperor, Trajan's reputation has endured — he is one of the few rulers whose reputation has survived nineteen centuries. Every new emperor after him was honored by the Senate with the wish felicior Augusto, melior Traiano ("[be] luckier than Augustus and better than Trajan"). Among medieval Christian theologians, Trajan was considered a virtuous pagan, while the 18th-century historian Edward Gibbon popularized the notion of the Five Good Emperors, of which Trajan was the second.

 

 

In the last months of 116 AD, Trajan captured the Persian city of Susa. When Sanatruces II of Parthia gathered forces in eastern Parthia to challenge the Romans, his cousin Parthamaspates of Parthia betrayed and killed him: Trajan crowned him the new king of Parthia. Never again would the Roman Empire advance so far to the east.

On Trajan's return north, the Babylonian settlements revolted against the Roman garrisons. Trajan was forced to retreat from Mesopotamia in 117 AD, overseeing a failed siege of Hatra during his withdrawal. His retreat was—in his intentions—temporary, because he wanted to renew the attack on Parthia in 118 AD and "make the subjection of the Parthians a reality," but Trajan died suddenly in August 117 AD.

During his campaign, Trajan was granted the title Parthicus by the Senate and coins were minted proclaiming the conquest of Parthia. However, only the 4th-century AD historians Eutropius and Festus allege that he attempted to establish a Roman province in lower Mesopotamia.

 

History of Iran
History of Iran
ANCIENT PERIOD
Proto-Elamite 3200–2700 BCE
Elam 2700–539 BCE
Mannaeans 850–616 BCE
 
IMPERIAL PERIOD
Median Empire 678–550 BCE
  (Scythian Kingdom 652–625 BCE)
Achaemenid Empire 550–330 BCE
Atropatene 320s BC – 3rd century AD
Seleucid Empire 312–63 BCE
Parthian Empire 247 BCE – 224 CE
Sasanian Empire 224–651
 
MEDIEVAL (EARLY ISLAMIC) PERIOD
Umayyad Caliphate 661–750
Abbasid Caliphate 750–1258
  Minor dynasties of northern Iran
Dabuyids 642–760 Bavandids 651–1349
Masmughans
of Damavand
651–760
Paduspanids 665–1598
Justanids 791–974
Alids of northern Iran 864–14th century
  Iranian Intermezzo 821–1062
Tahirid dynasty
821–873
Samanid dynasty
819–999
Saffarid dynasty
861–1002
Ziyarid dynasty
930–1090
Sallarid dynasty
919–1062
Sajid dynasty
889/890–929
Buyid dynasty
934–1062
Ilyasids
932–968
 
Ghaznavid Empire 977–1186
Kakuyids 1008–1141
Ghurid dynasty 1011–1215
Nasrids 1029–1236
Great Seljuq Empire 1037–1194
Khwarazmian Empire 1077–1231
Atabegs of Yazd 1141–1319
Mihrabanids 1236–1537
Kurt dynasty 1244–1396
Ilkhanate Empire 1256–1335
Chobanid dynasty
1335–1357
Muzaffarid dynasty
1335–1393
Jalayirid dynasty
1336–1432
Sarbadars
1337–1376
 
Afrasiyab dynasty 1349–1504
Timurid Empire 1370–1405
Qara Qoyunlu
1406–1468
Timurid dynasty
1405–1507
Agh Qoyunlu
1468–1508
Kia'i dynasty 1389–1592
 
EARLY MODERN PERIOD
Safavid Empire 1501–1736
  (Hotaki dynasty 1722–1729)
 
Afsharid Empire 1736–1747
Zand dynasty
1760–1794
Afsharid dynasty
1747–1796
 
 
Qajar Empire 1796–1925
 
MODERN PERIOD
Pahlavi dynasty 1925–1979
Interim Government 1979–1980
Islamic Republic 1980–present

 

 

 

The Parthian Empire at its greatest extent.

 

1249 Andrew of Longjumeau is dispatched by Louis IX of France as his ambassador to meet with the Khagan of the Mongol Empire.

 

Papal Bul

 

Andrew went to Constantinople to obtain the Crown of Thorns bought by Louis IX to Baldwin II. It is preserved today in a 19th-century reliquary, in Notre-Dame Cathedral, Paris

 

1646 Battle of Torrington, Devon – the last major battle of the first English Civil War.

 

 

The Battle of Torrington (16 February 1646) was a decisive battle of the south-western campaign of the First English Civil War and marked the end of Royalist resistance in the West Country. It took place in Torrington, Devon.

 

1923 Howard Carter unseals the burial chamber of Pharaoh Tutankhamun.

 

The next several months were spent cataloging the contents of the antechamber under the "often stressful" oversight of Pierre Lacau, director general of the Department of Antiquities of Egypt  On 16 February 1923, Carter opened the sealed doorway, and found that it did indeed lead to a burial chamber, and he got his first glimpse of the sarcophagus of Tutankhamun. All of these discoveries were eagerly covered by the world's press, but most of their representatives were kept in their hotels; only H. V. Morton was allowed on the scene, and his vivid descriptions helped to cement Carter's reputation with the British public.

Carter's own notes and photographic evidence, indicate that he, Lord Carnarvon and Lady Evelyn Herbert entered the burial chamber shortly after the tomb's discovery and before the official opening.[

 

 

 

 

 

1943 – World War II: Red Army troops re-enter Kharkov.

 

 

Memorial to the thousands of Ukrainian intellectuals murdered by the NKVD in 1937–38

 

1943 – World War II: Insertion of Operation Gunnerside, Norway.

 

The Norwegian heavy water sabotage was a series of actions undertaken by Norwegian saboteurs during World War II to prevent the German nuclear energy project from acquiring heavy water (deuterium oxide), which could be used to produce nuclear weapons. In 1934, at Vemork, Norsk Hydro built the first commercial plant capable of producing heavy water as a byproduct of fertilizer production. It had a capacity of 12 t (13 short tons) per year. During World War II, the Allies decided to remove the heavy water supply and destroy the heavy water plant in order to inhibit the Nazi development of nuclear weapons. Raids were aimed at the 60-MW Vemork power station at the Rjukan waterfall in Telemark, Norway.

Prior to the German invasion of Norway on 9 April 1940, the Deuxième Bureau (French military intelligence) removed 185 kg (408 lb) of heavy water from the plant in Vemork in then-neutral Norway. The plant's managing director, Aubert, agreed to lend the heavy water to France for the duration of the war. The French transported it secretly to Oslo, to Perth, Scotland, and then to France. The plant remained capable of producing heavy water.

The Allies remained concerned that the occupation forces would use the facility to produce more heavy water for their weapons programme. Between 1940 and 1944, a sequence of sabotage actions, by the Norwegian resistance movement—as well as Allied bombing—ensured the destruction of the plant and the loss of the heavy water produced. These operations—codenamed Grouse, Freshman, and Gunnerside—finally managed to knock the plant out of production in early 1943.

 

 

A 1965 Hollywood movie based on the Operation Gunnerside raid, titled The Heroes of Telemark. It features a performance by one of the original participants in the raid – as the Nazi pursuer of the escapees.

 

1945 – World War II: American forces land on Corregidor Island in the Philippines.

 

 

Warships provide fire support during the Corregidor landings

 

 

The remains of a Japanese cave

 

1959 Fidel Castro becomes Premier of Cuba after dictator Fulgencio Batista was overthrown on January 1.

 

 

On February 16, 1959, Castro was sworn in as Prime Minister of Cuba. In April he visited the U.S. on a charm offensive where he met Vice President Richard Nixon, whom he instantly disliked. Proceeding to Canada, Trinidad, Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina, Castro attended an economic conference in Buenos Aires, unsuccessfully proposing a $30 billion U.S.-funded "Marshall Plan" for Latin America. Appointing himself President of the National Institute of Agrarian Reform, in May 1959 Castro signed into law the First Agrarian Reform, limiting landholdings to 993 acres (4.02 km2) per owner and forbidding further foreign land-ownership. Around 200,000 peasants received title deeds as large land-holdings were broken up; popular among the working class, it alienated many middle-class supporters. Castro appointed himself president of the National Tourist Industry, introducing unsuccessful measures to encourage African-American tourists to visit, advertising Cuba as a tropical paradise free of racial discrimination. Judges and politicians had their pay reduced while low-level civil servants saw theirs raised, and in March 1959, Castro ordered rents for those who paid less than $100 a month halved.

 

1962 Flooding in the coastal areas of West Germany kills 315 and destroys the homes of about 60,000 people.

 

 

 

The flood was caused by the Vincinette low-pressure system, approaching the German Bight from the southern Polar Sea. A European windstorm with peak wind speeds of 200 km/h pushed water into the German Bight, leading to a water surge the dykes could not withstand. Breaches along the coast and the rivers Elbe and Weser led to widespread flooding of huge areas. In Hamburg, on the river Elbe, but a full 100 km away from the coast, the residential area of Wilhelmsburg was most affected.

 

1983 – The Ash Wednesday bushfires in Victoria and South Australia kill 75.

 

 

1985 Hezbollah is founded.

 

 

Hezbollah (pronounced /ˌhɛzbəˈlɑː/; Arabic: حزب الله Ḥizbu 'llāh, literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God")—also transliterated Hizbullah, Hizballah, etc.—is a Shi'a Islamic militant group and political party based in Lebanon. Its paramilitary wing is regarded as a resistance movement throughout much of the Arab world and in Shiite communities, and is considered more powerful than the Lebanese Army. The governments of the U.S., Netherlands, France,Gulf Cooperation Council,  U.K., Australia, Canada, the European Union  and Israel classify Hezbollah as a terrorist organization, in whole or in part.

Hezbollah was conceived by Muslim clerics and funded by Iran following the Israeli invasion of Lebanon, and was primarily formed to offer resistance to the Israeli occupation.

 

 Its leaders were followers of Ayatollah Khomeini, and its forces were trained and organized by a contingent of 1,500 Iranian Revolutionary Guards that arrived from Iran with permission from the Syrian government. Hezbollah's 1985 manifesto listed its objectives as the expulsion of "the Americans, the French and their allies definitely from Lebanon, putting an end to any colonialist entity on our land", submission of the Phalangists to "just power" and bringing them to justice "for the crimes they have perpetrated against Muslims and Christians", and permitting "all the sons of our people" to choose the form of government they want, while calling on them to "pick the option of Islamic government".

 

Hezbollah, which started with only a small militia, has grown to an organization with seats in the Lebanese government, a radio and a satellite television-station, and programs for social development. The organization has been called a state within a state.[ Hezbollah maintains strong support among Lebanon's Shi'a population. Hezbollah fought with Israel in 2006 Hezbollah-Israel War. After 2006–2008 Lebanese political protests and clashes. A national unity government was formed in 2008, giving Hezbollah and its opposition allies control of eleven of thirty cabinets seats; effectively veto power. After retaliatory attacks by Sunni militants for its support for the Bashar al-Assad regime, Hezbollah began building multiple checkpoints in predominantly Shiite areas of Lebanon. Some Sunni militants have made threats against Hezbollah, while the Sunni theologian Yusuf Qaradawi condemned Hezbollah by coining the term "Hezboshaytan" meaning party of satan.

 

Hezbollah receives military training, weapons, and financial support from Iran, and political support from Syria. Following the end of the Israeli occupation of South Lebanon in 2000, its military strength grew significantly. Despite a June 2000 certification by the United Nations that Israel had withdrawn from all Lebanese territory, in August, Lebanon's new Cabinet unanimously approved a draft policy statement which secures Hezbollah's existence as an armed organization and guarantees its right to "liberate or recover occupied lands". After the death of Abbas al-Musawi in 1992, the organisation has been headed by Hassan Nasrallah, its Secretary-General.

 

History of Hezbollah

 

 

 

DVD – R159.00

 

1987 – The trial of John Demjanjuk, accused of being a Nazi guard dubbed "Ivan the Terrible" in Treblinka extermination camp, starts in Jerusalem.

 

John Demjanjuk (born Ivan Mykolaiovych Demianiuk; Ukrainian: Іван Миколайович Дем'янюк; 3 April 1920 – 17 March 2012) was a retired Ukrainian-American auto worker, a former soldier in the Soviet Red Army and a POW during the Second World War.

Though he was a survivor of the notorious Nazi concentration camps system, he was convicted in 2011 by the German court for alleged war crimes as an accessory to the murder of 27,900 Jews while acting as a guard named Ivan Demjanjuk at the Nazi extermination camp near Sobibór in occupied Poland. Since his conviction was pending appeal at the time of his death, Demjanjuk remains presumed innocent under German law, and his earlier conviction is invalidated. According to the Munich state court, Demjanjuk does not have a criminal record.

 

 

 

John Demjanjuk died at a home for the elderly in Bad Feilnbach, Germany on 17 March 2012, aged 91. As a consequence of his appeal not having been heard, Demjanuk's conviction of May 2011 by a lower court was invalidated; and he died without a criminal record.  Demjanjuk's lawyer, Dr. Ulrich Busch, had demanded that the Munich court publish a clarifying statement that Demjanjuk was presumed innocent and without a criminal record "Given the false statements in international media reports that Demjanjuk died a convicted war criminal".

 

Following his death, his relatives requested that he be buried in the United States, where he used to reside. Jewish organizations have opposed this, claiming that his burial site would become a centre for neo-Nazi activity.

On 31 March 2012, John Demjanjuk was reported to be buried at an undisclosed U.S. location.

 

1999 – In Uzbekistan, a bomb explodes and gunfire is heard at the government headquarters in an apparent assassination attempt against President Islam Karimov.

 

 

1999 – Across Europe, Kurdish rebels take over embassies and hold hostages after Turkey arrests one of their rebel leaders, Abdullah Öcalan.

 

 

 

 

He was captured in Kenya on 15 February 1999, while being transferred from the Greek embassy to Jomo Kenyata international airport Nairobi, in an operation by the Millî İstihbarat Teşkilâtı with debatable help of CIA or Mossad. George Costoulas, the Greek consul who harboured him, said that his life was in danger after the operation.

 

Speaking to Can Dündar on NTV Turkey, the Deputy Undersecretary of the Turkish National Intelligence Organization, Cevat Öneş, said that Öcalan impeded American aspirations of establishing a separate Kurdish state. The Americans transferred him to the Turkish authorities, who flew him back to Turkey for trial.His capture led thousands of Kurds to protest at Greek and Israeli embassies around the world. Kurds living in Germany have been threatened with deportation if they continue to hold violent demonstrations in support of Öcalan. The warning came after three Kurds were killed and 16 injured while storming the Israeli Consulate in Berlin. During the flight from Kenya to Turkey, a video recorded by Millî İstihbarat Teşkilâtı officers. Öcalan stated that his mother is of Turkish origin and that he was ready to serve the people of Turkey in any way.

 

 

  15th
   
 

590 Khosrau II is crowned king of Persia.

 

 

Khosrau II (Chosroes II in classical sources, entitled "Aparvez"; later garbled into Parviz), "The Victorious" – (Middle Persian: 𐭧𐭥𐭮𐭫𐭥𐭣𐭩 Husrō(y); also Khusraw Parvēz, New Persian: خسرو پرویز Khosrow Parviz), was the last great king of the Sasanian Empire, reigning from 590 to 628.[1] He was the son of Hormizd IV (reigned 579–590) and the grandson of Khosrau I (reigned 531–579). He was the last king of Persia to have a lengthy reign before the Muslim conquest of Iran, which began five years after his death by assassination. He lost his throne, then recovered it with Roman help, and, a decade later, went on to emulate the feats of the Achaemenids, conquering the rich Roman provinces of the Middle East; much of his reign was spent in wars with the Byzantine Empire and struggling against usurpers such as Bahram Chobin and Vistahm. He also known to have exchanged ambassadors with the south Indian King Pulakesi II of the Chalukya dynasty.

 

 

1113 – Pope Paschal II issues a bill sanctioning the establishment of the Order of Hospitallers.

 

 

 

The Knights Hospitaller, also known as the Hospitallers, Order of Hospitallers, Knights of Saint John and Order of Saint John, were among the most famous of the Western Christian military orders during the Middle Ages.

 

The Hospitallers probably arose as a group of individuals associated with an Amalfitan hospital in the Muristan district of Jerusalem, which was dedicated to St John the Baptist and founded around 1023 by Blessed Gerard Thom to provide care for poor, sick or injured pilgrims to the Holy Land. (Some scholars, however, consider that the Amalfitan order and Amalfitan hospital were different from Gerard's order and its hospital.[1]) After the Western Christian re-conquest of Jerusalem in 1099 during the First Crusade, the organisation became a religious and military order under its own Papal charter, and it was charged with the care and defence of the Holy Land. Following the conquest of the Holy Land by Islamic forces, the Order operated from Rhodes, over which it was sovereign, and later from Malta where it administered a vassal state under the Spanish viceroy of Sicily.

 

The Order was weakened in the Reformation, when rich commanderies of the Order in northern Germany and the Netherlands became Protestant (and, largely separated from the Roman Catholic main stem, remain so to this day), and the Order was disestablished in England, Denmark, and elsewhere in northern Europe. The Roman Catholic order was further damaged by Napoleon's capture of Malta in 1798 and became dispersed throughout Europe. It regained strength during the early 19th century as it redirected itself toward humanitarian and religious causes. In 1834, the order, by this time known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM), acquired new headquarters in Rome where it has remained since. As of 2013, the Roman Catholic order has about 13,500 members, 80000 volunteers, and 25000 mostly medical employees, and operates in about 120 countries across the world, including in Muslim nations; the Protestant branches of the order are smaller but engage in similar work. Until recently the order focused mainly on developing countries, but following the introduction of austerity in the Eurozone and the United Kingdom which began in 2010, they have increasingly turned their attention to Europe, establishing shelters and soup kitchens to help the homeless and those suffering from hunger.

 

Five contemporary, state-recognised chivalric orders which claim modern inheritance of the Hospitaller tradition all assert that "The Sovereign Military Order of Malta is the original order" and that four non-Catholic orders stem from the same root: Protestant orders exist in Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden, and a non-denominational British revival is headquartered in the United Kingdom.

 

 

1493 – While on board the Niña, Christopher Columbus writes an open letter (widely distributed upon his return to Portugal) describing his discoveries and the unexpected items he came across in the New World.

 

 

 

1637 Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor.

 

Having been elected King of the Romans in 1636, he succeeded his father as Holy Roman Emperor in 1637. He hoped to be able to make peace soon with France and Sweden, but the war dragged on for another 11 years, finally coming to an end with the Peace of Westphalia (Treaty of Münster with France, Treaty of Osnabrück with Sweden) in 1648, both negotiated by his envoy Maximilian von und zu Trauttmansdorff, a diplomat who had been made a count in 1623 by his father Ferdinand II.

 

 

Emperor Ferdinand III wearing the Order of the Golden Fleece (painting by Frans Luycx, around 1637/1638)

 

1942 World War II: Fall of Singapore. Following an assault by Japanese forces, the British General Arthur Percival surrenders. About 80,000 Indian, United Kingdom and Australian soldiers become prisoners of war, the largest surrender of British-led military personnel in history.

 

 

1944 – World War II: The assault on Monte Cassino, Italy, begins.

 

 

On February 11, 1944, the acting commander of 4th Indian Division, Brigadier Harry Dimoline, requested the bombing of the abbey of Monte Cassino. Tuker reiterated again his case for bombing the monastery from his hospital bed in Caserta, where he was suffering a severe attack of a recurrent tropical fever. Freyberg transmitted his request on February 12. Freyberg's request for an air attack, however, was greatly expanded by air force planners, and probably supported by Ira Eaker and Jacob Devers. They sought to use the opportunity to showcase the abilities of U.S. Army air power to support ground operations. Lieutenant General Mark W. Clark of Fifth Army and his chief of staff Major General Alfred Gruenther remained unconvinced of the “military necessity”. When handing over the U.S. II Corps position to the New Zealand Corps, Brigadier General J.A. Butler, deputy commander of U.S. 34th Division, had said "I don't know, but I don't believe the enemy is in the convent. All the fire has been from the slopes of the hill below the wall". Finally Clark, "who did not want the monastery bombed," pinned down the Commander-in-Chief Allied Armies in Italy, General Sir Harold Alexander to take the responsibility: "I said, 'You give me a direct order and we’ll do it,' and he did."

 

The bombing mission in the morning of February 15, 1944 involved 142 Boeing B-17 Flying Fortresses heavy bombers followed by 47 North American B-25 Mitchell and 40 Martin B-26 Marauder medium bombers. In all they dropped 1,150 tons of high explosives and incendiary bombs on the abbey, reducing the entire top of Monte Cassino to a smoking mass of rubble. Between bomb runs, the II Corps artillery pounded the mountain. Many Allied soldiers and war correspondents cheered as they observed the spectacle. Eaker and Devers watched; Juin was heard to remark “... no, they’ll never get anywhere this way.” Clark and Gruenther refused to be on the scene and stayed at their headquarters. That same afternoon and the next day, in an aggressive follow-up, further artillery barrages and additional tonnage onto the ruins by 59 fighter bombers convulsed the rubble of the great abbey. The German positions on Point 593 above and behind the monastery were untouched.

 

The air raid, however, had not been coordinated between the air and ground commands, with the timing driven by the Air Force projecting it as a separate operation, considering the weather and to be fitted in with other requirements on other fronts and theaters and without reference to the ground forces. Indeed, the Indian troops on the Snake's Head were taken by surprise when the bombing actually started. The raid took place two days before the New Zealand Corps was ready to launch their main assault. Many of the troops had taken over their positions from U.S. II Corps only on February 13, and besides the difficulties in the mountains, preparations in the valley had also been held up by difficulties in supplying the newly installed troops with sufficient material for a full-scale assault because of incessantly foul weather, flooding, and waterlogged ground.

 

 

 

 

 

1944 – World War II: The Narva Offensive begins.

 

The Narva Offensive (15–28 February 1944) was a campaign fought between the German army detachment "Narwa" and the Soviet Leningrad Front for the strategically important Narva Isthmus. At the time of the operation, Stalin was personally interested in taking Estonia, viewing it as a precondition for forcing Finland out of the war. The 2nd Shock Army expanded the bridgehead in the Krivasoo swamp south of Narva, temporally cutting the railway behind the Sponheimer Group. Army General Leonid Govorov was unable to take advantage of the opportunity of encircling the smaller German army group which called in reinforcements. These came mostly from the newly mobilised Estonians who were motivated to resist the looming Soviet re-occupation. The Soviet 30th Guards Rifle Corps and the 124th Rifle Corps, which resumed the Soviet operation, were exhausted by the III (Germanic) SS Panzer Corps in ferocious battles. The offensive was halted on 20 February. Symbolically coinciding with the Estonian Independence Day on 24 February, the fresh 45th and 46th SS Waffen Grenadier Regiments (1st and 2nd Estonian), destroyed the Soviet Riigiküla bridgehead north of Narva.

 

 

1945 – World War II: Third day of bombing in Dresden.

 

On 15 February, the 1st Bombardment Division's primary target—the Böhlen synthetic oil plant near Leipzig—was obscured by cloud, so the Division's groups diverted to their secondary target, which was the city of Dresden. As Dresden was also obscured by clouds the groups targeted the city using H2X. The first group to arrive over the target was the 401st, but it missed the city centre and bombed Dresden's southeastern suburbs, with bombs also landing on the nearby towns of Meissen and Pirna. The other groups all bombed Dresden between 12:00 and 12:10. They failed to hit the marshalling yards in the Friedrichstadt district and, as on the previous raid, their ordnance was scattered over a wide area.

 

1949 Gerald Lankester Harding and Roland de Vaux begin excavations at Cave 1 of the Qumran Caves, where they will eventually discover the first seven Dead Sea Scrolls.

 

The rediscovery of what became known as "Cave 1" at Qumran prompted the initial excavation of the site from 15 February to 5 March 1949 by the Jordanian Department of Antiquities led by Gerald Lankester Harding and Roland de Vaux. The Cave 1 site yielded discoveries of additional Dead Sea Scroll fragments, linen cloth, jars, and other artifacts.

 

The original seven scrolls from Cave 1 at Qumran are: the Great Isaiah Scroll (1QIsaa), a second copy of Isaiah (1QIsab), the Community Rule Scroll (4QSa-j), the Pesher on Habakkuk (1QpHab), the War Scroll (1QM), the Thanksgiving Hymns (1QH), and the Genesis Apocryphon (1QapGen).

 

 

A portion of the second discovered copy of the Isaiah scroll, 1QIsab.

 

 

The Isaiah Scroll, designated 1Qlsa and also known as the Great Isaiah Scroll, was found in a cave near the Dead Sea (Qumran Cave 1) with six other scrolls by Bedouin shepherds in 1947, later known as the Dead Sea Scrolls. The scroll is written in Hebrew and contains the entire Book of Isaiah from beginning to end, apart from a few small damaged portions. It is the oldest complete copy of the Book of Isaiah known, being 1100 years older than the Leningrad Codex, and the most complete scroll out of the 220 found at Qumran. Pieces of the Isaiah Scroll have been carbon-14 dated at least four times, giving calibrated date ranges between 335-324 BC and 202-107 BC; there have also been numerous paleographic and scribal dating studies placing the scroll around 150-100 BC.

The scroll is written on 17 sheets of parchment. It is particularly large, being about 24 feet (730 cm) long and 11 inches (28 cm) high. There are 54 columns of text.

 

 

 

1999 Abdullah Öcalan, leader of the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK), is arrested in Kenya.

 

Abdullah Öcalan (/ˈəlɑːn/ OH-jə-lahn; Turkish pronunciation: [ød͡ʒalan]; born 4 April 1948), also known as Apo (short for Abdullah and "uncle" in Kurdish), is one of the founding members of the militant organization the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) in 1978 in Turkey, which is listed as a terrorist organization internationally by some states and organizations, including NATO, the United States and the European Union.

Öcalan was arrested in 1999 by Turkish security forces in Nairobi and taken to Turkey, where he was sentenced to death under Article 125 of the Turkish Penal Code, which concerns the formation of armed gangs. The sentence was commuted to aggravated life imprisonment when Turkey abolished the death penalty in support of its bid to be admitted to membership in the European Union. From 1999 until 2009, he was the sole prisoner on the İmral  island, in the Sea of Marmara.  Öcalan has acknowledged the violent nature of the PKK, but says that the period of armed warfare was defunct and a political solution to the Kurdish question should be developed. The conflict between Turkey and the PKK has resulted in over 40,000 deaths, including PKK members, the Turkish military, and civilians, both Kurdish and Turkish.

From prison, Öcalan has published several books, the most recent in 2012.

 

 

 

2001 First draft of the complete human genome is published in Nature.

 

 

The human genome is the complete set of genetic information for humans (Homo sapiens). This information is encoded as DNA sequences within the 23 chromosome pairs in cell nuclei and in a small DNA molecule found within individual mitochondria. Human genomes include both protein-coding DNA genes and noncoding DNA. Haploid human genomes (contained in egg and sperm cells) consist of three billion DNA base pairs, while diploid genomes (found in somatic cells) have twice the DNA content. While there are significant differences among the genomes of human individuals (on the order of 0.1%), these are considerably smaller than the differences between humans and their closest living relatives, the chimpanzees (approximately 4%) and bonobos.

 

 

 

DVD - R159.00

 

 

 

2003 Protests against the Iraq war take place in over 600 cities worldwide. It is estimated that between 8 million to 30 million people participate, making this the largest peace demonstration in history.

 

 

The February 15, 2003 anti-war protest was a coordinated day of protests across the world in which people in more than 600 cities expressing opposition to the imminent Iraq War. It was part of a series of protests and political events that had begun in 2002 and continued as the war took place. Social movement researchers have described the 15 February protest as "the largest protest event in human history."

Sources vary in their estimations of the number of participants involved. According to BBC News, between six and ten million people took part in protests in up to sixty countries over the weekend of the 15th and 16th; other estimates range from eight million to thirty million.

Some of the largest protests took place in Europe. The protest in Rome involved around three million people, and is listed in the 2004 Guinness Book of World Records as the largest anti-war rally in history. Madrid hosted the second largest rally with more than 1½ million people protesting the invasion of Iraq; Mainland China was the only major region not to see any protests on that day, but small demonstrations, attended mainly by foreign students, were seen later.

 

 

2013 A meteor explodes over Russia, injuring 1,500 people as a shock wave blows out windows and rocks buildings. This happens unexpectedly only hours before the expected closest ever approach of the larger and unrelated asteroid 2012 DA14.

 

File:Взрыв метеорита над Челябинском 15 02 2013 avi-iCawTYPtehk.ogv

image link)
Meteor fireball seen from Kamensk-Uralsky where it was still dawn, in an oblast north of Chelyabinsk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Chelyabinsk meteor was a near-Earth asteroid that entered Earth's atmosphere over Russia on 15 February 2013 at about 09:20 YEKT (03:20 UTC), with a speed of 19.16 +/- 0.15 kilometres per second (42,900 mph or 69,000 km/h), almost 60 times the speed of sound.[5] It quickly became a brilliant superbolide meteor over the southern Ural region. The light from the meteor was brighter than the Sun, even at 100 km distance. It was observed over a wide area of the region and in neighbouring republics. Eyewitnesses also felt intense heat from the fireball.

 

DEVOTIONAL

 

  14th
  Valentine's Day

 

 

Hayle Bishop Valentine whose day this is
 

All the Ayre is thy Diocese
And all the chirping Queristers
And other birds ar thy parishioners
Thou marryest every yeare
The Lyrick Lark, and the graue whispering Doue,
The Sparrow that neglects his life for loue,
The houshold bird with the redd stomacher
Thou makst the Blackbird speede as soone,
As doth the Goldfinch, or the Halcyon
The Husband Cock lookes out and soone is spedd
And meets his wife, which brings her feather-bed.
This day more cheerfully than ever shine
 

This day which might inflame thy selfe old Valentine.
—John Donne, Epithalamion Vpon Frederick Count Palatine and the Lady Elizabeth marryed on St. Valentines day

The rose is red, the violet's blue,
 

The honey's sweet, and so are you.
Thou art my love and I am thine;
I drew thee to my Valentine:
The lot was cast and then I drew,
 

And Fortune said it shou'd be you

 

 

842 Charles the Bald and Louis the German swear the Oaths of Strasbourg in the French and German languages.

 

 

Original text English translation
[Latin:] Ergo xvi kal. marcii Lodhuvicus et Karolus in civitate que olim Argentaria vocabatur, nunc autem Strazburg vulgo dicitur, convenerunt et sacramenta que subter notata sunt, Lodhuvicus romana, Karolus vero teudisca lingua, juraverunt. Ac sic, ante sacramentum circumfusam plebem, alter teudisca, alter romana lingua, alloquuti sunt. Lodhuvicus autem, quia major natu, prior exorsus sic coepit:

“Quotiens Lodharius me et hunc fratrum meum, post obitum patris nostri, insectando usque ad internecionem delere conatus sit nostis. Cum autem nec fraternitas nec christianitas nec quodlibet ingenium, salva justicia, ut pax inter nos esset, adjuvare posset, tandem coacti rem ad juditium omnipotentis Dei detulimus, ut suo nutu quid cuique deberetur contenti essemus.

“In quo nos, sicut nostis, per misericordiam Dei victores extitimus, is autem victus una cum suis quo valuit secessit. Hinc vero, fraterno amore correpti nec non et super populum christianum conpassi, persequi atque delere illos noluimus, sed hactenus, sicut et antea, ut saltem deinde cuique sua justicia cederetur mandavimus.

“At ille post haec non contentus judicio divino, sed hostili manu iterum et me et hunc fratrem meum persequi non cessat, insuper et populum nostrum incendiis, rapinis cedibusque devastat. Quamobrem nunc, necessitate coacti, convenimus et, quoniam vos de nostra stabili fide ac firma fraternitate dubitare credimus, hoc sacramentum inter nos in conspectu vestro jurare decrevimus.

“Non qualibet iniqua cupiditate illecti hoc agimus, sed ut certiores, si Deus nobis vestro adjutorio quietem dederit, de communi profectu simus. Si autem, quod absit, sacramentum quod fratri meo juravero violare praesumpsero, a subditione mea necnon et a juramento quod mihi jurastis *unumquemque vestrum absolvo”

Cumque Karolus haec eadem verba romana lingua perorasset, Lodhuvicus, quoniam major natu erat, prior haec deinde se servaturum testatus est:

So, Louis and Charles met on the 16th day before the calends of March (14 February) in the town that used to be called Argentaria but which is now commonly known as Strasbourg, and they swore the oaths given below, Louis in Romance and Charles in German. But before swearing the oaths, they made speeches in German and Romance. Louis, being the elder, began as follows:

“Let it be known how many times Lothair has — since our father died — attempted to destroy me and this brother of mine, committing massacres in his pursuit of us. But since neither brotherhood nor Christianity nor any natural inclination, save justice, has been able to bring peace between us, we have been forced to take the matter to the judgement of almighty God, so that we may accept whatever His will is.

“The result was, as you all know, that by the Grace of God we came out as victors, and that he, defeated, went back to his people where he was stronger. But then, motivated by brotherly love and compassion for Christendom, we decided not to pursue and destroy them; instead, until now, we have asked him at least to submit to justice as in the past.

“But he, despite this, not content with God's judgement, does not cease to come after me and this brother of mine with his armies. Moreover, he is devastating our people by burning, pillaging and murdering. That is why we now, driven by necessity, are having this meeting, and, since we believe that you doubt our firm faith and brotherhood, we shall swear this oath between us before all of you.

“This act is not in bad faith, but simply so that, if God gives us peace thanks to your help, we may be certain that a common benefit will come of it. Should I — God forbid — break the oath which I am about to swear to my brother, I release you from my sovereignty over you and from the oath that you have all sworn to me.”

Once Charles had finished off the speech with the same words in Romance, Louis, since he was the elder, then swore allegiance first:

[Old French:] “Pro Deo amur et pro christian poblo et nostro commun saluament, d'ist di in auant, in quant Deus sauir et podir me dunat, si saluarai eo cist meon fradre Karlo, et in adiudha et in cadhuna cosa si cum om per dreit son fradra saluar dist, in o quid il mi altresi fazet. Et ab Ludher nul plaid nunquam prindrai qui meon uol cist meon fradre Karle in damno sit.” “For the love of God and for Christendom and our common salvation, from this day onwards, as God will give me the wisdom and power, I shall protect this brother of mine Charles, with aid or anything else, as one ought to protect one's brother, so that he may do the same for me, and I shall never knowingly make any covenant with Lothair that would harm this brother of mine Charles.”
[Latin:] Quod cum Lodhuvicus explesset, Karolus teudisca lingua sic hec eadem verba testatus est: When Louis had finished, Charles swore with the very same words in the German vernacular:
[Old High German:]“In godes minna ind in thes christiānes folches ind unsēr bēdhero gehaltnissī, fon thesemo dage frammordes, sō fram sō mir got gewizci indi mahd furgibit, sō haldih thesan mīnan bruodher, sōso man mit rehtu sīnan bruodher scal, in thiu thaz er mig sō sama duo, indi mit Ludheren in nohheiniu thing ne gegango, the mīnan willon imo ce scadhen werdhēn.” “For the love of God and Christendom and the salvation of us both, from this day on, as God will give me the wisdom and power, I shall protect this brother of mine, as one ought to protect one's brother, so that he may do the same for me, and I shall never go along with Lothair in anything that, by my will, would harm him [Louis].”
[Latin:] Sacramentum autem quod utrorumque populus, quique propria lingua, testatus est, romana lingua sic se habet: The oath that each of the two peoples (i.e. the assembled armies) then swore in their respective languages is, in Romance, as follows:
[Old French:] “Si Lodhuuigs sagrament quæ son fradre Karlo iurat, conseruat, et Carlus meos sendra, de suo part, non lostanit, si io returnar non l'int pois, ne io, ne neuls cui eo returnar int pois, in nulla aiudha contra Lodhuuuig nun li iu er.” “If Louis keeps the oath that he has sworn to his brother Charles, and Charles, my lord, on the other hand breaks it, and if I cannot dissuade him from it — neither I nor anyone that I can dissuade from it — then I shall not help him in any way against Louis.”
[Latin:] Teudisca autem lingua:* And in the German vernacular:
[Old High German:] "Oba Karl then eid, then er sīnemo bruodher Ludhuwīge gesuor, geleistit, indi Ludhuwīg mīn hērro then er imo gesuor forbrihchit, ob ih inan es irwenden ne mag: noh ih noh thero nohhein, then ih es irwenden mag, widhar Karlo imo ce follusti ne wirdhit." “If Charles keeps the oath that he has sworn to his brother Louis, and Louis, my lord, on the other hand breaks the oath he has sworn to him, and if I cannot dissuade him from it — neither I nor anyone that I can dissuade from it — then I shall not follow him against Charles.”
[Latin:] Quibus peractis Lodhuwicus Reno tenus per Spiram et Karolus iuxta Vuasagum per Vuīzzūnburg Vuarmatiam iter direxit. With this completed, Louis left for Worms along the Rhine via Speyer; and Charles, along the Vosges via Wissembourg

 

1014 Pope Benedict VIII crowns Henry of Bavaria, King of Germany and of Italy, as Holy Roman Emperor.

 

Pope Benedict VIII (Latin: Benedictus VIII; ca. 980 – 9 April 1024) was Pope from 18 May 1012 to his death in 1024. He was born Theophylactus to the noble family of the counts of Tusculum (son of Gregory, Count of Tusculum, and brother of future Pope John XIX), descended from Theophylact, Count of Tusculum, just as was his predecessor Pope Benedict VI (973–974).

Benedict VIII was opposed by an antipope, Gregory VI, who compelled him to flee Rome. He was restored by Henry II of Germany, whom he crowned Emperor on 14 February 1014. He remained on good terms with Henry for his entire pontificate. In Benedict VIII's pontificate the Saracens renewed their attacks on the southern coasts of Italy. They effected a settlement in Sardinia and sacked Pisa. The Normans also then began to settle in Italy. The Pope promoted peace in Italy by allying himself with the Normans, orchestrating the defeat of the Saracens in Sardinia and subjugating the Crescentii. In 1022, he held a synod at Pavia with the Emperor to restrain simony and incontinence of the clergy

 

 

 

1076 Pope Gregory VII excommunicates Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor.

 

Pope Gregory VII (Latin: Gregorius VII; c. 1015/1028 – 25 May 1085), born Hildebrand of Sovana (Italian: Ildebrando da Soana), was Pope from 22 April 1073 to his death in 1085.

One of the great reforming popes, he is perhaps best known for the part he played in the Investiture Controversy, his dispute with Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor that affirmed the primacy of papal authority and the new canon law governing the election of the pope by the College of Cardinals. He was also at the forefront of developments in the relationship between the emperor and the papacy during the years before he became pope. He was the first pope in several centuries to rigorously enforce the Church's ancient policy of celibacy for the Catholic clergy and attacked the practice of simony.

He twice excommunicated Henry, who in the end appointed Antipope Clement III to oppose him in the political power struggles between the Catholic Church and his empire. Hailed as one of the greatest of the Roman pontiffs after his reforms proved successful, Gregory was, during his own reign, despised by some for his expansive use of papal powers

 

 

1349 – Several hundred Jews are burned to death by mobs while the remainder of their population is forcibly removed from the city of Strasbourg.

 

The Strasbourg massacre occurred on February 14, 1349, when several hundred Jews were publicly burnt to death, and the rest of them expelled from the city as part of the Black Death persecutions. It was one of the first and worst pogroms in pre-modern history.

Since the spring of 1348, pogroms against Jews had occurred in European cities, starting in France. By November of that year they spread via Savoy to German-speaking territories. In January 1349, burnings of Jews took place in Basel and Freiburg, and on 14 February the Jewish community in Strasbourg was destroyed.

This event was heavily linked to a revolt by the guilds five days previous, the consequences of which were, the displacement of the master tradesmen, a reduction of the power of the patrician bourgeoisie, who had until then been ruling almost exclusively, and an increase in the power of the groups that were involved in the revolt. The aristocratic families of Zorn and Müllenheim, which had been displaced from the council and their offices in 1332, recovered most of their power, the guilds, which until then had no means of political participation, could occupy the most important position in the city, that of the Ammanmeister. The revolt had occurred because a large part of the population on the one hand believed the power of the master tradesmen was too great, particularly that of the then-Ammanmeister Peter Swarber, and on the other hand, there was a desire to put an end to the policy of protecting Jews under Peter Swarber.

 

 

 

 

1400 Richard II dies, most likely from starvation, in Pontefract Castle, on the orders of Henry Bolingbroke.

 

 

1556 Thomas Cranmer is declared a heretic.

 

 

Thomas Cranmer (2 July 1489 – 21 March 1556) was a leader of the English Reformation and Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI and, for a short time, Mary I. He helped build the case for the annulment of Henry's marriage to Catherine of Aragon, which was one of the causes of the separation of the English Church from union with the Holy See. Along with Thomas Cromwell, he supported the principle of Royal Supremacy, in which the king was considered sovereign over the Church within his realm.

 

During Cranmer's tenure as Archbishop of Canterbury, he was responsible for establishing the first doctrinal and liturgical structures of the reformed Church of England. Under Henry's rule, Cranmer did not make many radical changes in the Church, due to power struggles between religious conservatives and reformers. However, he succeeded in publishing the first officially authorised vernacular service, the Exhortation and Litany.

 

When Edward came to the throne, Cranmer was able to promote major reforms. He wrote and compiled the first two editions of the Book of Common Prayer, a complete liturgy for the English Church. With the assistance of several Continental reformers to whom he gave refuge, he developed new doctrinal standards in areas such as the Eucharist, clerical celibacy, the role of images in places of worship, and the veneration of saints. Cranmer promulgated the new doctrines through the Prayer Book, the Homilies and other publications.

 

After the accession of the Roman Catholic Mary I, Cranmer was put on trial for treason and heresy. Imprisoned for over two years and under pressure from Church authorities, he made several recantations and apparently reconciled himself with the Roman Catholic Church. However, on the day of his execution, he withdrew his recantations, to die a heretic to Roman Catholics and a martyr for the principles of the English Reformation. Cranmer's death was immortalised in John Foxe's Book of Martyrs and his legacy lives on within the Church of England through the Book of Common Prayer and the Thirty-Nine Articles, an Anglican statement of faith derived from his work.

 

 

1835 – The original Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, in the Latter Day Saint movement, is formed in Kirtland, Ohio.

In the Latter Day Saint movement, the Quorum of the Twelve (also known as the Council of the Twelve, the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, Council of the Twelve Apostles, or the Twelve) is one of the governing bodies (quorums) of the church hierarchy organized by the movement's founder Joseph Smith, Jr., and patterned after the twelve apostles of Christ (see Mark 3). Members are considered to be apostles, with a special calling to be evangelical ambassadors to the world.

The Twelve were designated to be a body of "traveling councillors" with jurisdiction outside areas where the church was formally organized (areas of the world outside of Zion or its outlying Stakes), equal in authority to the First Presidency as well as to the Seventy, the standing Presiding High Council and the High Councils of the various Stakes (Doctrine & Covenants 107:25-27, 36-37).

After the death of Joseph Smith, Jr. on June 27, 1844, permanent schisms formed in the movement, resulting in the formation of various churches, many of which retained some version of this high council of twelve apostles.

 

 

 

 

1852 Great Ormond St Hospital for Sick Children, the first hospital in England to provide in-patient beds specifically for children (The National Children's Hospital in Dublin was founded over 30 years previously in 1821), is founded in London.

 

 

1900 Second Boer War: In South Africa, 20,000 British troops invade the Orange Free State.

 

The Second Boer War (Dutch: Tweede Boerenoorlog, Afrikaans: Tweede Vryheidsoorlog or Tweede Boereoorlog) was fought from 11 October 1899 until 31 May 1902 between the British Empire and the Afrikaans-speaking settlers of two independent Boer republics, the South African Republic (Transvaal Republic) and the Orange Free State. It ended with a British victory and the annexation of both republics by the British Empire; both would eventually be incorporated into the Union of South Africa, a dominion of the British Empire, in 1910.

The conflict is commonly referred to as The Boer War but is also known as the South African War outside South Africa, the Anglo-Boer War among most South Africans, and in Afrikaans as the Anglo-Boereoorlog or Tweede Vryheidsoorlog ("Second War of Liberation" or lit. "Second Freedom War") or the Engelse oorlog (English War).

The Second Boer War and the earlier, much less well known, First Boer War (December 1880 to March 1881) are collectively known as the Boer Wars.

 

 

British casualties lie dead on the battlefield after the Battle of Spion Kop, 24 Jan. 1900

 

 

 

Lizzie van Zyl, visited by Emily Hobhouse in a British concentration camp

 

 

 

 

Boer Commandos at Spioenkop

 

.1919 – The Polish–Soviet War begins.

 

The Polish–Soviet War (February 1919 – March 1921) was an armed conflict that pitted Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine against the Second Polish Republic and the Ukrainian People's Republic over the control of an area equivalent to today's Ukraine and parts of modern-day Belarus. At some points the war also threatened Poland's existence as an independent state. It followed on from the Soviet westward offensive of 1918–19.

 

 

1929 Saint Valentine's Day Massacre: Seven people, six of them gangster rivals of Al Capone's gang, are murdered in Chicago, Illinois.

 

 

 

The Saint Valentine's Day Massacre is the name given to the 1929 murder of seven mob associates as part of a Prohibition-era conflict between two powerful criminal gangs in Chicago: the South Side Italian gang led by Al Capone and the North Side Irish gang led by Bugs Moran. Former members of the Egan's Rats gang were also suspected of having played a significant role in the incident, assisting Capone.

 

 

Alphonse Gabriel "Al" Capone (/æl kəˈpn/; January 17, 1899 – January 25, 1947) was an American gangster who led a Prohibition-era crime syndicate. The Chicago Outfit, which subsequently also became known as the "Capones", was dedicated to smuggling and bootlegging liquor, and other illegal activities, such as prostitution, in Chicago from the early 1920s to 1931.

 

1942 Battle of Pasir Panjang contributes to the fall of Singapore.

 

 

1943 World War II: Rostov-on-Don, Russia is liberated.

 

 

During World War II, German forces occupied Rostov-on-Don (for seven days from November 21, 1941 after attacks by the German first panzer army in the battle of Rostov and for seven months from July 24, 1942 to February 14, 1943). The town was of strategic importance as a railway junction and a river port accessing the Caucasus, a region rich in oil and minerals. It took ten years to restore the city from the ruins of World War II.

In the Soviet years, the Bolsheviks demolished two of Rostov-on-Don's principal landmarks, St. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral (1908) and St. George Cathedral (1783–1807).

 

1943 – World War II: Tunisia Campaign General Hans-Jürgen von Arnim's Fifth Panzer Army launches a concerted attack against Allied positions in Tunisia.

 

 

The Tunisia Campaign (also known as the Battle of Tunisia) was a series of battles that took place in Tunisia during the North African Campaign of the Second World War, between Axis and Allied forces. The Allies consisted of British Imperial Forces, including Polish and Greek contingents, with American and French corps. The battle opened with initial success by the German and Italian forces, but the massive supply and numerical superiority of the Allies led to the Axis's complete defeat. Over 230,000 German and Italian troops were taken as prisoners of war, including most of the Afrika Korps.

 

1945 – World War II: On the first day of the bombing of Dresden, the British Royal Air Force and the United States Army Air Forces begin fire-bombing Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony.

 

 

The Bombing of Dresden was an attack on the city of Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony, that took place in the final months of the Second World War in the European Theatre. In four raids between 13 and 15 February 1945, 722 heavy bombers of the British Royal Air Force (RAF) and 527 of the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) dropped more than 3,900 tons of high-explosive bombs and incendiary devices on the city. The bombing and the resulting firestorm destroyed over 1,600 acres (6.5 km2) of the city centre. Between 22,700 and 25,000 people were killed. Three more USAAF air raids followed, two occurring on 2 March and 17 April aimed at the city's Marshalling yard and one small raid on 17 April aimed at industrial areas.

 

1945 – World War II: Navigational error leads to the mistaken bombing of Prague, Czechoslovakia by an American squadron of B-17s assisting in the Soviet's Vistula–Oder Offensive.

 

 

The Bombing of Prague occurred towards the end of World War II on February 14, 1945, when the US Army Air Forces carried out an air raid over Prague. The city was the capital of Czechoslovakia and (since the Nazi occupation in 1939) the main city of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. According to American pilots, it was the result of a navigation mistake: at the same time, a massive bombing of Dresden was under way, 120 km north from Prague

 

1949 – The Knesset (Israeli parliament) convenes for the first time.

 

 

 

 

 

Historic engraving on the Frumin House, King George St., Jerusalem.

 

The Knesset first convened on February 14, 1949, following the 20 January elections, replacing the Provisional State Council which acted as Israel's official legislature from its date of independence on May 14, 1948 and succeeding the Assembly of Representatives that had functioned as the Jewish community's representative body during the Mandate era.

The term "Knesset" is derived from the ancient Great Assembly or Great Synagogue (Hebrew: כְּנֶסֶת הַגְּדוֹלָהKnesset HaGedolah) which according to Jewish tradition was an assembly of 120 scribes, sages, and prophets, in the period from the end of the Biblical prophets to the time of the development of Rabbinic Judaism – about two centuries ending c. 200 BCE. There is, however, no organisational continuity and – aside from the number of members – little similarity, as the ancient Knesset was an essentially religious, completely unelected body.

 

The Knesset compound sits on a hilltop in western Jerusalem in a district known as Sheikh Badr before the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, now Givat Ram. The main building was financed by James A. de Rothschild as a gift to the State of Israel in his will and was completed in 1966. It was built on land leased from the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem. Over the years, significant additions to the structure were constructed, however, these were built at levels below and behind the main 1966 structure as not to detract from the original assembly building's appearance.

 

Before the construction of its permanent home, the Knesset met in the Jewish Agency building in Jerusalem, the Kessem Cinema building in Tel Aviv and the Froumine building in Jerusalem.

 

2004 – In a suburb of Moscow, Russia, the roof of the Transvaal water park collapses, killing more than 25 people, and wounding more than 100 others.

 

 

2005 – Lebanese self-made billionaire and business tycoon Rafik Hariri is killed, along with 21 others, when explosives, equivalent of around 1,000 kg of TNT, are detonated as his motorcade drove near the St. George Hotel in Beirut.

 

 

2011 – As a part of Arab Spring, the Bahraini uprising, a series of demonstrations, amounting to a sustained campaign of civil resistance, in the Persian Gulf country of Bahrain begins with a 'Day of Rage'.

 

 

 

  13th
 

1322 – The central tower of Ely Cathedral falls on the night of 12th-13th.

 

 

Ely Cathedral (in full, The Cathedral Church of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Ely) is the principal church of the Diocese of Ely, in Cambridgeshire, England, and is the seat of the Bishop of Ely and a suffragan bishop, the Bishop of Huntingdon. It is known locally as "the ship of the Fens", because of its prominent shape that towers above the surrounding flat and watery landscape

 

1462 – The Treaty of Westminster is finalised between Edward IV of England and the Scottish Lord of the Isles.

 

 

The Scottish lords agreed to join with Edward IV of England at Ardtornish Castle

 

1503 Disfida di Barletta – tournament between 13 Italian and 13 French knights near Barletta.

 

 

1542 Catherine Howard, the fifth wife of Henry VIII of England, is executed for adultery.

 

 

The night before her execution, Catherine is believed to have spent many hours practising how to lay her head upon the block, which had been brought to her at her request. She died with relative composure, but looked pale and terrified and required assistance to climb the scaffold. She made a speech describing her punishment as "worthy and just" and asked for mercy for her family and prayers for her soul. According to popular folklore, her final words were, "I die a Queen, but I would rather have died the wife of Culpeper" although this is widely discredited. Catherine was beheaded with a single stroke, as was Jane Boleyn, Lady Rochford, immediately thereafter. Both their bodies were buried in an unmarked grave in the nearby chapel of St. Peter ad Vincula, where the bodies of Catherine's cousins, Anne and George Boleyn, also lay. Henry did not attend.

 

1633 Galileo Galilei arrives in Rome for his trial before the Inquisition.

 

 

1692 Massacre of Glencoe: About 78 Macdonalds at Glen Coe, Scotland are killed early in the morning for not promptly pledging allegiance to the new king, William of Orange.

 

 

 

 

Early in the morning of 12 February 1692, in the aftermath of the Glorious Revolution and the Jacobite uprising of 1689 led by John Graham of Claverhouse, a massacre took place in Glen Coe, in the Highlands of Scotland. This incident is referred to as the Massacre of Glencoe, or in Scottish Gaelic Mort Ghlinne Comhann (murder of Glen Coe). The massacre began simultaneously in three settlements along the glen—Invercoe, Inverrigan, and Achnacon—although the killing took place all over the glen as fleeing MacDonalds were pursued. Thirty-eight MacDonalds from the Clan MacDonald of Glencoe were killed by the guests who had accepted their hospitality, on the grounds that the MacDonalds had not been prompt in pledging allegiance to the new monarchs, William and Mary. Another forty women and children died of exposure after their homes were burned.

 

1739 Battle of Karnal: The army of Iranian ruler Nadir Shah defeats the forces of the Mughal emperor of India, Muhammad Shah.

 

 

 

1880 Thomas Edison observes the Edison effect.

 

1935 – A jury in Flemington, New Jersey finds Bruno Hauptmann guilty of the 1932 kidnapping and murder of the Lindbergh baby, the son of Charles Lindbergh.

 

 

1945 World War II: The siege of Budapest concludes with the unconditional surrender of German and Hungarian forces to the Red Army.

 

 

1945 – World War II: Royal Air Force bombers are dispatched to Dresden, Germany to attack the city with a massive aerial bombardment.

 

 

The Bombing of Dresden was an attack on the city of Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony, that took place in the final months of the Second World War in the European Theatre. In four raids between 13 and 15 February 1945, 722 heavy bombers of the British Royal Air Force (RAF) and 527 of the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) dropped more than 3,900 tons of high-explosive bombs and incendiary devices on the city. The bombing and the resulting firestorm destroyed over 1,600 acres (6.5 km2) of the city centre. Between 22,700 and 25,000 people were killed. Three more USAAF air raids followed, two occurring on 2 March and 17 April aimed at the city's Marshalling yard and one small raid on 17 April aimed at industrial areas.

Post-war discussion of whether or not the attacks were justified has led to the bombing becoming one of the moral causes célèbres of the war.

 

1955 Israel obtains 4 of the 7 Dead Sea scrolls.

 

 

The Dead Sea Scrolls are a collection of 972 texts discovered between 1946 and 1956 at Khirbet Qumran in the West Bank. They were found in caves about a mile inland from the northwest shore of the Dead Sea, from which they derive their name. The texts are of great historical, religious, and linguistic significance because they include the earliest known surviving manuscripts of works later included in the Hebrew Bible canon, along with deuterocanonical and extra-biblical manuscripts which preserve evidence of the diversity of religious thought in late Second Temple Judaism.

The texts are written in Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek, and Nabataean, mostly on parchment but with some written on papyrus and bronze. The manuscripts have been dated to various ranges between 408 BCE and 318 CE. Bronze coins found on the site form a series beginning with John Hyrcanus (135–104 BCE) and continuing until the First Jewish-Roman War (66–73 CE). The scrolls have traditionally been identified with the ancient Jewish sect called the Essenes, although some recent interpretations have challenged this association and argue that the scrolls were penned by priests in Jerusalem, Zadokites, or other unknown Jewish groups.

 

Due to the poor condition of some of the Scrolls, not all of them have been identified. Those that have been identified can be divided into three general groups: (1) some 40% of them are copies of texts from the Hebrew Bible, (2) approximately another 30% of them are texts from the Second Temple Period and which ultimately were not canonized in the Hebrew Bible, like the Book of Enoch, Jubilees, the Book of Tobit, the Wisdom of Sirach, Psalms 152–155, etc., and (3) the remaining roughly 30% of them are sectarian manuscripts of previously unknown documents that shed light on the rules and beliefs of a particular group or groups within greater Judaism, like the Community Rule, the War Scroll, the Pesher on Habakkuk and The Rule of the Blessing.

 

 

 

 

 

Qumran cave 4, where ninety percent of the scrolls were found

 

 

1961 – A 500,000-year-old rock is discovered near Olancha, California, US, that appears to anachronistically encase a spark plug.

 

The Coso artifact is an object claimed by its discoverers to be a spark plug found encased in a lump of hard clay or rock on February 13, 1961 by Wallace Lane, Virginia Maxey, and Mike Mikesell while they were prospecting for geodes near the town of Olancha, California, and long claimed as an example of an out-of-place artifact.

 

If a spark plug is encased in a 500,000-year-old "geode," this finding would represent a substantial scientific and historical anomaly, as spark plugs were invented in the 19th century. Critics have argued, however, that the concretion, not geode, containing the Coso artifact can be explained by known natural processes and credible evidence for it being 500,000 years old is completely lacking.

 

1967 American researchers discover the Madrid Codices by Leonardo da Vinci in the National Library of Spain.

 

 

1981 – A series of sewer explosions destroys more than two miles of streets in Louisville, Kentucky.

 

1982 – The Río Negro massacre takes place in Guatemala.

 

 

In 1978, in the face of civil war, the Guatemalan government proceeded with its economic development program, including the construction of the Chixoy hydroelectric dam. Financed in large part by the World Bank and Inter-American Development Bank, the Chixoy Dam was built in Rabinal, a region of the department of Baja Verapaz historically populated by the Maya Achi. To complete construction, the government completed voluntary and forcible relocations of dam-affected communities from the fertile agricultural valleys to the much harsher surrounding highlands. When hundreds of residents refused to relocate, or returned after finding the conditions of resettlement villages were not what the government had promised, these men, women, and children were kidnapped, raped, and massacred by paramilitary and military officials. More than 440 Maya Achi were killed in the village of Río Negro alone, and the string of extrajudicial killings that claimed up to 5,000 lives between 1980 and 1982 became known as the Río Negro Massacres. The government officially declared the acts to be counterinsurgency activities - although local church workers, journalists and the survivors of Rio Negro deny that the town ever saw any organized guerrilla activity.

 

1990 German reunification: An agreement is reached on a two-stage plan to reunite Germany.

 

 

 

 

1991 Gulf War: Two laser-guided "smart bombs" destroy the Amiriyah shelter in Baghdad. Allied forces said the bunker was being used as a military communications outpost, but over 400 Iraqi civilians inside were killed.

 

 

The Amiriyah shelter bombing[ was an aerial attack that killed more than 408 civilians on 13 February 1991 during the Persian Gulf War, when an air-raid shelter ("Public Shelter No. 25"), also referred to as the Al Firdos C3 bunker by the U.S. military, in the Amiriyah neighborhood of Baghdad, Iraq, was destroyed by the U.S. Air Force with two laser-guided "smart bombs".

According to the U.S. military, they targeted Amiriyah because it fit the profile of a military command center; it picked up electronic signals coming from the site, and spy satellites could see a lot of people and vehicles moving in and out of the bunker. The shelter was used in the Iran–Iraq War and the Persian Gulf War by hundreds of civilians.

 

2001 – An earthquake measuring 6.6 on the Richter Scale hits El Salvador, killing at least 400.

 

At 17:33:34 UTC the 7.6 (later estimated to be 7.7 or 7.9) quake struck with the epicenter at 60 miles (100 km) SW of San Miguel, El Salvador (13.04N 88.66W) at a depth of 60 km. At least 944 people were killed, 5,565 injured, 108,261 houses destroyed — with another 169,692 houses damaged — and more than 150,000 buildings were damaged in El Salvador.About 585 of the deaths were caused by large landslides in Santa Tecla and Comasagua. As is often the case after earthquakes in El Salvador, landslides wreaked significant damage. Estimation of the number of slides is difficult because individual scarps conjoin. The total has been reported as high as 16,000, though it is unclear how this figure was arrived at. Damage and injuries occurred in every department of El Salvador, particularly the departments of La Libertad and Usulután. Eight people were killed in Guatemala. The tremor was felt from Mexico City to Colombia. An aftershock measuring 5.7 magnitude was felt on January 15, an event not widely reported outside the country until after the February quake, which initially was assessed by the USGS at 5.7 magnitude as well.

As of February 2, 2001, more than 2,500 aftershocks had hit El Salvador, leading to additional damage and terrorizing the inhabitants. Clean water and sanitation became a matter of grave concern in many areas due to the earthquake's destruction of some $7 million to municipal drinking water systems, and tens of thousands of people were living outdoors in spite of the approaching rainy season (invierno). Government and public health organizations warned of the possible spread of disease as desperate people began to scavenge debris piles — some containing severed human limbs — looking for items they could pawn to purchase needed food and other commodities.

 

2004 – The Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics announces the discovery of the universe's largest known diamond, white dwarf star BPM 37093. Astronomers named this star "Lucy" after The Beatles' song "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds".

 

 

2010 A bomb explodes in the city of Pune, Maharashtra, India, killing 17 and injuring 60 more.

 

 

The 2010 Pune bombing occurred on 13 February 2010 at approximately 7:15 pm IST when a bomb exploded at the German Bakery in the city of Pune, Maharashtra, India. The blast killed 17 people, and injured at least 60 more, including an Italian woman, two Sudanese students, and an Iranian student.

 

The German Bakery is located near the Jewish Chabad House and the Osho ashram (an international meditation resort) in Koregaon Park, Pune. The ashram and the bakery are frequented by foreigners and the bakery, which is popular with tourists and locals alike, was busy at the time of the blast.

 

Two little known groups, the Laskhar-e-Taiba Al Alami and the Mujahideen Islami Muslim Front, claimed they were behind the bomb attack. But, according to government agencies, the attack could have been part of a project by Lashkar-e-Taiba to use the Indian Mujahideen, called the Karachi project. David Coleman Headley, a Pakistani-American terror suspect, has been accused of involvement in the project.

 

   
 

 

 
 

 

Price R 179.00

 

 

 

 

 

DVD

Price R499.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Personal details
Born Antioch, Syria, Roman Empire
Died c. 84
near Boeotia, Greece

 

Luke the Evangelist (Ancient Greek: Λουκᾶς, Loukás) is one of the Four Evangelists or authors of canonical Gospels of Jesus Christ. Luke was a native of the Hellenistic city of Antioch in Syria. The early church fathers ascribed to him authorship of both the Gospel according to Luke and the book of Acts of the Apostles, which originally formed a single literary work. Such authorship was later reaffirmed by prominent figures in early Christianity such as Jerome and Eusebius, although within scholarly circles, both secular and religious, discussions have been held due to the lack of evidence as to the real identity of the author of the works.

In the New Testament, Luke is mentioned briefly a few times, and referred to as a doctor in the Pauline epistle to the Colossians; thus he is thought to have been both a physician and a disciple of Paul. Considered by early Christians as a saint, he is believed to have died a martyr, although accounts of the events do vary.

He is venerated as Saint Luke the Evangelist within the Roman Catholic Church, and major denominations, as patron saint of artists, physicians, surgeons, students and butchers; his feast day is 18 October.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Beginning of Wisdom

by

 Dr. Chuck Missler


“The fear of God is the beginning of wisdom.” Proverbs 9:10

But how do we balance the awesome majesty due to the Creator and Ruler of the universe with the gracious family intimacy that is now available to us through the completed work of Christ?

What does His Holiness demand of us, personally?

What are the hazards of failing to render the Almighty His due, while availing ourselves the riches committed to us of the precious promises in His Word?

How do we deal with these paramount issues facing us daily in practical challenges?

Chuck Missler grapples with these wildly misunderstood tensions with down-to-earth frankness and Biblically-based candor.
 

Price R 179

 

 

 

 

 

DVD Series - R 799.00
 
8 X DVD Discs
 
 
 

 

The Genesis Commentary includes the following studies:

  • Genesis Session 1- Introduction, The Book of Beginnings, Is the Bible Inerrant?
  • Genesis Session 2- Day One, Satan, The Mysteries of Light.
  • Genesis Session 3- 2nd Day, The Fabric of Space, Stretching the Heavens, Hyperdimensions, Boundaries of Reality.
  • Genesis Session 4- 3rd Day, Dry Land, Seas, Vegetation, The Water Molecule, The Cell Revealed.
  • Genesis Session 5- 4th Day, The Nebular Hypothesis, The Long Day of Joshua, Signs in the Heavens.
  • Genesis Session 6- 5th Day, The Mystery of Life.
  • Genesis Session 7- 6th Day, The Architecture of Man, The Nature of Time.
  • Genesis Session 8- 7th Day, The Sabbath.
  • Genesis Session 9- Chapter 3, The Seed Plot of the Entire Bible.
  • Genesis Session 10- Chapters 4 & 5, The 2nd Murder, The Geneology of Noah.
  • Genesis Session 11- Chapter 6, The Days of Noah.
  • Genesis Session 12- Chapters 7 & 8, The Flood.
  • Genesis Session 13- Chapters 9 & 10, The Post-Flood World.
  • Genesis Session 14- Chapter 11, The Tower of Bab-El.
  • Genesis Session 15- Chapters 12 - 15, The Call of Abraham.
  • Genesis Session 16- Chapters 16 - 20, The Walk of Abraham.
  • Genesis Session 17- Chapters 21, 22, 24, The Birth of Isaac, The Offering of Isaac, A Bride for Isaac.
  • Genesis Session 18- Chapters 23, 25-27, The Death of Sarah, Birth of Esau and Jacob, The Covenant Confirmed, The Stolen Blessing.
  • Genesis Session 19- Chapters 28-31, Jacob at Bethel, Leah and Rachel, Sons of Jacob, Jacob's Flight.
  • Genesis Session 20- Chapters 32-36, Jacob's Wrestling, Jacob Reconciles With Esau, Dinah Avenged, Jacob Returns to Bethel, The Generations of Esau.
  • Genesis Session 21- Chapters 37-39, Joseph's Dreams, Judah's Sin With Tamar (Review of Ruth), Joseph Imprisoned.
  • Genesis Session 22- Chapters 40-45, Joseph in Egypt.
  • Genesis Session 23- Chapters 46-48 & 50, The Family in Egypt.
  • Genesis Session 24- Chapter 49, The Tribes Prophetically.

 

Moving statues

 

The Ballinspittle statue was damaged by a gang of hammer-wielding Pentecostalist protesters against idolatry (or mariolatry), but it was repaired. In 2002 the BBC planned a documentary on the phenomenon.

 

 

 

The Law Has Been "Disannulled" - Chuck Missler

 

Socialism - Chuck Missler

 

The Antichrist and The Restrainer - Chuck Missler

 

The Thessalonian Epistles - Chuck Missler

 

Personal Architecture - Chuck Missler

 

The Ten Commandments - Chuck Missler

 

"Satan" - Chuck Missler

 

The Doctrine of Imminence - Chuck Missler

 

The Resurrection Body - Chuck Missler

 

Paul's Greatest Sermon? - Chuck Missler

 

Paul's Second Missionary Journey - Chuck Missler

 

Paul's Second Missionary Journey - Chuck Missler

 

Paul's First Missionary Journey - Chuck Missler

 

   
 

 

 

   
 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Session 16 - II Chronicles Addendum:

 

 

  • The Ark of the Covenant. The Mercy Seat. The Gift from Ethiopia.

 

 

 

 

The Books of Chronicles - DVD
Chuck Missler


Price: R 799.00


Media Type: DVD

 

 

 

 

The Siege of Jerusalem - Chuck Missler

 

The Maccabean Revolt - Chuck MIssler

 

 

 

 

1948 1948 Arab-Israeli War: Haifa, a major port of Israel, is captured from Arab forces.

 

 

 

 

 

 

PRICE R499.00

 

 

 
  • Witness the rebirth of Israel as a nation

  • Watch modern-day prophecy fulfilled

Israel: A Nation is Born is a five-part video documentary series presented by former Israeli Foreign Minister Abba Eban. It chronicles his recollections of, and his part in, the creation of the State of Israel in 1948, the subsequent conflicts, including the 1967 Six Day War and the 1973 Yom Kippur War; the Egyptian--Israeli peace treaty and the events of the last decade.

Part one portrays the rise of Zionism and President Truman’s mounting pressure for a Jewish State. 

Part two includes the proclamation of Israeli Statehood on May 14, 1948 ad follows the invasion of the newborn State by its Arab neighbors, and the development of the State of Israel in the early 1950’s.

In part three Abba Eban explains how Israel ended its isolation, culminating in the combined Anglo-French-Israeli Sinai Campaign of 1956 and his personal involvement in bringing Adolf Eichmann to trial in Israel.

Part four starts with events surrounding the Six Day Ware of 1967. Eban leads diplomatic efforts at the United Nations resulting in resolution 242. 

Part five opens with the 1973 surprise attack by Egypt and Syria also known as the Yom Kippur War. Abba Eban describes his personal communications with King Hussein and other Arab leaders and outlines the beginning of a new peace process through the Madrid Conference and beyond.

5 DVD discs - 270 minutes

 

 

 

 

1 Calling me Home

 

 

Barry McGuire Callin Me Home Live Version

 

 Barry McGuire,

 

 

 

The Beautiful Side of Evil -

Johanna Michaelsen

 


1.06.47

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 
World War II

 
Adolf Hitler salutes his troops as they march towards Poland 1 September
1939: Germany invades Poland
 

German forces attack Poland across all frontiers and its planes bomb Polish cities, including the capital, Warsaw - Britain and France prepare to declare war.
 


 
Neville Chamberlain in recording studio 3 September
1939: Britain and France declare war on Germany
Britain and France are at war with Germany following the invasion of Poland two days ago.
 

 
Winston Churchill (c), Air Minister Sir Kingsley Wood, (l), Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden (r) 10 May
1940: Churchill takes helm as Germans advance
German forces invade the Low Countries by air and land, while in London, Chamberlain is replaced by Churchill.
 

 
Troops board ship at Dunkirk 4 June
1940: Dunkirk rescue is over - Churchill defiant
As the last Allied soldier leaves Dunkirk, the British Prime Minister vows his forces "shall never surrender".
 

 
German soldiers parade through the Place de la Concorde 14 June
1940: German troops enter Paris
German troops march into Paris forcing French and allied troops to retreat.
 

 
World War II
10 Jul 1940: Luftwaffe launches Battle of Britain

 
07 Sep 1940: London blitzed by German bombers

 
15 Sep 1940: Victory for RAF in Battle of Britain

 
15 Nov 1940: Germans bomb Coventry to destruction

 
22 Jun 1941: Hitler invades the Soviet Union

 
14 Aug 1941: Secret meetings seal US-Britain alliance

 
07 Dec 1941: Japanese planes bomb Pearl Harbor

 
11 Dec 1941: Germany and Italy declare war on US

 
15 Feb 1942: Singapore forced to surrender

 
15 Apr 1942: Malta gets George Cross for bravery

 
07 Jun 1942: Japanese beaten in Battle of Midway

 
19 Aug 1942: Allies launch daring raid on Dieppe

 
04 Nov 1942: Rommel goes on the run at El Alamein

 
01 Dec 1942: Beveridge lays welfare foundations

 
17 Dec 1942: Britain condemns massacre of Jews

 
02 Feb 1943: Germans surrender at Stalingrad

 
16 May 1943: Germans crush Jewish uprising

 
17 May 1943: RAF raid smashes German dams

 
10 Jul 1943: Western Allies invade Sicily

 
25 Jul 1943: Italian dictator Mussolini quits

 
03 Sep 1943: Allied troops invade mainland Italy

 
08 Sep 1943: Italy's surrender announced

 
01 Dec 1943: Allies united after Tehran conference

 
27 Jan 1944: Leningrad siege ends after 900 days

 
18 May 1944: Monte Cassino falls to the Allies

 
05 Jun 1944: Celebrations as Rome is liberated

 
06 Jun 1944: D-Day marks start of Europe invasion

 
20 Jul 1944: Hitler survives assassination attempt

 
01 Aug 1944: Uprising to free Warsaw begins

 
25 Aug 1944: Paris is liberated as Germans surrender

 
17 Sep 1944: Airborne invasion of Holland begins

 
26 Sep 1944: Airborne troops retreat from Arnhem

 
03 Oct 1944: Poles surrender after Warsaw uprising

 
17 Dec 1944: Germany counter-attacks in Ardennes

 
27 Jan 1945: Auschwitz death camp liberated

 
07 Feb 1945: Black Sea talks plan defeat of Germany

 
14 Feb 1945: Thousands of bombs destroy Dresden

 
23 Feb 1945: US flag raised over Iwo Jima

 
15 Apr 1945: British troops liberate Bergen-Belsen

 
21 Apr 1945: Red Army enters outskirts of Berlin

 
27 Apr 1945: Russians and Americans link at Elbe

 
28 Apr 1945: Italian partisans kill Mussolini

 
01 May 1945: Germany announces Hitler is dead

 
07 May 1945: Germany signs unconditional surrender

 
08 May 1945: Rejoicing at end of war in Europe

 
21 Jun 1945: US troops take Okinawa

 
16 Jul 1945: Allied leaders gather at Potsdam

 
26 Jul 1945: Churchill loses general election

 
06 Aug 1945: US drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima

 
09 Aug 1945: Atom bomb hits Nagasaki

 
15 Aug 1945: Allied nations celebrate VJ Day

 
02 Sep 1945: Japan signs unconditional surrender

 
24 Oct 1945: United Nations Organisation is born

 
20 Nov 1945: Nuremberg trial of Nazis begins

 

 

Genocide Under the Nazis

Genocide Under the Nazis (The Holocaust)

Genocide Under the Nazis (The Holocaust)

Why did Nazi Germany kill millions who did not conform to its ideas of racial-biological 'purity'?

Descent into Genocide

Genocide Under the Nazis Timeline

Genocide Under the Nazis Timeline

This unique timeline allows you to judge if you too would have accepted the drip-drip of events that led to murder on an unimaginable scale.

BBC Archive: Witnessing The Holocaust

 

Who Were the Guilty?

Who Were the Guilty?

Who Were the Guilty?

Relatively few of those involved in the genocides of World War Two ever faced justice, but the question of guilt remains. By Omer Bartov.

 

 

Africa e News

 

 

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