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On This Day

 

Expectations

 of the

 Antichrist

 

Dr. Chuck Missler and Ron Matsen

Price R 499.00

There are many diverse anticipations concerning the Coming World Leader, commonly referred to as “The Antichrist.” This study will explore the Biblical descriptions with the specific expectations of the globalists, Islam, the Vatican, Freemasonry, and others.
• Will he be a Nephilim?
• Why is the Vatican openly preparing to receive an “alien” visitor?
• Will he be a resurrection of Nimrod? Is his DNA a factor?
• What are the expectations of transhumanist technologists in this regard?
Clearly, the Bible has much more to illuminate this issue far beyond the popular conceptions; and yet the composite perspective will astonish most. Furthermore, is there a climactic cosmic deception being prepared that, if it were possible, “it would deceive the very elect”? Jesus commanded us, “Be not deceived.” But, how?
How close are these events to our current horizon?
Join Dr. Chuck Missler and Ron Matsen in an intensive summary of some of the Strategic Trends that will impact all of us.
Available in the following formats:

DVD:
•3 Discs
•6 M4A Files
•1 PDF Notes File
•Color, Fullscreen 16:9, Dolby Digital 2.0 stereo, Region  encoding ( This DVD will be viewable in other countries WITH the proper DVD player and television set.)


 

   
 

The Fulcrum of the Entire Universe

 

 

Price R 179.00

 

 

Isaiah 53 describes the astonishing personal sacrifice that is the fulcrum—the pivot—of the entire cosmic drama. However, it is the personal aspect of this passage that grips our soul.

The Fulcrum of the Universe. The Pivot of All History. These sound like rather fanciful labels, don’t they? We are talking about Isaiah 53, often called the “Holy of Holies of the Old Testament.” In just 12 verses, it summarizes the entire New Testament as the clarion of the Old.

Price R179.00

 

 

Price R179.00

 

 

 
 
 

 

 

Angels, Volume III:

The Denizens of the Metacosm

 
 

 

DVD

 

 

 

Price R 179.00

 

 

 

 

Angels, Volume III: The Denizens of the Metacosm

 

DVD

by Dr. Chuck Missler

Description

Volumes 1 & 2 of this series explored the finite limits and boundaries of our physical reality. After probing the limits of both the Macrocosm and the Microcosm, we discovered that our reality is but a shadow of larger reality, the Metacosm, a domain of extra-dimensional transfers and other paradoxical phenomena.

 

Volume 3 explores the contradictory behavior of UFOs and other demonic deceptions characteristic of the End Times. Explore these topics in more detail in either this two-hour briefing, Angels Vol 3: The Denizens of the Metacosm or our six-hour extensive study, Expectations of the Antichrist.

 

   • Are they real?

• Why do UFOs enjoy a military classification higher than our most sensitive weapons systems?

• Why are the events which occurred in Roswell New Mexico still classified after 66 years?

• Why is the Vatican openly preparing to receive an Alien Visitor?

• How should a Christian deal with the occurrences of Alien abductions?

• Jesus admonished us to “Be not deceived.” How?

• How do we prepare for the deception which, “if it were possible, would deceive the very elect”?

 

Join Dr. Chuck Missler in the Executive Briefing Room of the River Lodge, New Zealand, exploring the misinformation, (and deliberate disinformation) about the various “denizens of the Metacosm” and other insights of the invisible war unfolding on our near horizon.

 

This briefing pack contains 2 hours of teaching

 

Available in the following formats

 

DVD:

•1 Disc

•2 M4A Files

•Color, Fullscreen 16:9, Dolby Digital 2.0 stereo, Region. This DVD will be viewable in other countries WITH the proper DVD player and television set.)

   
 

24th

 
 

41 Roman Emperor Caligula, known for his eccentricity and cruel despotism, is assassinated by his disgruntled Praetorian Guards. The Guard then proclaims Caligula's uncle Claudius as Emperor

 

 

Caligula's actions as emperor were described as being especially harsh to the Senate, the nobility and the equestrian order. According to Josephus, these actions led to several failed conspiracies against Caligula.  Eventually, a successful murder was planned by officers within the Praetorian Guard led by Cassius Chaerea.  The plot is described as having been planned by three men, but many in the Senate, army and equestrian order were said to have been informed of it and involved in it.

The situation escalated when in 40 AD Caligula announced to the Senate that he would be leaving Rome permanently and moving to Alexandria in Egypt, where he hoped to be worshiped as a living god. The prospect of Rome losing its emperor and thus its political power was the final straw for many. Such a move would have left both the Senate and the Praetorian guard powerless to stop Caligula's repression and debauchery. With this in mind Chaerea convinced his fellow conspirators to quickly put their plot into action.

 

According to Josephus, Chaerea had political motivations for the assassination. Suetonius sees the motive in Caligula calling Chaerea derogatory names. Caligula considered Chaerea effeminate because of a weak voice and for not being firm with tax collection. Caligula would mock Chaerea with names like "Priapus" and "Venus".

 

 

Priapus or Priapos (Ancient Greek: Πρίαπος), was a minor rustic fertility god, protector of livestock, fruit plants, gardens and male genitalia. Priapus is marked by his absurdly oversized, permanent erection, which gave rise to the medical term priapism. He became a popular figure in Roman erotic art and Latin literature, and is the subject of the often humorously obscene collection of verse called the Priapeia.

 

On 22 January 41, although Suetonius dates it as 24, Chaerea and other guardsmen accosted Caligula while he was addressing an acting troupe of young men during a series of games and dramatics held for the Divine Augustus. Details on the events vary somewhat from source to source, but they agree that Chaerea was first to stab Caligula, followed by a number of conspirators.  Suetonius records that Caligula's death was similar to that of Julius Caesar. He states that both the elder Gaius Julius Caesar (Julius Caesar) and the younger Gaius Julius Caesar (Caligula) were stabbed 30 times by conspirators led by a man named Cassius (Cassius Longinus and Cassius Chaerea).

 

 

 

A caliga.

 

 

 

The Vatican Obelisk was first brought from Egypt to Rome by Caligula. It was the centerpiece of a large racetrack he built.

 

1438 – The Council of Basel suspends Pope Eugene IV.

 

 

The Council entered a second phase after Sigismund's death in 1437. Eugene convoked a rival Council of Ferrara on 8 January 1438 and succeeded in drawing the Byzantine ambassadors to Italy. The Council of Basel first suspended him, declared him a heretic,and then in November 1439 elected an antipope, Felix V. The rival Council of Florence (moved to avoid plague in Ferrara) concluded in 1445 after negotiating unions with the various eastern churches. This bridging of the Great Schism proved fleeting, but was a political coup for the papacy. In 1447, Sigismund's successor Frederick III commanded the city of Basel to expel the Council of Basle; the rump council reconvened in Lausanne before dissolving itself in 1449.

 

1624 Afonso Mendes, appointed by Pope Gregory XV as Prelate of Ethiopia, arrives at Massawa from Goa.

 

Massawa was originally a small seaside village, lying in lands coextensive with the Kingdom of Axum in antiquity and overshadowed by the nearby port of Adulis about 50 kilometres (31 mi) to the south.

Following the fall of Axum in the 8th century, the area around Massawa and the town itself became occupied by the Umayyad Caliphate from 702 to 750 AD. The Beja people would also come to rule within Massawa during the Beja Kingdom of Eritrea from 740 AD to 14th century AD. Midri-Bahri, a Kingdom in Eritrea from 14th to the 19th century AD, gained leverage at various times and ruled over Massawa.

 

 

1817 Crossing of the Andes: Many soldiers of Juan Gregorio de las Heras are captured during the Action of Picheuta.

 

 

1848 California Gold Rush: James W. Marshall finds gold at Sutter's Mill near Sacramento.

 

 

1900 Second Boer War: Boers stop a British attempt to break the Siege of Ladysmith in the Battle of Spion Kop.

 

 

1939 – The deadliest earthquake in Chilean history strikes Chillán.

 

At 23:33, the earth began to shake strongly underneath Chillán, destroying more than half of it, at around 3,500 homes (including the recently constructed Casa Rabié) which then was in the city. After this quake, others came, which, although they were less intense, left the city completely destroyed. Until then, the Cathedral of Chillán had been one of the principal buildings of the area, but it was completely destroyed by the earthquake. The church that was built to replace the one destroyed in the earthquake was designed specifically to withstand future earthquakes.

 

 

 

1960 Algerian War: Some units of European volunteers in Algiers stage an insurrection known as the "barricades week", during which they seize government buildings and clash with local police.

 

 

 

The Algerian War, also known as the Algerian War of Independence or the Algerian Revolution (Arabic: الثورة الجزائريةAth-Thawra Al-Jazā’iriyya; French: Guerre d'Algérie, "Algerian War") was a war between France and the Algerian independence movements from 1954 to 1962, which led to Algeria gaining its independence from France.

 

1961 1961 Goldsboro B-52 crash: A bomber carrying two H-bombs breaks up in mid-air over North Carolina. The uranium core of one weapon remains lost.

 

 

1972 Japanese Sgt. Shoichi Yokoi is found hiding in a Guam jungle, where he had been since the end of World War II.

 

 

2009 – The storm Klaus makes landfall near Bordeaux, France. It subsequently would cause 26 deaths as well as extensive disruptions to public transport and power supplies.

 

 

2011 – At least 35 died and 180 injured in a bombing at Moscow's Domodedovo airport.

 

 

On 8 February 2011, a faction of the Caucasus Emirate led by Doku Umarov claimed responsibility for the attack, and threatened further attacks. In the video in which Doku Umarov claimed responsibility for the bombing, he took the opportunity to lash out, calling the major powers in the world "satanic". He criticised the US and Russia for being hyprocrites, reasoning that if they actually followed their own principles, they would have to surrender world power to China, due to the senior status of Chinese culture and religion. He said, according to the logic of Russia and America, "China should then rule the world. They have the largest and most ancient cultures". He also attacked the USA, Russia, Britain, and Israel for oppressing Muslims.

 

2014 – Three bombs explode in the Egyptian capital, Cairo, killing about seven people and injuring over 100 others.

 

A police officer inspects a crater made after a bomb attack

 

2014 – The Philippines and the Bangsamoro agree to a peace deal that would help end the 45-year conflict.

 

 

Areas in southern Philippines under actual political control of Muslims are in red.

 

Instead of bringing the Muslim leaders together, this agreement further fragmented the MNLF because some factions within the group preferred independence over autonomy. Thus, a group of officers led by Hashim Salamat broke away and formed the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) to continue their armed struggle for an independent Bangsamoro (Moro nation) in Mindanao.

Though the combined strength of these two rebel forces has not reached a point of posing any real threat to the government in Manila, their existence—and the reasons for their resilience—certainly brings lots of headaches for the government. For nearly five decades, five presidents have tried to completely end these two rebellions, utilizing both force and diplomacy. So far, no combination has succeeded.

Perhaps the most remarkable effort to bring closure to these movements was that of the Ramos Administration, which tried to reach out to both the communist and Muslim rebels through peaceful means. Ramos sat down with the rebel leaders in an attempt to solve both problems at their roots.

 

 
 

1556 – The deadliest earthquake in history, the Shaanxi earthquake, hits Shaanxi province, China. The death toll may have been as high as 830,000.

 

 

The 1556 Shaanxi earthquake (Chinese: 华县大地震; pinyin: Huàxiàn Dàdìzhèn) or Jiajing earthquake (Chinese: 嘉靖大地震; pinyin: Jiājìng Dàdìzhèn) was a catastrophic earthquake and is also the deadliest earthquake on record, killing approximately 830,000 people.  It occurred on the morning of 23 January 1556 in Shaanxi, during the Ming Dynasty. More than 97 counties in the provinces of Shaanxi, Shanxi, Henan, Gansu, Hebei, Shandong, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu and Anhui were affected.  An 840-kilometre-wide (520 mi) area was destroyed,  and in some counties 60% of the population was killed.  Most of the population in the area at the time lived in yaodongs, artificial caves in loess cliffs, many of which collapsed with catastrophic loss of life.

 

1579 – The Union of Utrecht forms a Protestant republic in the Netherlands.

 

The Union of Utrecht (Dutch: Unie van Utrecht) was a treaty signed on 23 January 1579 in Utrecht, the Netherlands, unifying the northern provinces of the Netherlands, until then under the control of Habsburg Spain.

The Union of Utrecht is regarded as the foundation of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces, which was not recognized by the Spanish Empire until the Twelve Years' Truce in 1609.

 

The treaty was signed on 23 January by Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht (but not all of Utrecht) and the province (but not the city) of Groningen. The treaty was a reaction of the Protestant provinces to the 1579 Union of Arras (Dutch: Unie van Atrecht), in which the southern provinces declared their support for Roman Catholic Spain.

 

During the following months of 1579, other states signed the treaty as well, such as Ghent, cities from Friesland, as well as three of the quarters of Guelders. In the summer of 1579, Amersfoort from the province of Utrecht also joined, together with Ypres, Antwerp, Breda and Brussels. In February 1580, Lier, Bruges and the surrounding area also signed the Union. The city of Groningen shifted in favor under influence of the stadtholder for Friesland, George van Rennenberg, and also signed the treaty. Later on, Zutphen also signed so Guelders (of which Zutphen is one of the quarters) supported the Union completely. This happened in April 1580, as did the signing of Overijssel and Drenthe.

 

 

 

1656 Blaise Pascal publishes the first of his Lettres provinciales.

 

 

 

The Lettres provinciales (Provincial letters) are a series of eighteen letters written by French philosopher and theologian Blaise Pascal under the pseudonym Louis de Montalte. Written in the midst of the formulary controversy between the Jansenists and the Jesuits, they are a defense of the Jansenist Antoine Arnauld from Port-Royal-des-Champs, a friend of Pascal who in 1656 was condemned by the Faculté de Théologie at the Sorbonne in Paris for views that were claimed to be heretical. The First letter is dated January 23, 1656 and the Eighteenth March 24, 1657. A fragmentary Nineteenth letter is frequently included with the other eighteen.

 

In these letters, Pascal humorously attacked casuistry, a rhetorical method often used by Jesuit theologians, and accused Jesuits of moral laxity. Being quickly forced underground while writing the Provincial Letters, Pascal pretended they were reports from a Parisian to a friend in the provinces, on the moral and theological issues then exciting the intellectual and religious circles in the capital. In the letters, Pascal's tone combines the fervor of a convert with the wit and polish of a man of the world. Their style meant that, quite apart from their religious influence, the Provincial Letters were popular as a literary work. Adding to that popularity was Pascal's use of humor, mockery, and satire in his arguments.

 

1879 Anglo-Zulu War: the Battle of Rorke's Drift ends.

 

1897 Elva Zona Heaster is found dead in Greenbrier County, West Virginia. The resulting murder trial of her husband is perhaps the only case in United States history where the alleged testimony of a ghost helped secure a conviction.

 

 

The Greenbrier Ghost is the name popularly given to the alleged ghost of a young woman in Greenbrier County, West Virginia, United States, who was murdered in 1897. The woman was declared as murdered by her husband by the court, after it heard the testimony of the victim's mother, who had argued that her daughter's spirit appeared to tell the truth behind her death.[1]

 

1900 – The Battle of Spion Kop between the forces of the South African Republic and the Orange Free State and British forces during the Second Boer War ends in a British defeat.

 

The Battle of Spion Kop (Dutch: Slag bij Spionkop; Afrikaans: Slag van Spioenkop) was fought about 38 km (24 mi) west-south-west of Ladysmith on the hilltop of Spioenkop along the Tugela River, Natal in South Africa from 23–24 January 1900. It was fought between the South African Republic and the Orange Free State on the one hand and British forces during the Second Boer War during the campaign to relieve Ladysmith and resulted in a British defeat.

 

 

 

 

1912 – The International Opium Convention is signed at The Hague.

 

 

 

Opium (poppy tears, lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). Opium contains approximately 12% morphine, an alkaloid, which is frequently processed chemically to produce heroin for the illegal drug trade and for legal medicinal use in some countries. The latex also includes the alkaloid codeine and its similarly structured cousin thebaine. It also contains non-analgesic alkaloids such as papaverine and noscapine. The traditional, labor-intensive, method of obtaining the latex is to scratch ("score") the immature seed pods (fruits) by hand; the latex leaks out and dries to a sticky yellowish residue that is later scraped off, and dehydrated. The word "meconium" (derived from the Greek for "opium-like", but now used to refer to infant stools) historically referred to related, weaker preparations made from other parts of the poppy or different species of poppies.[

 

The International Opium Convention, signed at The Hague on January 23, 1912 during the First International Opium Conference, was the first international drug control treaty. It was registered in League of Nations Treaty Series on January 23, 1922. The United States convened a 13-nation conference of the International Opium Commission in 1909 in Shanghai, China in response to increasing criticism of the opium trade. The treaty was signed by Germany, the United States, China, France, the United Kingdom, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Persia, Portugal, Russia, and Siam. The Convention provided that "The contracting Powers shall use their best endeavours to control, or to cause to be controlled, all persons manufacturing, importing, selling, distributing, and exporting morphine, cocaine, and their respective salts, as well as the buildings in which these persons carry such an industry or trade."

The Convention was implemented in 1915 by the United States, Netherlands, China, Honduras, and Norway. It went into force globally in 1919 when it was incorporated into the Treaty of Versailles.

 

 

International drug routes

 

1920 – The Netherlands refuses to surrender ex-Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany to the Allies.

 

 

On 2 December 1919, Wilhelm wrote to Field Marshal August von Mackensen, denouncing his own abdication as the "deepest, most disgusting shame ever perpetrated by a person in history, the Germans have done to themselves... egged on and misled by the tribe of Judah ... Let no German ever forget this, nor rest until these parasites have been destroyed and exterminated from German soil!" Wilhelm advocated a "regular international all-worlds pogrom à la Russe" as "the best cure" and further believed that Jews were a "nuisance that humanity must get rid of some way or other. I believe the best thing would be gas!"

 

 

1937 – In Moscow, 17 leading Communists go on trial accused of participating in a plot led by Leon Trotsky to overthrow Joseph Stalin's regime and assassinate its leaders.

 

 

Trotsky was exiled to Alma Ata in Kazakhstan on 31 January 1928. He was expelled from the Soviet Union to Turkey in February 1929, accompanied by his wife Natalia Sedova and his son Lev Sedov.

After Trotsky's expulsion from the country, exiled Trotskyists began to waver. Between 1929 and 1934, most of the leading members of the Opposition surrendered to Stalin, "admitted their mistakes" and were reinstated in the Communist Party. Christian Rakovsky, who had inspired Trotsky between 1929 and 1934 from his Siberian exile, was the last prominent Trotskyist to capitulate. Almost all of them were executed in the Great Purges of 1937–1938.

 

 

 

Trotsky's house on the island of Büyükada, Istanbul, as it appears today

 

1941 Charles Lindbergh testifies before the U.S. Congress and recommends that the United States negotiate a neutrality pact with Adolf Hitler.

 

 

Göring presenting Lindbergh with a medal on behalf of Adolf Hitler in October 1938

 

 

 

Before the United States formally entered World War II, Lindbergh had been an outspoken advocate of keeping the U.S. out of the world conflict, as had his father, Congressman Charles August Lindbergh, during World War I. Although Lindbergh was a leader in the anti-war America First movement, he nevertheless strongly supported the war effort after Pearl Harbor and flew 50 combat missions in the Pacific Theater of World War II as a civilian consultant even though President Franklin D. Roosevelt had refused to reinstate his Army Air Corps colonel's commission that he had resigned in April 1941.

In his later years, Lindbergh became a prolific prize-winning author, international explorer, inventor and environmentalist.

 

1943 – World War II: Troops of Montgomery's 8th Army capture Tripoli in Libya from the German-Italian Panzer Army.

 

 

At the beginning of November 1942 the Eighth Army defeated Rommel in the decisive Second Battle of El Alamein, pursuing the defeated Axis army across Libya and reaching the Mareth defensive line on the Tunisian border in February 1943 where it came under the control of 18th Army Group. The Eighth Army outflanked the Mareth defences in March 1943 and after further fighting alongside the British First Army, the other 18th Army Group component which had been campaigning in Tunisia since November 1942, the Axis forces in North Africa surrendered in May 1943.

 

1945 – World War II: Karl Dönitz launches Operation Hannibal.

 

 

 

 

Operation Hannibal was a German naval operation involving the evacuation by sea of German troops and civilians from Courland, East Prussia, and the Polish Corridor from mid-January to May, 1945 as the Red Army advanced during the East Prussian and East Pomeranian Offensives and subsidiary operations.

 

The Soviet East Prussian Offensive by the 3rd Belarusian Front under Army General Ivan Chernyakhovsky commenced on January 13, 1945 and, with Marshal of the Soviet Union Rokossovsky's 2nd Belorussian Front, subsequently cut off East Prussia between January 23 and February 10, 1945. German Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz ordered General Admiral Oskar Kummetz, as Naval High Commander, Baltic, and Rear Admiral Konrad Engelhardt, head of the Kriegsmarine's shipping department, to plan and execute the Rettungsaktion (evacuation operation).[1] Donitz radioed a message to Gdynia in occupied Poland on January 23, 1945, to begin evacuations to ports outside of the Soviet area of operations. The operation was codenamed "Hannibal". Dönitz stated in his post-war memoirs that his aim had been to evacuate as many people as possible away from the Soviets.

 

Right up until his suicide, Adolf Hitler insisted that the war go on. The flood of military personnel and refugees eventually turned the operation into one of the largest emergency evacuations by sea in history. Over a period of 15 weeks, somewhere between 494 and 1,080 merchant vessels of all types, including fishing boats and other craft, and utilizing Germany's largest remaining naval units, carried between 800,000 and 900,000 refugees and 350,000 soldiers across the Baltic Sea to Germany and German-occupied Denmark. This was more than three times the number of people evacuated in the nine-day operation at Dunkirk.

 

 

1950 – The Knesset passes a resolution that states Jerusalem is the capital of Israel.

 

 

1973 – A volcanic eruption devastates Heimaey in the Vestmannaeyjar chain of islands off the south coast of Iceland.

 

 

In 1973, lava flow from nearby Eldfell destroyed half of the town and threatened to close off its harbour, its main income source. An operation to cool the advancing lava with sea water was successful in preventing the loss of the harbour.

 

 

 

2001 – Five people attempt to set themselves on fire in Beijing's Tiananmen Square, an act that many people later claim is staged by the Communist Party of China to frame Falun Gong and thus escalate their persecution.

 

 

 

 

22nd

  During heavy fighting over Malakal, South Sudan, a Nile ferry carrying refugees sinks, drowning more than 200 people.

 

 

During the first two days of fighting, reports indicated that 66 soldiers had been killed in clashes in Juba, but that number was complemented by between 400 and 500 people, mostly soldiers, according to a government official and UN diplomats quoting sources in Juba, and at least 800 injured. Two Indian UN peacekeepers were killed on 18 December when their base was stormed by rebels, and three US military Osprey aircraft were fired upon leading to four American service personnel being wounded.

 

On 23 December, the UN's humanitarian coordinator stated the number of dead had likely surpassed 1,000 people while an aid worker in the country estimated that the death toll was most likely in the tens of thousands. On 24 December, the UN's Navi Pillay claimed that the bodies of 75 government soldiers were discovered in a mass grave in Bentiu, while another two mass graves were reportedly found in Juba. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees's Ravina Shamdasani said an unnamed official had seen over 30 bodies in the two mass graves and its existence was being verified. "It is very difficult, and there are reports that some bodies may have already been burned." On 25 December, UNMISS denied the report of a mass grave that was issued by UNHCR. At the same time, Pillay's office revised down the figure of dead bodies to 34 bodies and 75 people were feared missing.

 

On 26 December, Hilde Johnson, head of the U.N. mission in South Sudan, also confirmed estimates that well over 1,000 people had died in 12 days of fighting, while dismissing reports that the death toll was in the multiple thousands.

The International Crisis Group reported on 9 January that up to 10,000 people were estimated to have died.

 

In addition to those wounded or killed, the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs has stated that about 413,000 people are internally displaced, 66,500 are seeking refuge at United Nations bases around the country, and more than 74,300 have fled the country.

 

On 21 January 2014 Ankunda said that 9 Ugandan soldiers died in a rebel ambush at Gemeza a week ago, and 12 others had been killed in total since 23 December.

 

 
 

1517 – The Ottoman Empire under Selim I defeats the Mamluk Sultanate and captures present-day Egypt at the Battle of Ridaniya.

 

 

Ottomans and the end of the Mamluk Sultanate[

While Ottoman Sultan Bayezid II was engaged in Europe, a new round of conflict broke out between Egypt and the Safavid dynasty in Persia in 1501. Shah Ismail I sent an embassy to the Venetians via Syria inviting them to join arms and recover the territory taken from them by the "Porte" (Ottomans). Mameluk Egyptian sultan Al-Ghawri was charged by Selim I that he was providing the envoys of the Safavid Ismail I safe passage through Syria on their way to Venice and harboring refugees. To appease him, Al-Ghawri placed in confinement the Venetian merchants then in Syria and Egypt, but after a year released them.

After the Battle of Chaldiran in 1514, Selim I attacked the Dulkadirids, an Egyptian vassal, and sent his head to Mamluk Sultan Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri. Secure now against Shah Ismail I, in AD 1516 he drew together a great army aiming at conquering Egypt, but to deceive it he represented his army to further the war against Shah Ismail I. The war started in 1516 which led to the later incorporation of Egypt and its dependencies in the Ottoman Empire, with Mamluk cavalry proving no match for the Ottoman artillery and the janissaries. On August 24, 1516, at the Battle of Marj Dabiq Sultan al-Ghawri was killed. Syria passed into Turkish possession, who were welcomed in many places as deliverance from the Mamluks.

The Mamluk Sultanate survived until 1517, when it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman sultan Selim I captured Cairo on January 20, the center of power transferred then to Constantinople. Although not in the same form as under the Sultanate, the Ottoman Empire retained the Mamluks as an Egyptian ruling class and the Mamluks and the Burji family succeeded in regaining much of their influence, but remained vassals of the Ottomans.

 

 

1521 – Emperor Charles V opens the Diet of Worms

 

 

The Diet of Worms 1521 (German: Reichstag zu Worms, [ˈʁaɪçstaːk tsuː ˈvɔɐms]) was an imperial diet of the Holy Roman Empire held in Worms, Germany at the Heylshof Garden. (A "diet" is a formal deliberative assembly.) It is most memorable for the Edict of Worms (Wormser Edikt), which addressed Martin Luther and the effects of the Protestant Reformation. It was conducted from 28 January to 25 May 1521, with Emperor Charles V presiding. Other imperial diets at Worms were convened in the years 829, 926, 1076, 1122, 1495, and 1545. Unqualified mentions of a Diet of Worms usually refer to the 1521 assembly

 

 

In June of the previous year, 1520, Pope Leo X issued the Papal bull Exsurge Domine ("Arise, O Lord"), outlining forty-one purported errors found in Martin Luther's Ninety-five Theses and other writings related to or written by him. Luther was summoned by the emperor. Prince Frederick III, Elector of Saxony obtained an agreement that if Luther appeared he would be promised safe passage to and from the meeting. This guarantee was essential after the treatment of Jan Hus, who was tried and executed at the Council of Constance in 1415 despite a promise of safe conduct.

Emperor Charles V commenced the Imperial Diet of Worms on 28 January 1521. Luther was summoned to renounce or reaffirm his views. When he appeared before the assembly on 16 April, Johann Eck, an assistant of the Archbishop of Trier (Richard von Greiffenklau zu Vollrads at that time), acted as spokesman for the emperor.

 

1879 Anglo-Zulu War: Battle of Isandlwana Zulu troops defeat British troops.

 

 

The Battle of Isandlwana on 22 January 1879 was the first major encounter in the Anglo–Zulu War between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom. Eleven days after the British commenced their invasion of Zululand in South Africa, a Zulu force of some 20,000 warriors attacked a portion of the British main column consisting of about 1,800 British, colonial and native troops and perhaps 400 civilians. The Zulus were equipped mainly with the traditional assegai iron spears and cow-hide shields, but also had a number of muskets and old rifles  though they were not formally trained in their use. The British and colonial troops were armed with the state-of-the-art  Martini-Henry breech-loading rifle and two 7 pounder artillery pieces as well as a rocket battery. Despite a vast disadvantage in weapons technology, the numerically superior Zulus ultimately overwhelmed the poorly led and badly deployed  British, killing over 1,300 troops, including all those out on the forward firing line. The Zulu army suffered around a thousand killed.

The battle was a decisive victory for the Zulus and caused the defeat of the first British invasion of Zululand.  The British Army had suffered its worst defeat against a technologically inferior indigenous force. Isandlwana resulted in the British taking a much more aggressive approach in the Anglo–Zulu War, leading to a heavily reinforced second invasion  and the destruction of King Cetshwayo's hopes of a negotiated peace.

 

 

1879 – Anglo-Zulu War: Battle of Rorke's Drift – 139 British soldiers successfully defend their garrison against an onslaught by three to four thousand Zulu warriors.

 

 

The Battle of Rorke's Drift, also known as the Defence of Rorke's Drift, was a battle in the Anglo-Zulu War. The defence of the mission station of Rorke's Drift, under the command of Lieutenant John Chard of the Royal Engineers, immediately followed the British Army's defeat at the Battle of Isandlwana on 22 January 1879, and continued into the following day, 23 January.

Just over 150 British and colonial troops successfully defended the garrison against an intense assault by 3,000 to 4,000 Zulu warriors. The massive, but piecemeal,  Zulu attacks on Rorke's Drift came very close to defeating the tiny garrison but were ultimately repelled. Eleven Victoria Crosses were awarded to the defenders, along with a number of other decorations and honours.

 

 

1901 Edward VII is proclaimed King after the death of his mother, Queen Victoria.

 

 

Edward (right) with his mother (centre) and Russian relations: Tsar Nicholas II (left), Empress Alexandra and baby Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna, 1896

 

When Queen Victoria died on 22 January 1901, Edward became King of the United Kingdom, Emperor of India and, in an innovation, King of the British Dominions. He chose to reign under the name Edward VII, instead of Albert Edward—the name his mother had intended for him to use declaring that he did not wish to "undervalue the name of Albert" and diminish the status of his father with whom the "name should stand alone". The number VII was occasionally omitted in Scotland, even by the national church, in deference to protests that the previous Edwards were English kings who had "been excluded from Scotland by battle". J. B. Priestley recalled, "I was only a child when he succeeded Victoria in 1901, but I can testify to his extraordinary popularity. He was in fact the most popular king England had known since the earlier 1660s.

 

 

1905 Bloody Sunday in St. Petersburg, beginning of the 1905 revolution.

 

Bloody Sunday (Russian: Крова́вое воскресе́нье, IPA: [krɐˈvavəjə vəskrʲɪˈsʲenʲjə]) was the name that came to be given to the events of 22 January [O.S. 9 January] 1905 in St Petersburg, Russia, where unarmed demonstrators marching to present a petition to Tsar Nicholas II were fired upon by soldiers of the Imperial Guard when approaching the city center and the Winter Palace from several gathering points. The shooting did not occur in the Palace Square. Bloody Sunday was an event with grave consequences for the Tsarist regime, as the disregard for ordinary people shown by the reaction of the authorities undermined support for the state. The events which occurred on this Sunday have been assessed by historians, including Lionel Kochan in his book Russia in Revolution 1890-1918, to be one of the key events which led to the Russian Revolution of 1917.

 

 

1941 World War II: British and Commonwealth troops capture Tobruk from Italian forces during Operation Compass.

 

 

Following the fall of Bardia, 7th Armoured Division with Australian 19th Brigade advanced to Tobruk which was isolated by the 7th Armoured Division on 6 January. By 9 January it was surrounded.[37] After a twelve-day period building up forces around Tobruk, O'Connor attacked on 21 January and Tobruk was captured 22 January, yielding over 25,000 prisoners along with 236 field and medium guns,  23 medium tanks and more than 200 other vehicles. The Australian losses were 49 dead and 306 wounded.  Some fierce fighting took place and a company was forced to withdraw in an Italian counter-attack, in which the Australian troops lost 100 killed, wounded and captured.

 

 

There were approximately 25,000 Italian defenders at Tobruk under the overall command of General Petassi Manella, commander of the XXII Corps. Besides "fortress troops," the defenders comprised the 61st "Sirte" Infantry Division, sixty-two tankettes, twenty-five medium tanks, and some two-hundred guns. The perimeter was about forty-eight kilometers long and was fortified with a combination of anti-tank ditch, wire, and a double row of strongpoints. In many ways the defenses at Tobruk were a replica of the defenses at Bardia.

 

 

1944 – World War II: The Allies commence Operation Shingle, an assault on Anzio, Italy.

 

 

Operation Shingle (January 22, 1944) was an Allied amphibious landing in the Italian Campaign against German forces in the area of Anzio and Nettuno, Italy. The operation was commanded by American Major General John P. Lucas and was intended to outflank German forces of the Winter Line and enable an attack on Rome. The resulting combat is commonly called the Battle of Anzio.

The success of an amphibious landing at that location, in a basin consisting substantially of reclaimed marshland and surrounded by mountains, depended completely on the element of surprise and the swiftness with which the invaders could move relative to the reaction time of the defenders. Any delay could result in the occupation of the mountains by the defenders and the consequent entrapment of the invaders. Lieutenant General Mark Clark, commander of the U.S. Fifth Army, understood that risk, but Clark did not pass on his appreciation of the situation to his subordinate, General Lucas, who preferred to take time to entrench against an expected counterattack. The initial landing achieved complete surprise with no opposition and a jeep patrol even made it as far as the outskirts of Rome. Despite that report, Lucas, who had little confidence in the operation as planned, failed to capitalize on the element of surprise by delaying his advance until he judged his position was sufficiently consolidated and his troops ready.

 

 

 

1957 Israel withdraws from the Sinai Peninsula.

 

Sinai was inhabited by the Monitu and was called Mafkat or Country of Turquoise.[6] From the time of the First dynasty or before, the Egyptians mined turquoise in Sinai at two locations, now called by their Arabic names Wadi Maghareh and Serabit el-Khadim. The mines were worked intermittently and on a seasonal basis for thousands of years. Modern attempts to exploit the deposits have been unprofitable. These may be the first historically attested mines.

According to the Jewish tradition the peninsula was crossed by the Israelites during The Exodus from Egypt as detailed in the Hebrew Bible. This included numerous halts over a 40 year period of travel in AM 2448 (1313 BCE) in the Jewish tradition. However, there has not been found any archaeological evidence for large scale nomadic wanderings from that time period.

The peninsula was governed as part of Egypt under the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt from 1260 until 1517, when the Ottoman Sultan, Selim the Grim, defeated the Egyptians at the Battles of Marj Dabiq and al-Raydaniyya, and incorporated Egypt into the Ottoman Empire. From then until 1906, Sinai was administered by the Ottoman provincial government of the Pashalik of Egypt, even following the establishment of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty's rule over the rest of Egypt in 1805. In 1906, the Ottoman Porte formally transferred administration of Sinai to the Egyptian government, which essentially meant that it fell under the control of the United Kingdom, who had occupied and largely controlled Egypt since 1882. The border imposed by the British runs in an almost straight line from Rafah on the Mediterranean shore to Taba on the Gulf of Aqaba. This line has served as the eastern border of Egypt ever since.

At the beginning of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, Egyptian forces entered the former British Mandate of Palestine from Sinai to support Palestinian and other Arab forces against the newly declared State of Israel. For a period during the war, Israeli forces entered the north-eastern corner of Sinai. With the exception of Palestine's Gaza Strip, which came under the administration of the All-Palestine Government, the western frontier of the former Mandate of Palestine became the Egyptian-Israeli frontier under the 1949 Armistice Agreement. In 1958, the Gaza Strip came under direct Egyptian military administration, though it was governed separately from Sinai, and was never annexed by Egypt. The Egyptian government maintained that Egyptian administration would be terminated upon the end of the conflict with Israel.

In 1956, Egypt nationalised the Suez Canal, a waterway marking the boundary between Egyptian territory in Africa and the Sinai Peninsula. Thereafter, Israeli ships were prohibited from using the Canal, owing to the state of war between the two states. Egypt also prohibited ships from using Egyptian territorial waters on the eastern side of the peninsula to travel to and from Israel, effectively imposing a blockade on the Israeli port of Eilat. Subsequently, in what is known in Egypt as the Tripartite Aggression, Israeli forces, aided by Britain, and France (which sought to reverse the nationalisation and regain control over the Suez Canal), invaded Sinai and occupied much of the peninsula within a few days. Several months later Israel withdrew its forces from Sinai, following strong pressure from the United States and the Soviet Union. Thereafter, the United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) was stationed in Sinai to prevent any military occupation of the Sinai.

 

 

 

St. Catherine's Monastery is the oldest working Christian monastery in the world and the most popular tourist attraction on the peninsula

 

 

Egypt-Israel border. Looking north from the Eilat Mountains

 

1973 – The Supreme Court of the United States delivers its decision in Roe v. Wade, legalizing elective abortion in all fifty states.

 

Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973), is a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court on the issue of abortion. Decided simultaneously with a companion case, Doe v. Bolton, the Court ruled 7–2 that a right to privacy under the due process clause of the 14th Amendment extended to a woman's decision to have an abortion, but that right must be balanced against the state's two legitimate interests in regulating abortions: protecting prenatal life and protecting women's health. Arguing that these state interests became stronger over the course of a pregnancy, the Court resolved this balancing test by tying state regulation of abortion to the trimester of pregnancy.

The Court later rejected Roe's trimester framework, while affirming Roe's central holding that a person has a right to abortion until viability. The Roe decision defined "viable" as being "potentially able to live outside the mother's womb, albeit with artificial aid", adding that viability "is usually placed at about seven months (28 weeks) but may occur earlier, even at 24 weeks."

In disallowing many state and federal restrictions on abortion in the United States] Roe v. Wade prompted a national debate that continues today about issues including whether, and to what extent, abortion should be legal, who should decide the legality of abortion, what methods the Supreme Court should use in constitutional adjudication, and what the role should be of religious and moral views in the political sphere. Roe v. Wade reshaped national politics, dividing much of the United States into pro-choice and pro-life camps, while activating grassroots movements on both sides.

 

 

 

1991 Gulf War: Three SCUDs and one Patriot missile hit Ramat Gan in Israel, injuring 96 people. Three elderly people die of heart attacks.

 

 

1995 Israeli-Palestinian conflict: Beit Lid massacre – In central Israel, near Netanya, two suicide bombers from the Gaza Strip blow themselves up at a military transit point killing 19 Israelis.

 

The Beit Lid massacre was a suicide attack by Palestinian Islamic Jihad against Israeli soldiers at the Beit Lid Junction on January 22, 1995. It was the first suicide attack by Palestinian Islamic Jihad

 

 

1999 – Australian missionary Graham Staines and his two sons are burned alive by radical Hindus while sleeping in their car in Eastern India.

 

 

Dr. Graham Stuart Staines (1941 – 22 January 1999) was an Australian Christian missionary who, along with his two sons Philip (aged 10) and Timothy (aged 6), was burnt to death by a gang while sleeping in his station wagon at Manoharpur village in Keonjhar district in Odisha, India on 22 January 1999. In 2003, a Bajrang Dal activist, Dara Singh, was convicted of leading the gang that murdered Graham Staines and his sons, and was sentenced to life in prison.

 

2007 – At least 88 people are killed when two car bombs explode in the Bab Al-Sharqi market in central Baghdad, Iraq.

 

 

 

 

21st

   

763 – The Battle of Bakhamra between Alids and Abbasids near Kufa ends in a decisive Abbasid victory.

 

The Alid Revolt of 762–763 or Revolt of Muhammad the Pure Soul was an uprising by the Hasanid branch of the Alids against the newly established Abbasid Caliphate. The Hasanids, led by the brothers Muhammad (called "the Pure Soul") and Ibrahim, rejected the legitimacy of the Abbasid family's claim to power. Reacting to mounting persecution by the Abbasid regime, in 762 they launched a rebellion, with Muhammad rising in revolt at Medina in September and Ibrahim following in Basra in November. The lack of co-ordination and organization, as well as the lukewarm support of their followers, allowed the Abbasids under Caliph al-Mansur to react swiftly. The Caliph contained Muhammad's rebellion in the Hejaz and crushed it only two weeks after Ibrahim's uprising, before turning his forces against the latter. Ibrahim's rebellion had achieved some initial successes in southern Iraq, but his camp was riven by dissent among rival Shi'a groups as to the prosecution of the war and future political objectives. In the end, Ibrahim's army was decisively defeated at Bakhamra in January 763, with Ibrahim dying of his wounds shortly after. The failure of the rebellion did not mark the end of Alid unrest, but it consolidated the power of the Abbasid dynasty.

 

 

 

Al-Mansur in the meantime used his time more effectively: he mobilized troops in Syria and Iran and brought them to Iraq, and recalled Isa ibn Musa from Medina to lead them. Finally, Ibrahim decided to march on Kufa, but on the way he abandoned this plan and turned back. Instead of returning to Basra, however, he encamped at Bakhamra, a location on the road between the two cities. There, on 21 January, Ibrahim with his troops, reduced by defections to some 15,000 men, confronted the Abbasid army under Isa ibn Musa. Isa's vanguard was at first beaten, but the battle ended in a crushing Abbasid victory. Ibrahim himself was heavily wounded and escaped with a handful of supporters. He died of his wounds on 14 February 763, signalling the end of the rebellion.

 

 

 

Basra city

 

1525 – The Swiss Anabaptist Movement is founded when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptize each other in the home of Manz's mother in Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union.

 

 

 

Memorial plate on the river wall opposite number 43 Schipfe in Zürich, in remembrance of Manz and other anabaptists executed in early 16th century by the Zürich city government

 

Anabaptists (from Neo-Latin anabaptista, from the Greek ἀναβαπτισμός: ἀνά- "over again" and βαπτισμός "baptism" are Christians of the Radical Reformation of 16th century Europe. Although some consider the Anabaptist movement to be an offshoot of Protestantism, others see it as a distinct movement. The Amish, Hutterites, and Mennonites are direct descendants of the movement.

 

The name Anabaptist is derived from the Greek term anabaptista, or "one who baptizes over again." This name was given them by their enemies in reference to the practice of "re-baptizing" converts who "already had been baptized" as infants. Anabaptists required that baptismal candidates be able to make their own confessions of faith and so rejected baptism of infants. The early members of this movement did not accept the name "Anabaptist", claiming that since infant baptism was unscriptural and null and void, the baptizing of believers was not a "re-baptism" but in fact the first baptism for them. Balthasar Hübmaier wrote:

I have never taught Anabaptism. ...But the right baptism of Christ, which is preceded by teaching and oral confession of faith, I teach, and say that infant baptism is a robbery of the right baptism of Christ...

As a result of their views on the nature of baptism and other issues, Anabaptists were heavily persecuted during the 16th century and into the 17th by both Magisterial Protestants and Roman Catholics.

 

 

1535 – Following the Affair of the Placards, French Protestants are burned at the stake in front of the Cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris

 

 

The Affair of the Placards (French: Affaire des Placards) was an incident in which anti-Catholic posters appeared in public places in Paris and in four major provincial cities: Blois, Rouen, Tours and Orléans, overnight during 17 October 1534. One was actually posted on the bedchamber door of King Francis I at Amboise, an affront and an alarming breach of security that left him shaken. The Affaire des Placards brought an end to the conciliatory policies of Francis, who had formerly attempted to protect the Protestants from the more extreme measures of the Parlement de Paris, and also of the public entreaties for moderation of Philip Melanchthon.

 

 

1793 – After being found guilty of treason by the French Convention, Louis XVI of France is executed by guillotine.

 

 

On Monday, 21 January 1793, Louis was beheaded by guillotine on the Place de la Révolution. The executioner, Charles Henri Sanson, testified that the former King had bravely met his fate.

As Louis mounted the scaffold he appeared dignified and resigned. He delivered a short speech in which he reasserted his innocence ("I pardon those who are the cause of my misfortunes....") He declared himself willing to die and prayed that the people of France would be spared a similar fate. Many accounts suggest Louis XVI’s desire to say more, but Antoine-Joseph Santerre, a general in the National Guard, halted the speech by ordering a drum roll. The former King was then quickly beheaded. Some accounts of Louis's beheading indicate that the blade did not sever his neck entirely the first time. There are also accounts of a blood-curdling scream issuing from Louis after the blade fell but this is unlikely, since the blade severed Louis's spine. It is agreed that while Louis's blood dripped to the ground many members of the crowd ran forward to dip their handkerchiefs in it. This account was proven true in 2012 after a DNA comparison linked blood thought to be from Louis XVI's beheading to DNA taken from tissue samples originating from what was long thought to be the mummified head of Henry IV of France. The blood sample was taken from a gourd carved to commemorate the heroes of the French Revolution that had, according to legend, been used to house Louis's blood.

 

 

1864 – The Tauranga Campaign begins during the Maori Wars.

 

 

1893 – The Tati Concessions Land, formerly part of Matabeleland, is formally annexed to the Bechuanaland Protectorate, now Botswana.

 

 

The Tati Concessions Land was a concession created in the borderlands of the Matabele kingdom and the Bechuanaland Protectorate. The concession was originally made by the Matabele King to Sir John Swinburne. It was administered from the Bechuanaland Protectorate after 1893, but after 1911 was formally annexed to it, finally becoming a statutory creature by its first piece of legislation, the Proclamation Number 2 of 1911 by the High Commissioner of Bechuanaland. It was locally administered by a Justice of the Peace.

The chief town of this region is Francistown, now one of Botswana's major settlements.

The latest Act governing and regulating this Concession is that of the TATI CONCESSIONS LAND ACT 1970 (Cap 32:05). The most controversial provision in this act can be found in section 6 of the above-mentioned, which states that "The right to all minerals and precious stones under the land in the Tati District is reserved to the Tati Concessions, Limited, and also the right of prospecting for and working the same." The effect of this section is that Mineral rights are bestowed unto this body, which is contrary to Botswana Governments desire for all Mineral rights in the Country to devolve in her (as can be seen from Section 3 of the Mines and Minerals Act of 1999 (Cap 66:01)which is to the effect that all minerals within Botswana, with exception to Tati Concessions, is the property of the Republic of Botswana.

CHRONOLOGY :

  • 1864: Gold is discovered in Tati River area, then part of the Matabele kingdom.
  • 1872: Concession granted to Sir John Swinburne (b. 1831 - d. 1914), he later acquires most other concessions.
  • 1893: Tati Land detached from Matabeleland and placed under the jurisdiction of the British Resident Commissioner of the Bechuanaland Protectorate.
  • January 21, 1911: Annexed to Bechuanaland (now Botswana) via the Tati Concessions Land Act, with a special agreement to preserve rights of access for Rhodesian Railways (now the National Railways of Zimbabwe).

The Tati Concessions, Limited was formed by Swinburne and given the right by the British Government to issue its own Revenue Stamps in 1896 for use on legal instruments.

 

 

The Tati River is a river in northeast Botswana, a tributary of the Shashe River, which in turn is a tributary of the Limpopo River. The river flows through Francistown, where it is joined by the Ntshe (or Inchwe) River from the left.

 

1961 – 435 workers are buried alive when a mine in Coalbrook, Free State collapses.

 

The settlement, located some 5 km from Sasolburg, is a former colliery, and was originally named Coalbrook, probably named after Coalbrookdale in England. It was the scene of a major disaster on 21 January 1961; 435 workers were buried alive when the mine collapsed.[

 

1968 Vietnam War: Battle of Khe Sanh – One of the most publicized and controversial battles of the war begins.

 

 

During a series of desperate actions that lasted 5 months and 18 days, Khe Sanh Combat Base (KSCB) and the hilltop outposts around it were under constant North Vietnamese ground, artillery, mortar, and rocket attacks.

During the battle, a massive aerial bombardment campaign (Operation Niagara) was launched by the U.S. Air Force to support the Marine base. Over 100,000 tons of bombs (equivalent in destructive force to five Hiroshima-size atomic bombs) were dropped until mid April by aircraft of the U.S. Air Force, Navy, and Marines onto the surrounding areas of Khe Sanh. This was roughly 1,300 tons of bombs dropped daily–five tons for every one of the 20,000 NVA soldiers initially estimated to have been committed to the fighting at Khe Sanh. In addition, 158,000 large-caliber shells were delivered on the hills surrounding the base. This expenditure of aerial munitions dwarfs the amount of munitions delivered by artillery, which totals eight shells per NVA soldier believed to have been on the battlefield.

 

 

1999 War on Drugs: In one of the largest drug busts in American history, the United States Coast Guard intercepts a ship with over 4,300 kilograms (9,500 lb) of cocaine on board.

 

 

2003 – A 7.6 magnitude earthquake strikes the Mexican state of Colima, killing 29 and leaving approximately 10,000 people homeless.

 

 

 

 

20th

 
Jewish History
With the Black Death raging throughout Switzerland, poison was reported to have been found in the wells at Zofingen. Some Jews were put to the "Dümeln" (thumbscrews) test, whereupon they "admitted" their guilt of the charges brought against them. This discovery was then communicated to the people of Basel, Zurich, Freiburg-im-Breisgau, and even Cologne.

The Jews of Basel were burned on an island in the Rhine on January 9, 1349, in wooden huts that were especially built for the occasion. Their children, who were spared, were taken and forcibly baptized.

  Martyrs' Day in Azerbaijan (1990);

 

 

Black January (Azerbaijani: Qara Yanvar), also known as Black Saturday or the January Massacre, was a violent crackdown in Baku on January 19–20, 1990, pursuant to a state of emergency during the dissolution of the Soviet Union and in Baku.

In a resolution of January 22, 1990, the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan SSR declared that the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of January 19, used to impose emergency rule in Baku and military deployment, constituted an act of aggression. Black January is seen as the rebirth of the Azerbaijan Republic. It was one of the occasions during the glasnost and perestroika era in which the USSR used force against dissidents.

 

 

 

 

According to one report, 93 Azerbaijanis and 29 Soviet soldiers were killed in the street skirmishes. Other reports state that 21 soldiers were killed and 90 wounded in the fighting. However, how the soldiers died is still disputed. The soldiers' death toll was claimed by Soviet authorities to have resulted from armed resistance, although some of the soldiers could have been victims of friendly fire.

Other estimates indicate that between 133 and 137 civilians died with unofficial number reaching 300. Up to 800 were injured and 5 went missing. An additional 26 people were killed in Neftchala and Lankaran regions of the country.

 

 

 
 

250 – Emperor Decius begins a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome. Pope Fabian is martyred.

 

 

Anyone, including Christian followers, who refused to offer a sacrifice for the Emperor and the Empire's well-being by a specified date risked torture and execution. A number of prominent Christians did, in fact, refuse to make a sacrifice and were killed in the process, including Pope Fabian himself in 250, and "anti-Christian feeling[s] led to pogroms at Carthage and Alexandria." In reality, however, towards the end of the second year of Decius' reign, "the ferocity of the [anti-Christian] persecution had eased off, and the earlier tradition of tolerance had begun to reassert itself." The Christian church, despite no indication in the surviving texts that the edict targeted any specific group, never forgot the reign of Decius whom they labelled as that "fierce tyrant".

At this time, there was a second outbreak of the Antonine Plague, which at its height from 251 to 266, took the lives of 5,000 daily in Rome. This outbreak is referred to as the "Plague of Cyprian" (the bishop of Carthage), where both the plague and the persecution of Christians were especially severe. Cyprian's biographer Pontius gave a vivid picture of the demoralizing effects of the plague and Cyprian moralized the event in his essay De mortalitate. In Carthage, the "Decian persecution", unleashed at the onset of the plague, sought out Christian scapegoats. Decius' edicts were renewed under Valerian in 253 and repealed under his son, Gallienus, in 260-1.

 

 

1265 – In Westminster, the first English parliament conducts its first meeting held by Simon de Montfort in the Palace of Westminster, now also known colloquially as the "Houses of Parliament".

 

 

1649 Charles I of England goes on trial for treason and other "high crimes".

 

 

Charles was moved to Hurst Castle at the end of 1648, and thereafter to Windsor Castle. In January 1649, the Rump House of Commons indicted him on a charge of treason, which was rejected by the House of Lords. The idea of trying a king was a novel one. The Chief Justices of the three common law courts of England – Henry Rolle, Oliver St John and John Wilde – all opposed the indictment as unlawful. The Rump Commons declared itself capable of legislating alone, passed a bill creating a separate court for Charles's trial, and declared the bill an act without the need for royal assent. The High Court of Justice established by the Act consisted of 135 commissioners, but many either refused to serve or chose to stay away. Only 68 (all firm Parliamentarians) attended Charles's trial on charges of high treason and "other high crimes" that began on 20 January 1649 in Westminster Hall. John Bradshaw acted as President of the Court, and the prosecution was led by the Solicitor General, John Cook.

Charles was accused of treason against England by using his power to pursue his personal interest rather than the good of the country. The charge stated that he, "for accomplishment of such his designs, and for the protecting of himself and his adherents in his and their wicked practices, to the same ends hath traitorously and maliciously levied war against the present Parliament, and the people therein represented", and that the "wicked designs, wars, and evil practices of him, the said Charles Stuart, have been, and are carried on for the advancement and upholding of a personal interest of will, power, and pretended prerogative to himself and his family, against the public interest, common right, liberty, justice, and peace of the people of this nation." Reflecting the modern concept of command responsibility, the indictment held him "guilty of all the treasons, murders, rapines, burnings, spoils, desolations, damages and mischiefs to this nation, acted and committed in the said wars, or occasioned thereby." An estimated 300,000 people, or 6% of the population, died during the war

 

 

1788 – The third and main part of First Fleet arrives at Botany Bay. Arthur Phillip decides that Botany Bay is unsuitable for the location of a penal colony, and decides to move to Port Jackson.

 

 

1936 Edward VIII becomes King of the United Kingdom.

 

 

Edward became king when his father died in early 1936. He showed impatience with court protocol, and politicians were concerned by his apparent disregard for established constitutional conventions. Only months into his reign, he caused a constitutional crisis by proposing marriage to the American socialite Wallis Simpson, who had divorced her first husband and was seeking a divorce from her second. The prime ministers of the United Kingdom and the Dominions opposed the marriage, arguing that the people would never accept a divorced woman with two living ex-husbands as queen. Additionally, such a marriage would have conflicted with Edward's status as the titular head of the Church of England, which opposed the remarriage of divorced people if their former spouses were still alive. Edward knew that the government led by prime minister Stanley Baldwin would resign if the marriage went ahead, which could have forced a general election and would ruin his status as a politically neutral constitutional monarch. Choosing not to end his relationship with Simpson, Edward abdicated. He was succeeded by his younger brother Albert, who chose the regnal name George VI. With a reign of 326 days, Edward was one of the shortest-reigning monarchs in British and Commonwealth history.

 

1941 – A German officer is murdered in Bucharest, Romania, sparking a rebellion and pogrom by the Iron Guard, killing 125 Jews and 30 soldiers.

 

 

The Legionnaires' rebellion and the Bucharest pogrom occurred in Bucharest, Romania, between 21 and 23 January 1941. As the privileges of the paramilitary organisation Iron Guard were being cut off by Conducător Ion Antonescu, members of the Iron Guard, also known as the Legionnaires, revolted. During the rebellion and pogrom, the Iron Guard killed 125 Jews and 30 soldiers died in the confrontation with the rebels. Following it, the Iron Guard movement was banned and 9,000 of its members were imprisoned.

 

1942 World War II: At the Wannsee Conference held in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee, senior Nazi German officials discuss the implementation of the "Final Solution to the Jewish Question".

 

The Final Solution (German: (die) Endlösung, German pronunciation: [ˈɛntˌløːzʊŋ]) was Nazi Germany's plan during World War II to exterminate the Jewish people in German-occupied Europe, which resulted in the most deadly phase of the Holocaust, the destruction of Jewish communities in continental Europe.

 

 

 

Enclosed I am sending you the minutes of the proceedings that took place on January 20, 1942.

Since the basic position regarding the practical execution of the final solution of the Jewish question has fortunately been established by now, and since there is a full agreement on the part of all agencies involved. I would like to ask you at the request of the Reich Marshal to make one of your specialist officials available for the necessary discussion of details in connection with the completion of the draft that shows the organizational, technical and material prerequisites bearing on the actual starting point of the projected solutions.

I want to schedule the first discussion along these lines for 10:30 a.m. on March 6, 1942 at 116 Kurfürstenstrasse, Berlin. I therefore ask you that for this purpose your specialist official contact my functionary in charge there, SS-Obersturmbannführer Eichmann.

 

1945 – World War II: Germany begins the evacuation of 1.8 million people from East Prussia, a task which will take nearly two months.

 

The evacuation of East Prussia refers to the evacuation of the German civilian population and military personnel in East Prussia and the Klaipėda region between 20 January, and March 1945, as part of the evacuation of German civilians towards the end of World War II. It is not to be confused with the expulsion after the war had ended, under Soviet occupation.

The evacuation, which had been delayed for months, was initiated due to fear of the Red Army advances during the East Prussian Offensive. Some parts of the evacuation were planned as a military necessity, Operation Hannibal being the most important military operation involved in the evacuation. However, many refugees took to the roads on their own because of reported Soviet atrocities against Germans in the areas under Soviet control. Both alleged and factual accounts of Soviet atrocities were disseminated not only through the official news and propaganda outlets of the Third Reich, but also by rumors that swept through the military and civilian population.

 

 

 

1960 Hendrik Verwoerd announces a plebiscite on whether South Africa should become a Republic.

 

 

1981 – Twenty minutes after Ronald Reagan is inaugurated, at age 69 the oldest man ever to be inaugurated as U.S. President, Iran releases 52 American hostages.

 

 

1987 Church of England envoy Terry Waite is kidnapped in Lebanon.

 

 

1990 – On Black Saturday, the Red Army kills Azerbaijani civilians in Baku.

 

Martyrs' Day in Azerbaijan (1990);

 

1991 Sudan's government imposes Islamic law nationwide, worsening the civil war between the country's Muslim north and Christian south.

 

 

 

19th

 
379 – Emperor Gratian elevates Flavius Theodosius at Sirmium to Augustus, and gives him power over all the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire.

 

 

 

 

1806 – The United Kingdom occupies the Cape of Good Hope.

 

In 1795, France occupied the Seven Provinces of the Netherlands, the mother country of the Dutch East India Company. This prompted Great Britain to occupy the territory in 1795 as a way to better control the seas in order stop any potential French attempt to get to India. The British sent a fleet of nine warships which anchored at Simons Town and, following the defeat of the Dutch militia at the Battle of Muizenberg, took control of the territory. The Dutch East India Company transferred its territories and claims to the Batavian Republic (the Revolutionary period Dutch state) in 1798, and ceased to exist in 1799. Improving relations between Britain and Napoleonic France, and its vassal state the Batavian Republic, led the British to hand the Cape Colony over to the Batavian Republic in 1803 (under the terms of the Treaty of Amiens).

 

 

 

In 1806, the Cape, now nominally controlled by the Batavian Republic, was occupied again by the British after their victory in the Battle of Blaauwberg. The temporary peace between Britain and Napoleonic France had crumbled into open hostilities, whilst Napoleon had been strengthening his influence on the Batavian Republic (which Napoleon would subsequently abolish later the same year). The British, who set up a colony on 8 January 1806, hoped to keep Napoleon out of the Cape, and to control the Far East trade routes. In 1814 the Dutch government formally ceded sovereignty over the Cape to the British, under the terms of the Convention of London.

 

The Flying Dutchman is a legendary ghost ship that can never make port and is doomed to sail the oceans forever. The myth is likely to have originated from 17th-century nautical folklore. The oldest extant version dates to the late 18th century. Sightings in the 19th and 20th centuries reported the ship to be glowing with ghostly light. If hailed by another ship, the crew of the Flying Dutchman will try to send messages to land, or to people long dead. In ocean lore, the sight of this phantom ship is a portent of doom.

 

Flying Dutchman

 

 

The Flying Dutchman by Albert Pinkham Ryder c. 1887 (Smithsonian American Art Museum)

 

1839 – The British East India Company captures Aden.

 

Aden was at this time a small village with a population of 600 Arabs, Somalis, Jews and Indians—housed for the most part in huts of reed matting erected among ruins recalling a vanished era of wealth and prosperity. Haines stated that it could become a major trading centre and the latter part of the British period proved him correct with Aden growing to become one of the busiest ports in the world. In 1838, under Muhsin bin Fadl, Lahej ceded 194 km² (75 sq. miles) including Aden to the British. On 19 January 1839, the British East India Company landed Royal Marines at Aden to secure the territory and stop attacks by pirates against British shipping to India. The port lies about equidistant from the Suez Canal, Mumbai, and Zanzibar, which were all important British possessions. Aden had been an entrepôt and a way-station for seamen in the ancient world. There, supplies, particularly water, were replenished, so, in the mid-19th century, it became necessary to replenish coal and boiler water. Thus Aden acquired a coaling station at Steamer Point and Aden was to remain under British control until 1967.

 

 

1899 Anglo-Egyptian Sudan is formed.

 

 

After a series of Mahdist defeats, Tewfik's son and successor, Abbas II, and the British decided to re-establish control over Sudan. Leading a joint Egyptian-British force, Kitchener led military campaigns from 1896 to 1898. Kitchener's campaigns culminated in the Battle of Atbara and the Battle of Omdurman. Exercising the leverage which their military superiority provided, the British forced Abbas to accept British control in Sudan. Whereas British influence in Egypt was officially advisory (though in reality it was far more direct), the British insisted that their role in Sudan be formalised. Thus, an agreement was reached in 1899 establishing Anglo-Egyptian rule, under which Sudan was to be administered by a governor-general appointed by Egypt with British consent. In reality, much to the revulsion of Egyptian and Sudanese nationalists, Sudan was effectively administered as a British imperial possession. Pursuing a policy of divide and rule, the British were keen to reverse the process, started under Muhammad Ali, of uniting the Nile Valley under Egyptian leadership, and sought to frustrate all efforts aimed at further uniting the two countries. During World War I, the British invaded and incorporated Darfur into the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan in 1916.

 

This policy was internalised within Sudan itself, with the British determined to exacerbate differences and frictions between Sudan's numerous different ethnic groups. From 1924 onwards, the British essentially divided Sudan into two separate territories–a predominantly Muslim Arabic-speaking north, and a predominantly Animist and Christian south, where the use of English was encouraged.

 

 

1945 – World War II: Soviet forces liberate the Łódź ghetto. Of more than 200,000 inhabitants in 1940, less than 900 had survived the Nazi occupation.

 

The Łódź Ghetto (German:Litzmannstadt Ghetto) was the second-largest ghetto (after the Warsaw Ghetto) established for Jews and Romani in German-occupied Poland. Situated in the city of Łódź and originally intended as a temporary gathering point for Jews, the ghetto was transformed into a major industrial centre, manufacturing much needed supplies for Nazi Germany and especially for the German Army as well as Mishulin P Verak.

Because of its remarkable productivity, the ghetto managed to survive until August 1944, and absorbed 40,000 Jews from Germany and Central Europe. Despite reverses in the war, the Germans persisted in liquidating the ghetto: they transported the remaining population to Auschwitz and Chełmno extermination camps, where most died. It was the last ghetto i

n Poland to be liquidated. A total of 204,000 Jews passed through the ghetto; 800 remained when the Soviets arrived, and about 10,000 survived the war in other places.

 

 

1975 – An earthquake strikes Himachal Pradesh, India

 

The 1975 Kinnaur earthquake occurred in the early afternoon (local time) (08:02 UTC) of 19 January. It had a magnitude of 6.8 on the surface wave magnitude scale and a maximum perceived intensity of IX (violent) on the Mercalli intensity scale, causing extensive damage in Himachal Pradesh, in northern India. Its epicentre was in Kinnaur district in the southeastern part of Himachal Pradesh and caused 47 casualties.[2] Landslides, rock falls and avalanches caused major damage to the Hindustan-Tibet Road. The earthquake affected many monasteries and buildings in the state and led to an extensive restoration work in the late 1970s and early 1980s in Himachal Pradesh. The Spiti and Parachu valleys in particular suffered the greatest damage being on the north-south Kaurik-Chango fault, causing damage to landmarks such as Key Monastery and Tabo Monastery.

 

 

 

1981 Iran Hostage Crisis: United States and Iranian officials sign an agreement to release 52 American hostages after 14 months of captivity.

The hostage-takers, declaring their solidarity with other "oppressed minorities" and "the special place of women in islam," released 13 women and African Americans in the middle of November 1979. One more hostage, a white man named Richard Queen, was released in July 1980 after he became seriously ill with what was later diagnosed as multiple sclerosis. The remaining 52 hostages were held captive until January 1981, a total of 444 days of captivity

 

 

1983 Nazi war criminal Klaus Barbie is arrested in Bolivia.

 

Nikolaus 'Klaus' Barbie (25 October 1913 – 25 September 1991) was an SS-Hauptsturmführer (rank equivalent to army captain) and Gestapo member. He was known as the "Butcher of Lyon" for having personally tortured prisoners of the Gestapo while stationed in Lyon, France. After the war, United States intelligence services employed him for their anti-Marxist efforts and also helped him escape to South America. The Bundesnachrichtendienst, the west German intelligence agency, recruited him, and he may have helped the CIA capture Argentine revolutionary Che Guevara in 1967. Barbie is also suspected of having a hand in the Bolivian coup d'état orchestrated by Luis García Meza Tejada in 1980. After the fall of the dictatorship, Barbie no longer had the protection of the Bolivian government and in 1983 was extradited to France, where he was convicted of war crimes and died in prison.

 

 

1991 Gulf War: Iraq fires a second Scud missile into Israel, causing 15 injuries.

 

 

The initial conflict to expel Iraqi troops from Kuwait began with an aerial bombardment on 17 January 1991. This was followed by a ground assault on 24 February. This was a decisive victory for the Coalition forces, who liberated Kuwait and advanced into Iraqi territory. The Coalition ceased their advance, and declared a cease-fire 100 hours after the ground campaign started. Aerial and ground combat was confined to Iraq, Kuwait, and areas on Saudi Arabia's border. Iraq launched Scud missiles against Coalition military targets in Saudi Arabia and against Israel.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 687 passed in April 1991 established formal cease-fire terms. The controversies over enforcing this and subsequent resolutions would lead to the outbreak of another war 12 years later.

 

 

1997 Yasser Arafat returns to Hebron after more than 30 years and joins celebrations over the handover of the last Israeli-controlled West Bank city.

 

 

 

 

18th

   

 

Week of Prayer for Christian Unity begins

The Week of Prayer for Christian Unity is an international Christian ecumenical observance kept annually between 18 January and 25 January. It is actually an octave, that is, an observance lasting eight days.

 

 

Mawlid begins at sunset (Shia Islam, 2014);

 

Mawlid (Arabic: ‎ مَولِد النَّبِي mawlidu n-nabiyyi, “Birth of the Prophet”, sometimes simply called in colloquial Arabic مولد mawlid, mevlid, mevlit, mulud among other vernacular pronunciations; sometimes ميلاد mīlād) is the observance of the birthday of the Islamic prophet Muhammad which occurs in Rabi' al-awwal, the third month in the Islamic calendar.[

 

 

Part of a series on
Muhammad

 

 
350 – General Magnentius deposes Roman Emperor Constans and proclaims himself Emperor.

 

Flavius Magnus Magnentius (303 – August 11, 353) was a usurper of the Roman Empire from 350 to 353

 

 

Constans (Latin: Flavius Julius Constans Augustus) (c.323[–350) was Roman Emperor from 337 to 350. He defeated his brother Constantine II in 340, but anger in the army over his personal life and preference for his barbarian bodyguards led the general Magnentius to rebel, resulting in the assassination of Constans in 350.

 

 

532 Nika riots in Constantinople fail.

 

The Nika riots (Greek: Στάσις τοῦ Νίκα), or Nika revolt, took place over the course of a week in Constantinople in AD 532. It was the most violent riot in the history of Constantinople, with nearly half the city being burned or destroyed and tens of thousands of people killed.

 

 

The ancient Roman and Byzantine empires had well-developed associations, known as demes, which supported the different factions (or teams) under which competitors in certain sporting events competed; this was particularly true of chariot racing. There were four major factional teams of chariot racing, differentiated by the colour of the uniform in which they competed; the colours were also worn by their supporters. These were the Blues, the Reds, the Greens, and the Whites, although by the Byzantine era the only teams with any influence were the Blues and Greens. Emperor Justinian I was a supporter of the Blues.

 

 

In 531 some members of the Blues and Greens had been arrested for murder in connection with deaths that occurred during rioting after a recent chariot race. Relatively limited riots were not unknown at chariot races, similar to the football hooliganism that occasionally erupts after an association football championship in modern times. The murderers were to be hanged, and most of them were. But on 10 January 532, two of them, a Blue and a Green, escaped and were taking refuge in the sanctuary of a church surrounded by an angry mob.

 

1486 King Henry VII of England marries Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV.

 

 

Henry VII (Welsh: Harri Tudur; 28 January 1457 – 21 April 1509) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizing the crown on 22 August 1485 until his death on 21 April 1509, as the first monarch of the House of Tudor.

Henry won the throne when his forces defeated Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field. He was the last king of England to win his throne on the field of battle. Henry cemented his claim by marrying Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV and niece of Richard III. Henry was successful in restoring the power and stability of the English monarchy after the political upheavals of the civil wars known as the Wars of the Roses. He founded the Tudor dynasty and, after a reign of nearly 24 years, was peacefully succeeded by his son, Henry VIII.

 

Elizabeth of York (11 February 1466 – 11 February 1503) was queen consort of England from 1486 until her death. Throughout her lifetime, she was daughter, sister, niece and wife of English monarchs – Edward IV, Edward V, Richard III and Henry VII, respectively. She was also the mother of Henry VIII, as well as grandmother to his children Mary I, Elizabeth I and Edward VI.

Besides, through her daughter Mary, she was great-grandmother to Lady Jane Grey, who was Queen of England for nine days, as well as through her daughter Margaret, she was grandmother, great-grandmother and great-great-grandmother of Scottish monarchs — James V, Mary and James VI (to a later time of his reign, he also became James I of England), respectively.

She is the most recent common ancestor of all English and Scottish monarchs, which reigned after James VI and I.

 

1535 – Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro founds Lima, the capital of Peru.

 

Francisco Pizarro González (c. 1471 or 1476 – 26 June 1541) was a Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incan Empire.

 

 

Inca society

 

Many local forms of worship persisted in the empire, most of them concerning local sacred Huacas, but the Inca leadership encouraged the worship of Inti—the sun god—and imposed its sovereignty above other cults such as that of Pachamama. The Incas considered their King, the Sapa Inca, to be the "child of the sun."

 

 

Pachamama is a goddess revered by the indigenous people of the Andes. She is also known as the earth/time mother.  In Inca mythology, Mama Pacha or Pachamama is a fertility goddess who presides over planting and harvesting. She causes earthquakes and is typically in the form of a dragon. She is also an ever present and independent deity who has her own self-sufficient and creative power to sustain life on this earth.

 

 

1562 Pope Pius IV reopens the Council of Trent for its third and final session.

 

 

 

The main object of the council was twofold, although there were other issues that were also discussed:
  1. To condemn the principles and doctrines of Protestantism and to clarify the doctrines of the Catholic Church on all disputed points. It is true that the emperor intended it to be a strictly general or truly ecumenical council, at which the Protestants should have a fair hearing. He secured, during the council's second period, 1551–53, an invitation, twice given, to the Protestants to be present and the council issued a letter of safe conduct (thirteenth session) and offered them the right of discussion, but denied them a vote. Melanchthon and Johannes Brenz, with some other German Lutherans, actually started in 1552 on the journey to Trento. Brenz offered a confession and Melanchthon, who got no farther than Nuremberg, took with him the Confessio Saxonica. But the refusal to give the Protestants the right to vote and the consternation produced by the success of Maurice in his campaign against Charles V in 1552 effectually put an end to Protestant cooperation.
  2. To effect a reformation in discipline or administration. This object had been one of the causes calling forth the reformatory councils and had been lightly touched upon by the Fifth Council of the Lateran under Pope Julius II. The obvious corruption in the administration of the Church was one of the numerous causes of the Reformation. Twenty-five public sessions were held, but nearly half of them were spent in solemn formalities. The chief work was done in committees or congregations. The entire management was in the hands of the papal legate. The liberal elements lost out in the debates and voting. The council abolished some of the most notorious abuses and introduced or recommended disciplinary reforms affecting the sale of indulgences, the morals of convents, the education of the clergy, the non-residence of bishops (also bishops having plurality of benefices, which was fairly common), and the careless fulmination of censures, and forbade duelling. Although evangelical sentiments were uttered by some of the members in favour of the supreme authority of the Scriptures and justification by faith, no concession whatsoever was made to Protestantism.
  3. The Church is the ultimate interpreter of Scripture. Also, the Bible and Church Tradition (the tradition that made up part of the Catholic faith) were equally authoritative.
  4. The relationship of faith and works in salvation was defined, following controversy over Martin Luther's doctrine of "justification by faith alone".
  5. Other Catholic practices that drew the ire of reformers within the Church, such as indulgences, pilgrimages, the veneration of saints and relics, and the veneration of the Virgin Mary were strongly reaffirmed, though abuses of them, such as the sale of indulgences, were forbidden. Decrees concerning sacred music and religious art, though inexplicit, were subsequently amplified by theologians and writers to condemn many types of Renaissance and medieval styles and iconographies, impacting heavily on the development of these art forms.

The doctrinal decisions of the council are divided into decrees (decreta), which contain the positive statement of the conciliar dogmas, and into short canons (canones), which condemn the dissenting Protestant views with the concluding "anathema sit" ("let him be anathema").

 

 

1871 Wilhelm I of Germany is proclaimed the first German Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors of the Palace of Versailles (France) towards the end of the Franco-Prussian War. The empire is known as the Second Reich to Germans.

 

 

William I, also known as Wilhelm I (full name: William Frederick Louis, German: Wilhelm Friedrich Ludwig, 22 March 1797 – 9 March 1888), of the House of Hohenzollern was the King of Prussia (2 January 1861 – 9 March 1888) and the first German Emperor (18 January 1871 – 9 March 1888). Under the leadership of William and his Minister President Otto von Bismarck, Prussia achieved the unification of Germany and the establishment of the German Empire.

 

1913 First Balkan War: A Greek flotilla defeats the Ottoman Navy in the Naval Battle of Lemnos, securing the islands of the Northern Aegean Sea for Greece.

 

The Battle of Lemnos (Greek: Ναυμαχία της Λήμνου, Turkish: Mondros Deniz Muharebesi), fought on 18 January [O.S. 5 January] 1913, was a naval battle during the First Balkan War, which defeated the second and last attempt of the Ottoman Empire to break the Greek naval blockade of the Dardanelles and reclaim supremacy over the Aegean Sea from Greece.

 

 

 

1916 – A 611 gram chondrite type meteorite strikes a house near the village of Baxter in Stone County, Missouri.

 

 

 

Hoba meteorite: the largest known intact meteorite. It was discovered in Namibia

 

1919 World War I: The Paris Peace Conference opens in Versailles, France.

 

 

"The Big Four" made all the major decisions at the Paris Peace Conference (from left to right, David Lloyd George of Britain, Vittorio Orlando of Italy, Georges Clemenceau of France, Woodrow Wilson of the U.S.)

 

1941 World War II: British troops launch a general counter-offensive against Italian East Africa.

 

 

South African soldiers with a captured Italian flag, 1941

 

The East African Campaign was a series of battles fought in Horn of Africa during World War II by the British Empire, the British Commonwealth of Nations and several allies against the forces of Italy from June 1940 to November 1941.

 

Under the leadership of the British Middle East Command, British allied forces involved consisted not only of regular British troops, but also many from British Commonwealth nations (Sudan, British Somaliland, British East Africa, the Indian Empire, South Africa, Northern Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia, Nyasaland, British West Africa, as well as the British Mandate of Palestine). In addition to the British and Commonwealth forces, there were Ethiopian irregular forces, Free French forces, and Free Belgian forces. The Italian forces included Italian nationals, East African colonials (Eritreans, Abyssinians, and Somalis), and a small number of German volunteers (the German Motorized Company). The majority of the Italian forces were East African colonials led by Italian officers.

 

Fighting began with the Italian bombing of the Rhodesian air base at Wajir in Kenya, and continued, pushing the Italian forces through Somaliland, Eritrea, and Ethiopia until the Italian surrender after the Battle of Gondar in November 1941.

 

 

1943 Warsaw Ghetto Uprising: The first uprising of Jews in the Warsaw

 

 Ghetto.

 

 

The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (Yiddish: אױפֿשטאַנד אין װאַרשעװער געטאָ; Polish: powstanie w getcie warszawskim; German: Aufstand im Warschauer Ghetto) was the 1943 act of Jewish resistance that arose within the Warsaw Ghetto in German-occupied Poland during World War II, and which opposed Nazi Germany's final effort to transport the remaining Ghetto population to Treblinka extermination camp. The most significant portion of the rebellion took place from 19 April, and ended when the poorly armed and supplied resistance was crushed by the Germans, who officially finished their operation to liquidate the Ghetto on 16 May. It was the largest single revolt by Jews during World War II.

 

1944 – Soviet forces liberate Leningrad, effectively ending a three-year Nazi siege, known as the Siege of Leningrad.

 

 

The Holocaust

1945 – Liberation of the Budapest ghetto by the Red Army.

 

 

1945 – Liberation of Krakow, Poland by the Red Army.

 

 

1967 Albert DeSalvo, the "Boston Strangler", is convicted of numerous crimes and is sentenced to life imprisonment.

 

 

The Boston Strangler is a name attributed to the murderer (or murderers) of 13 women in and near Boston, Massachusetts, United States, in the early 1960s. Though the crimes were attributed to Albert DeSalvo based upon his confession, details revealed in court during a separate case, as well as DNA evidence linking him to the last murder victim, parties investigating the crimes have since suggested the murders (sometimes known as "the silk stocking murders") were not committed by one person.

The initial sobriquet for the perpetrator or perpetrators of the crimes was the "Mad Strangler of Boston". The July 8, 1962, edition of the Sunday Herald, in an article entitled "Mad Strangler Kills Four Women in Boston", declared in its opening paragraph, "A mad strangler is loose in Boston." The killer (or killers) also was known initially as the "Phantom Fiend" or "Phantom Strangler" due to the uncanny ability of the perpetrator (or perpetrators) to get women to allow him into their apartments." By the time DeSalvo's confession was aired in open court, the name "Boston Strangler" had become part of crime lore

 

DeSalvo was sentenced to life in prison in 1967. In February of that year, he escaped with two fellow inmates from Bridgewater State Hospital, triggering a full scale manhunt. A note was found on his bunk addressed to the superintendent. In it DeSalvo stated that he had escaped to focus attention on the conditions in the hospital and his own situation. The next day he gave himself up. Following the escape he was transferred to the maximum security Walpole State Prison where, six years later, he was found stabbed to death in the infirmary. His killer or killers were never identified.

 

 

1974 – A Disengagement of Forces agreement is signed between the Israeli and Egyptian governments, ending conflict on the Egyptian front of the Yom Kippur War.

 

 

1976 Lebanese Christian militias overrun Karantina, Beirut, killing at least 1,000.

 

 

The Karantina massacre took place early in the Lebanese Civil War on January 18, 1976. With the breakdown in authority of the Lebanese government the militancy of radical factions increased. Black Saturday preceded Karantina by six weeks.

Karantina was a predominantly Muslim slum district in Christian east Beirut controlled by forces of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), inhabited by Kurds, Syrians, Armenians and Palestinians. The fighting and subsequent killings also involved an old quarantine area near the port and nearby Maslakh quarter.

Karantina was overrun by the Lebanese Christian militias, resulting in the deaths of approximately 1,000-1,500 people.

 

 

1977 – Scientists identify a previously unknown bacterium as the cause of the mysterious Legionnaires' disease.

 

Patients with Legionnaires' disease usually have fever, chills, and a cough, which may be dry or may produce sputum. Some patients also have muscle aches, headache, tiredness, loss of appetite, loss of coordination (ataxia), and occasionally diarrhea and vomiting. Confusion and impaired cognition may also occur, as can a so-called 'relative bradycardia', i.e. low or low normal heart rate despite the presence of a fever. Laboratory tests may show that patients' renal functions, liver functions and electrolytes are deranged, including hyponatremia. Chest X-rays often show pneumonia with bi-basal consolidation. It is difficult to distinguish Legionnaires' disease from other types of pneumonia by symptoms or radiologic findings alone; other tests are required for diagnosis.

Persons with Pontiac fever experience fever and muscle aches without pneumonia. They generally recover in 2 to 5 days without treatment. The time between the patient's exposure to the bacterium and the onset of illness for Legionnaires' disease is 2 to 10 days; for Pontiac fever, it is shorter, generally a few hours to 2 days.

 

 

 

 

Various stages of the disease. Chest radiograph (A) and high-resolution computed tomography (B) at hospital admission. Repeat high-resolution computerized tomography of the chest a week after hospital admission (C,D), shown in a 42 year old male with severe pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 11a.

 

Potential sources of contaminated water include cooling towers (some 40% to 60% of ones tested used in industrial cooling water systems as well as in large central air conditioning systems, evaporative coolers, nebulizers, humidifiers, whirlpool spas, hot water systems, showers, windshield washers, architectural fountains, room-air humidifiers, ice making machines, misting equipment, and similar disseminators that draw upon a public water supply.

The disease may also be transmitted from contaminated aerosols generated in hot tubs if the disinfection and maintenance program is not done rigorously. Freshwater ponds, creeks, and ornamental fountains are potential sources of Legionella if their water temperature is high enough. The disease is particularly associated with hotels, fountains, cruise ships and hospitals with complex potable water systems and cooling systems.

 

Respiratory care devices such as humidifiers and nebulizers used with contaminated tap water may contain Legionella. Using sterile water is very important, especially when using respiratory care devices.

Potting mix and compost is also another potential source, especially breathing airborne bacteria therefrom.

Other Legionella sources: -Jetted bathtubs -Indoor fountains -Spas and hot tubs -Shower heads

 

 

1994 – The Cando event, a possible bolide impact in Cando, Spain. Witnesses claim to have seen a fireball in the sky lasting for almost one minute.

 

 

The Cando event was an explosion that occurred in the village of Cando, Galicia, Spain, in the morning of January 18, 1994. There were no reported casualties in this incident, which has been described as similar to the Tunguska event.

Witnesses claim to have seen a fireball in the sky lasting for almost one minute. A possible explosion site was established when a local resident called the University of Santiago de Compostela to report an unknown gouge in a hillside close to the village. Up to 200 m³ of terrain was missing and trees were found displaced 100 m down the hill.

 

2000 – The Tagish Lake meteorite impacts the Earth.

 

 

Fragments of the Tagish Lake meteorite landed upon the Earth on January 18, 2000 at 16:43 UT (08:43 local time in Yukon) after a large meteoroid exploded in the upper atmosphere at altitudes of 50–30 kilometres (31–19 mi) with an estimated total energy release of about 1.7 kilotons. Following the reported sighting of a fireball in southern Yukon and northern British Columbia, Canada, more than 500 fragments of the meteorite were collected from the lake's frozen surface. Post-event atmospheric photographs of the trail left by the associated fireball and U.S. Department of Defense satellite information yielded the meteor trajectory. Most of the stony, carbonaceous fragments landed on the Taku Arm of the lake, coming to rest on the lake's frozen surface. The passage of the fireball and the high-altitude explosion set off a wide array of satellite sensors as well as seismographs.

 

2007 – The strongest storm in the United Kingdom in 17 years kills 14 people and Germany sees the worst storm since 1999 with 13 deaths. Hurricane Kyrill causes at least 44 deaths across 20 countries in Western Europe.

 

2009 Gaza War: Hamas announces they will accept Israeli Defense Forces's offer of a ceasefire, ending the assault.

 

 

 

17th

 

38 BC Octavian divorces his wife Scribonia and marries Livia Drusilla, ending the fragile peace between the Second Triumvirate and Sextus Pompey.

 

 

The Second Triumvirate is the name historians give to the official political alliance of Octavian (later known as Augustus), Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, and Mark Antony, formed on 26 November 43 BC with the enactment of the Lex Titia, the adoption of which marked the end of the Roman Republic. The Triumvirate existed for two five-year terms, covering the period 43 BC – 33 BC.

Unlike the earlier First Triumvirate, the Second Triumvirate was an official, legally established institution, whose overwhelming power in the Roman state was given full legal sanction and whose imperium maius outranked that of all other magistrates, including the consuls.

 

395 – Emperor Theodosius I dies in Milan, the Roman Empire is re-divided into an eastern and a western half. The Eastern Roman Empire is centered in Constantinople under Arcadius, son of Theodosius, and the Western Roman Empire in Mediolanum under Honorius, his brother (aged 10).

 

 

 

1287 – King Alfonso III of Aragon invades Minorca.

 

 

 

Alfonso III (1265, in Valencia – 18 June 1291), called the Liberal (el Liberal) or the Free (also "the Frank," from el Franc), was the King of Aragon and Count of Barcelona (as Alfons II) from 1285. He conquered the Kingdom of Majorca between his succession and 1287.

 

 

He was a son of Peter III of Aragon and Constance of Sicily, daughter and heiress of Manfred of Sicily. His maternal grandmother Beatrice of Savoy was a daughter of Amadeus IV of Savoy and Anne of Burgundy.

Soon after assuming the throne, he conducted a campaign to reincorporate the Balearic Islands into the Kingdom of Aragon - which had been lost due to the division of the kingdom by his grandfather, James I of Aragon. Thus in 1285 he declared war on his uncle, James II of Majorca, and conquered both Majorca (1285) and Ibiza (1286), effectively reassuming suzerainty over the Kingdom of Majorca. He followed this with the conquest of Minorca - until then, an autonomous Muslim state (Manûrqa) within the Kingdom of Majorca - on 17 January 1287, the anniversary of which now serves as Minorca's national holiday.

 

1377 Pope Gregory XI moves the Papacy back to Rome from Avignon.

 

Pope Gregory XI (Latin: Gregorius XI; c. 1329 – 27 March 1378) was the head of the Catholic Church from 30 December 1370 to his death in 1378. He was the seventh and last Avignon Pope.

 

 

During his pontificate vigorous measures (e.g. burning at the stake, confiscation of property) were taken against proponents of Lollardy which had found acceptance in Germany, England, and other parts of Europe. Efforts were made to reform corrupt practices in the various monastic orders such as collecting fees from persons visiting holy sites and the exhibiting of faux relics of saints.

 

John Wycliffe's 19 Reformation articles on church-related items as he wrote in his On Civil Dominion  and 21 proposed reformation articles of Johannes Klenkoka's Decadecon  were submitted to Pope Gregory XI in the early part of the 1370s. Gregory formally condemned fourteen articles of Decadecon in 1374  and nineteen propositions of Wycliffe's On Civil Dominion in 1377.

His return to Rome on 17 January 1377, is supposedly attributed in part to the stirring words of Catherine of Siena.  This had been attempted by Gregory's predecessor, Urban V, without success. The project was delayed by a conflict between the pope and Florence, known as "the War of the Eight Saints" for the "Eight for War," the Florentine magistrates responsible for the conduct of the war. The pope put Florence under interdict during 1376.

 

1562 – France recognizes the Huguenots by the Edict of Saint-Germain.

 

The Huguenot rebellions, sometimes called the Rohan Wars after the Huguenot leader Henri de Rohan, refers to events of the 1620s in which French Protestants (Huguenots), mainly located in southwestern France, revolted against royal authority. The uprising occurred a decade following the death of Henry IV, who, himself originally a Huguenot before converting to Catholicism, had protected Protestants through the Edict of Nantes. His successor Louis XIII, under the regency of his Italian Catholic mother Marie de' Medici, became more intolerant of Protestantism. The Huguenots tried to respond by defending themselves, establishing independent political and military structures, establishing diplomatic contacts with foreign powers, and openly revolting against central power. The Huguenot rebellions came after two decades of internal peace under Henry IV, following the intermittent French Wars of Religion of 1562–1598.

 

 

1608 Emperor Susenyos surprises an Oromo army at Ebenat; his army reportedly kills 12,000 Oromo at the cost of 400 of his men.

 

 

Susenyos I (also Sissinios, as in Greek, Ge'ez ሱስንዮስ sūsinyōs; throne name Malak Sagad III, Ge'ez መልአክ ሰገድ, mal'ak sagad, Amh. mel'āk seged, "to whom the angel bows"; 1572 – 17 September 1632(1632-09-17)).was nəgusä nägäst (1606–1632) of Ethiopia. His father was Abeto (Prince) Fasilides, son of Abeto (Prince) Yakob, who was a son of Dawit II. As a result, while some authorities list Susenyos as a member of the Solomonic dynasty, others consider him, instead of his son, Fasilides, as the founder of the Gondar line of the dynasty (ultimately a subset, however, of the Solomonic dynasty).

 

Manuel de Almeida, a Portuguese Jesuit who lived in Ethiopia during Susenyos' reign, described him as "tall, with the features of a man of quality, large handsome eyes, pointed nose and an ample and well groomed beard. He was wearing a tunic of crimson velvet down to the knee, breeches of the Moorish style, a sash or girdle of many large pieces of fine gold, and an outer coat of damask of the same colour, like a capelhar".

 

1799 Maltese patriot Dun Mikiel Xerri, along with a number of other patriots, is executed.

 

 

Dun Mikiel Xerri (Żebbuġ, 29 September 1737 - 17 January 1799) was a Maltese patriot. He was baptised Mikael Archangelus Joseph in the parish church of Zebbug on 30 September 1737, the son of Bartholomew Xerri and his wife Anne. Xerri studied at different universities in Europe. He lived under both the Knights of St. John during their time in Malta and the French when they took over the Maltese Islands. He was involved in an unsuccessful revolt to overthrow French rule under Napoleon Bonaparte for which he, together with other locals, was executed on 17 January 1799 at the age of 61.

 

1852 – The United Kingdom recognizes the independence of the Boer colonies of the Transvaal.

 

 

The son of the famous Voortrekker leader Andries Pretorius, Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (17 September 1819 – 19 May 1901) was the first president of the South African Republic, and also compiled the constitution of the Republic.

After the death of his father in 1853, he was appointed as the Commandant-General of the ZAR (South African Republic) and moved from his farm Kalkheuwel, near Broederstroom, to the city of Potchefstroom. He was the last Head of State of Potchefstroom between 1853 and 1856.

 

Broederstroom is near to Pelindaba, which houses two nuclear reactors for research purposes.

 

The South African Republic (Dutch: Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek, or ZAR), often informally known as the Transvaal Republic, was an independent Boer-ruled country in Southern Africa during the second half of the 19th century. Not to be confused with the present-day Republic of South Africa, it occupied the area later known as the South African province of Transvaal. The ZAR was established in 1852, and was independent from 1856 to 1877, then again from the end of the First Boer War in 1881, in which the Boers regained their independence from the British Empire, until 1900.

 

Boer people
Paul Kruger Andries PretoriusSarel Cilliers

Petrus Jacobus Joubert
 

Total population
approx. 1.5 million.
Languages
Afrikaans, South African English
Religion
Protestant (Lutheranism, Afrikaner Calvinism, Reformed churches)
Related ethnic groups
Dutch, Flemish, Frisians; Germans, French, Scots, English; Cape Coloureds, Basters

 

1885 – A British force defeats a large Dervish army at the Battle of Abu Klea in the Sudan.

 

 

The Battle of Abu Klea took place between the dates of 16 and 18 January 1885, at Abu Klea, Sudan, between the British Desert Column and Mahdist forces encamped near Abu Klea. The Desert Column, a force of approximately 1,400 soldiers, started from Korti, Sudan on 30 December 1884; the Desert Column's mission, in a joint effort titled "The Gordon Relief Expedition", was to march across the desert to the aid of General Charles George Gordon at Khartoum, Sudan, who was besieged there by Mahdist forces.

 

1944 World War II: Allied forces launch the first of four assaults on Monte Cassino with the intention of breaking through the Winter Line and seizing Rome, an effort that would ultimately take four months and cost 105,000 Allied casualties.

 

 

 

1945 – World War II: Soviet forces capture the almost completely destroyed Polish city of Warsaw.

 

 

1945 – The Nazis begin the evacuation of the Auschwitz concentration camp as Soviet forces close in.

 

 

As Soviet troops approached Auschwitz in January 1945, most of its population was evacuated and sent on a death march. The prisoners remaining at the camp were liberated on January 27, 1945, a day now commemorated as International Holocaust Remembrance Day. In the following decades, survivors such as Primo Levi, Viktor Frankl, and Elie Wiesel wrote memoirs of their experiences in Auschwitz, and the camp became a dominant symbol of the Holocaust. In 1947, Poland founded a museum on the site of Auschwitz I and II, and in 1979, it was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

 

1945 – Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg is taken into Soviet custody while in Hungary; he is never publicly seen again.

 

 

Raoul Gustaf Wallenberg (August 4, 1912 – July 17, 1947?) was a Swedish architect, businessman, diplomat and humanitarian. He is widely celebrated for his successful efforts to rescue tens of thousands to about one hundred thousand Jews in Nazi-occupied Hungary during the Holocaust from Hungarian Fascists and the Nazis during the later stages of World War II. While serving as Sweden's special envoy in Budapest between July and December 1944, Wallenberg issued protective passports and sheltered Jews in buildings designated as Swedish territory saving tens of thousands of lives.

 

1961 – Former Congolese Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba is murdered in circumstances suggesting the support and complicity of the governments of Belgium and the United States.

 

 

 

1994 1994 Northridge earthquake: A magnitude 6.7 earthquake hits Northridge, California.

 

 

1995 – The Great Hanshin earthquake: A magnitude 7.3 earthquake occurs near Kobe, Japan, causing extensive property damage and killing 6,434 people.

 

 

1998 Lewinsky scandal: Matt Drudge breaks the story of the Bill Clinton-Monica Lewinsky affair on his website The Drudge Report.

 

2002 Mount Nyiragongo erupts in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, displacing an estimated 400,000 people.

 

 

2010 Rioting begins between Muslim and Christian groups in Jos, Nigeria, resulting in at least 200 deaths.

 

Jos is the capital of Plateau State, in the middle of the divide between the predominantly Muslim north of Nigeria and the predominately Christian south. More than 5,000 people have been displaced in the violence. Reports on the catalyst vary. According to the state police commissioner, skirmishes began after Muslim youths set a Catholic church, filled with worshippers, on fire. Other community leaders say it began with an argument over the rebuilding of a Muslim home in a predominantly Christian neighbourhood that had been destroyed in the November 2008 riots. A 24-hour curfew was imposed on the city on 17 January 2010, and Vice-President Goodluck Jonathan ordered troops to Jos to restore order. Vice-President Jonathan currently holds executive authority, as President Umaru Yar'Adua was in Saudi Arabia receiving medical treatment from November 2009 until his return on 24 February 2010 with current medical and governmental status as yet unclear. By 19 January 2010, at least 50 people had been arrested.

 

 

 

16th

   Tu Bishvat (Judaism, 2014)

 

 
 

27 BC Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus is granted the title Augustus by the Roman Senate, marking the beginning of the Roman Empire.

 

 

 

Augustus (Latin: Imperator Caesar Divi F. Augustus  23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was the founder of the Roman Empire and its first Emperor, ruling from 27 BC until his death in 14 AD.

 

Born Gaius Octavius into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian Octavii family, in 44 BC he was adopted posthumously by his maternal great-uncle Gaius Julius Caesar following Caesar's assassination. Together with Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus, he formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar. Following their victory at Phillipi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators. The Triumvirate was eventually torn apart under the competing ambitions of its members: Lepidus was driven into exile and stripped of his position, and Antony committed suicide following his defeat at the Battle of Actium by Augustus in 31 BC.

 

After the demise of the Second Triumvirate, Augustus restored the outward facade of the free Republic, with governmental power vested in the Roman Senate, the executive magistrates, and the legislative assemblies. In reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator. By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, and those of tribune and censor. It took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule. He rejected monarchical titles, and instead called himself Princeps Civitatis ("First Citizen"). The resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire.

 

550 Gothic War: The Ostrogoths, under King Totila, conquer Rome after a long siege, by bribing the Isaurian garrison.

 

 

 

Taking advantage of a five-year truce in the East, Belisarius was sent back to Italy with 200 ships in 544, where he found that the situation had changed greatly. He failed to prevent the fall of Rome when it was besieged by Totila in 546, although he soon reoccupied it in 547. However, his second Italian campaign proved unsuccessful, thanks in no small part to his being starved of supplies and reinforcements by a jealous Justinian, if we adopt the view of Procopius. Rome was besieged a third time in 549 and captured by Totila, whose offers of peace were rejected by Justinian.

 

929 Emir Abd-ar-Rahman III established the Caliphate of Córdoba.

 

 

 

 

 

 

1120 – The Council of Nablus is held, establishing the earliest surviving written laws of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem.

 

 

The Council of Nablus was a council of ecclesiastic and secular lords in the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, held on January 16, 1120.

 

The council was convened at Nablus by Warmund, Patriarch of Jerusalem, and King Baldwin II of Jerusalem. It established twenty-five canons dealing with both religious and secular affairs. It was not quite a church council, but not quite a meeting of the royal court; according to Hans Mayer, due to the religious nature of many of the canons, it can be considered both a parlement and an ecclesiastical synod. The resulting agreement between the patriarch and the king was a concordat, similar to the Concordat of Worms two years later.

The council established the first written laws for the kingdom. It was probably also where Hugues de Payens obtained permission from King Baldwin II of Jerusalem and Warmund, Patriarch of Jerusalem to found the Knights Templar.

 

1412 – The Medici family is appointed official banker of the Papacy.

 

 

 

The House of Medici (/ˈmɛdɨi/ MED-i-chee; Italian pronunciation: [de ˈmɛːditʃi]) was a political dynasty, banking family and later royal house that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the late 14th century. The family originated in the Mugello region of the Tuscan countryside, gradually rising until they were able to fund the Medici Bank. The bank was the largest in Europe during the 15th century, seeing the Medici gain political power in Florence — though officially they remained citizens rather than monarchs.

 

The Medici produced four Popes of the Catholic ChurchPope Leo X (1513–1521), Pope Clement VII (1523–1534), Pope Pius IV (1559–1565), and Pope Leo XI (1605); two regent queens of France—Catherine de' Medici (1547–1559) and Marie de' Medici (1600–1610); and, in 1531, the family became hereditary Dukes of Florence. In 1569, the duchy was elevated to a grand duchy after territorial expansion. They ruled the Grand Duchy of Tuscany from its inception until 1737, with the death of Gian Gastone de' Medici. The grand duchy witnessed degrees of economic growth under the earlier grand dukes, but by the time of Cosimo III de' Medici, Tuscany was fiscally bankrupt.

 

 

1547 – Ivan IV of Russia aka Ivan the Terrible becomes Czar of Russia.

 

 

Ivan IV Vasilyevich (Russian: Ива́н Васи́льевич; 25 August 1530 – 28 March [O.S. 18 March] 1584), commonly known as Ivan the Terrible (Russian: About this sound Ива́н Гро́зный​ , Ivan Grozny), was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547 and Tsar of All the Russias from 1547 until his death. His long reign saw the conquest of the Khanates of Kazan, Astrakhan, and Siberia, transforming Russia into a multiethnic and multiconfessional state spanning almost one billion acres, approximately 4,046,856 km2 (1,562,500 sq mi). Ivan managed countless changes in the progression from a medieval state to an empire and emerging regional power, and became the first ruler to be crowned as Tsar of All the Russias.

 

1556 Philip II becomes King of Spain.

 

 

Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 and of Portugal from 1581 (as Philip I, Filipe I). From 1554 he was King of Naples and Sicily as well as Duke of Milan. During his marriage to Queen Mary I (1554–58), he was also King of England and Ireland. From 1555, he was lord of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands. Known in Spanish as "Philip the Prudent" (Felipe el Prudente), his empire included territories on every continent then known to Europeans, including his namesake Philippine Islands. During his reign, Spain reached the height of its influence and power. The expression "The empire on which the sun never sets" was coined during Philip's time to reflect the extent of his possessions.

 

 

1572 Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England.

 

 

1581 – The English Parliament outlaws Roman Catholicism.

 

Queen Elizabeth imprisoned Norfolk in 1569 for scheming to marry Mary, Queen of Scots.

Following his release, he participated in the Ridolfi plot with King Philip II of Spain to put Mary on the English throne and restore Catholicism in England, though the strength of the evidence for his participation in the Ridolfi plot is doubted by some. He was executed for treason in 1572. He is buried at St Peter ad Vincula within the walls of the Tower of London.

Norfolk's lands and titles were forfeit, although much of the estate was later restored to his sons. The title of Duke of Norfolk was restored, four generations later, to Thomas Howard.

 

1786 Virginia enacted the Statute for Religious Freedom authored by Thomas Jefferson.

 

 

 

The Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom was drafted in 1777 (though it was not first introduced into the Virginia General Assembly until 1779)  by Thomas Jefferson in the city of Fredericksburg, Virginia. In 1786, the Assembly enacted the statute into the state's law. The statute disestablished the Church of England in Virginia and guaranteed freedom of religion to people of all religious faiths, including Catholics and Jews as well as members of all Protestant denominations. The statute was a notable precursor of the Establishment Clause and Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.

The Statute for Religious Freedom is one of only three accomplishments Jefferson instructed be put in his epitaph.

 

1809 Peninsular War: The British defeat the French at the Battle of La Coruña.

 

 

The positions of the armies at Corunna.
The British are in red and the French in blue.

 

 

1878 Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878) Battle of Philippopolis: Captain Aleksandr Burago with a squadron of Russian Imperial army dragoons liberates Plovdiv from Ottoman rule.

 

 

Plovdiv has settlement traces dating from the Neolithic, roughly 6000 BC. Archaeologists have discovered fine pottery and other objects of everyday life from as early as the Neolithic Age, showing that in the end of the 4th millennium BC. there already was an established settlement there. According to Ammianus Marcellinus, Plovdiv's written post-Bronze Age history lists it as a Thracian fortified settlement named Eumolpias. In 4th century BC the city was a centre of a trade fair (called panegyreis).  In 342 BC, it was conquered by Philip II of Macedon,  the father of Alexander the Great, who renamed it "Φιλιππόπολις", Philippopolis or "the city of Philip" in his own honour. Later, it was reconquered by the Thracians who called it Pulpudeva (a reconstructed translation of Philipopolis)

 

The ancient Roman theatre in Plovdiv

 

 

1920 – The League of Nations holds its first council meeting in Paris, France.

 

 

1939 – The Irish Republican Army (IRA) begins a bombing and sabotage campaign in England.

 

 

 

The S-Plan or Sabotage Campaign or England Campaign was a campaign of bombing and sabotage against the civil, economic, and military infrastructure of the United Kingdom from 1939 to 1940, conducted by members of the Irish Republican Army (IRA). It was conceived by Seamus O'Donovan in 1938 at the request of then IRA Chief of Staff Seán Russell. Russell and Joseph McGarrity are thought to have devised such a strategy in 1936.

 

On 12 January 1939, the Army Council sent an ultimatum, signed by Patrick Fleming, to British Foreign Secretary Lord Halifax. The communiqué duly informed the British government of "The Government of the Irish Republic's" intention to go to "war". Excerpt from the ultimatum:

I have the honour to inform you that the Government of the Irish Republic, having as its first duty towards its people the establishment and maintenance of peace and order here, demand the withdrawal of all British armed forces stationed in Ireland. The occupation of our territory by troops of another nation and the persistent subvention here of activities directly against the expressed national will and in the interests of a foreign power, prevent the expansion and development of our institution in consonance with our social needs and purposes, and must cease.

The Government of the Irish Republic believe that a period of four days is sufficient notice for your Government to signify its intentions in the matter of the military evacuation and for the issue of your Declaration of Abdication in respect of our country. Our Government reserves the right of appropriate action without further notice if upon the expiration of this period of grace, these conditions remain unfulfilled.

Oglaigh na h-Éireann (Irish Republican Army).
General Headquarters, Dublin, January 12th,1939, to His Excellency the Rt. Hon. Viscount Halifax, C.G.B.[6]

On Sunday, 15 January, with no reply from the British Government, a proclamation was posted in public places throughout Ireland announcing the IRA's declaration of war on Britain. This proclamation was written by Joseph McGarrity, leader of Clan na Gael in the United States, and was signed by six members of the Army Council: Stephen Hayes, Patrick Fleming, Peadar O'Flaherty, George Oliver Plunkett, Larry Grogan and Seán Russell. The seventh Army Council member, Máirtín Ó Cadhain, refused to sign as he believed the IRA was not ready to begin the campaign.

 

 

1942 – Crash of TWA Flight 3, killing all 22 aboard, including film star Carole Lombard.

 

 

1945 Adolf Hitler moves into his underground bunker, the so-called Führerbunker.

 

The Führerbunker (English: "Leader's bunker") was an air-raid shelter located near the Reich Chancellery in Berlin, Germany. It was part of a subterranean bunker complex which was constructed in two major phases, one part in 1936 and the other in 1943. It was the last of the Führer Headquarters (Führerhauptquartiere) to be used by Adolf Hitler.

Hitler took up residence in the Führerbunker on 16 January 1945 and it became the centre of the Nazi regime until the last week of World War II in Europe. Hitler married Eva Braun here during the last week of April 1945, shortly before they committed suicide.

 

After the war both the old and new Chancellery buildings were levelled by the Soviets, but despite some attempts at demolition the underground complex remained largely undisturbed until 1988–89. During reconstruction of that area of Berlin, those sections of the old bunker complex that were excavated were for the most part destroyed. The site remained unmarked until 2006, when a small plaque with a schematic was installed. Some of the corridors of the bunker still exist today, but are sealed off from the public

 

 

 

 

1956 – President Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt vows to reconquer Palestine.

 

 

Nasser mediated discussions between the pro-Western, pro-Soviet, and neutralist conference factions over the composition of the "Final Communique"] addressing colonialism in Africa and Asia and the fostering of global peace amid the Cold War between the West and the Soviet Union. At Bandung Nasser sought a proclamation for the avoidance of international defense alliances, support for the independence of Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco from French rule, support for the Palestinian right of return, and the implementation of UN resolutions regarding the Arab–Israeli conflict. He succeeded in lobbying the attendees to pass resolutions on each of these issues, notably securing the strong support of China and India.

1979 – The last Iranian Shah flees Iran with his family for good and relocates to Egypt.

 

 

 

1991 – The Coalition Forces go to war with Iraq, beginning the Gulf War (U.S. Time).

 

 

2001 Congolese President Laurent-Désiré Kabila is assassinated by one of his own bodyguards.

 

 

2002 – The UN Security Council unanimously establishes an arms embargo and the freezing of assets of Osama bin Laden, al-Qaeda, and the remaining members of the Taliban.

 

 

 

15th

 
 

69 Otho seizes power in Rome, proclaiming himself Emperor of Rome, but rules for only three months before committing

 suicide.

Otho (Latin: Marcus Salvius Otho Caesar Augustus; 28 April 32– 16 April 69), was Roman Emperor for three months, from 15 January to 16 April 69. He was the second emperor of the Year of the Four Emperors.

 

 

It has been thought that Otho's suicide was committed in order to steer his country from the path to civil war. Just as he had come to power, many Romans learned to respect Otho in his death. Few could believe that a renowned former companion of Nero had chosen such an honourable end. The soldiers were so moved and impressed that some even threw themselves on the funeral pyre to die with their Emperor.

Writing during the reign of the Emperor Domitian (AD 81–96), the Roman poet Martial expressed his admiration for Otho's choice to spare the Empire from civil war through sacrificing himself:

"Although the goddess of civil warfare was still in doubt,
And soft Otho had perhaps still a chance of winning,
He renounced fighting that would have cost much blood,
And with sure hand pierced right through his breast.
By all means let Cato in his life be greater than Julius Caesar himself;
In his death was he greater than Otho?"

1541 – King Francis I of France gives Jean-François Roberval a commission to settle the province of New France (Canada) and provide for the spread of the "Holy Catholic faith".

 

 

Jean-François de La Rocque de Roberval (c. 1500–1560) was a French nobleman and adventurer who, through his friendship with King Francis, became the first Lieutenant General of New France. As a corsair he attacked towns and shipping throughout the Spanish Main, from Cuba to Colombia. He died in Paris as one of the first Huguenot martyrs.

 

On 15 January 1541, Francis I of France gave Roberval a commission to settle the province of Canada and provide for the spread of the "Holy Catholic faith". The King provided some funds for this expedition and three ships, the Valentine, the Anne and the Lechefraye. Jacques Cartier, to whom the King had first given this commission on the basis of his previous two voyages to Canada, was hired as Chief Navigator. Roberval was not ready to go, but gave permission for Cartier to proceed to New France. Cartier did so in May 1541, and, with 500 colonists, built a fortified colony, Charlesbourg-Royal, near the Iroquois settlement of Stadacona.

In order to raise additional funds, Roberval went pirating with Bidoux de Lartigue, taking several English merchant ships. Despite his pleasure at tweaking the English, Francis I diplomatically kept the peace and rebuked de Roberval.

 

1559 Elizabeth I is crowned Queen of England in Westminster Abbey, London, England.

 

 

Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was queen regnant of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called "The Virgin Queen", "Gloriana" or "Good Queen Bess", Elizabeth was the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty. The daughter of Henry VIII, she was born into the royal succession, but her mother, Anne Boleyn, was executed two and a half years after her birth, with Anne's marriage to Henry VIII being annulled, and Elizabeth hence declared illegitimate. Her half-brother, Edward VI, ruled as king until his death in 1553, whereupon he bequeathed the crown to Lady Jane Grey, cutting his two half-sisters, Elizabeth and the Roman Catholic Mary, out of the succession in spite of statute law to the contrary. His will was set aside, Mary became queen, and Lady Jane Grey was executed. In 1558, Elizabeth succeeded her half-sister, during whose reign she had been imprisoned for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels.

 

Elizabeth set out to rule by good counsel, and she depended heavily on a group of trusted advisers led by William Cecil, Baron Burghley. One of her first moves as queen was the establishment of an English Protestant church, of which she became the Supreme Governor. This Elizabethan Religious Settlement later evolved into today's Church of England. It was expected that Elizabeth would marry and produce an heir so as to continue the Tudor line. She never did, however, despite numerous courtships. As she grew older, Elizabeth became famous for her virginity, and a cult grew up around her which was celebrated in the portraits, pageants, and literature of the day.

 

1822 Greek War of Independence: Demetrios Ypsilantis is elected president of the legislative assembly.

 

 

Demetrios Ypsilantis (also spelt using Dimitrios, Demetrius and/or Ypsilanti; Greek: Δημήτριος Υψηλάντης; Romanian: Dumitru Ipsilanti; 1793 – August 16, 1832) was a dragoman of the Ottoman Empire, served as an officer in the Imperial Russian Army in Moldavia and was appointed as modern Greece's first Field Marshal by Ioannis Kapodistrias, a hero of the Greek War of Independence. Ypsilantis was the brother of Alexander Ypsilantis, a leader of Filiki Eteria.

 

On 15 January 1822, he was elected president of the legislative assembly. However, due to the failure of his campaign in central Greece, and his failure to obtain a commanding position in the national convention of Astros, he was compelled to retire in 1823.

In 1828, he was appointed by Ioannis Kapodistrias as commander of the troops in eastern Greece. On 25 September 1829, he successfully compelled the Turkish commander Aslan Bey to capitulate at the Pass of Petra, thus ending the active operations of the war.

 

1844 University of Notre Dame receives its charter from the state of Indiana.

 

 

1870 – A political cartoon for the first time symbolizes the Democratic Party with a donkey ("A Live Jackass Kicking a Dead Lion" by Thomas Nast for Harper's Weekly).

 

1908 – The Alpha Kappa Alpha sorority becomes the first Greek-letter organization founded and established by African American college women.

 

 

1919 Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, two of the most prominent socialists in Germany, are tortured and murdered by the Freikorps at the end of the Spartacist uprising.

 

 

Rosa Luxemburg (also Rozalia Luxenburg; Polish: Róża Luksemburg; 5 March 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a Marxist theorist, philosopher, economist and revolutionary socialist of Polish Jewish descent who became a naturalized German citizen. She was successively a member of the Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania (SDKPiL), the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), the Independent Social Democratic Party (USPD), and the Communist Party of Germany (KPD).

She considered the 1919 Spartacist uprising a blunder, but supported it after Liebknecht ordered it without her knowledge. When the revolt was crushed by the social democratic government and the Freikorps (World War I veterans who banded together into right-wing paramilitary groups), Luxemburg, Liebknecht and some of their supporters were captured and murdered. Luxemburg was shot and her body thrown in the Landwehr Canal in Berlin.

 

1933 – A twelve-year-old girl experiences the first Marian apparition of Our Lady of Banneux in Banneux, Belgium.

 

 

Roman Catholic
Mariology

 

 

According to Mariette, she first saw the Blessed Virgin on the evening of Sunday, January 15, 1933, as she was looking out the kitchen window. A woman in white stood in the garden and called to her to come out, but her mother would not let her. Three days later the woman in white reappeared and told Marlette she was "Our Lady of the Poor". The lady appeared eight times in all.

In one of these visions, Beco said the Lady asked her to drink from a small spring, telling her the spring was for healing and "for all nations". Over time the site drew pilgrims. Today, the small spring yields about 2,000 gallons of water a day with many reports of miraculous healings.

 

1947 – The brutalized corpse of Elizabeth Short (The "Black Dahlia") is found in Los Angeles' Leimert Park.

 

 

1949 Chinese Civil War: The Communist forces take over Tianjin from the Nationalist Government.

 

 

1951 Ilse Koch, "The Witch of Buchenwald", wife of the commandant of the Buchenwald concentration camp, is sentenced to life imprisonment by a court in West Germany.

 

 

1962 – The Derveni papyrus, Europe's oldest surviving manuscript dating to 340 BC, is found in northern Greece.

 

 

The Derveni papyrus is an ancient Greek papyrus roll that was found in 1962. It is a philosophical treatise that is an allegorical commentary on an Orphic poem, a theogony concerning the birth of the gods, produced in the circle of the philosopher Anaxagoras in the second half of the 5th century BC, making it "the most important new piece of evidence about Greek philosophy and religion to come to light since the Renaissance" (Janko 2005). It dates to around 340 BC, during the reign of Philip II of Macedon, making it Europe's oldest surviving manuscript. It was finally published in 2006.

 

 

1966 – The Nigerian First Republic, led by Abubakar Tafawa Balewa is overthrown in a military coup d'état.

 

The 1966 Nigerian Coup d'etat began on January 15, 1966 when rebel Igbo soldiers led by Chukwuma Nzeogwu assassinated 11 senior Nigerian politicians and two civilians as well as kidnapping three others. The coup plotters attacked the cities of Kaduna, Ibadan, and Lagos while also blockading the Niger and Benue River within a two day span of time. Before the coup plotters were able to take control of Nigeria a senior Nigerian General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi was able to make the coup plotters flee to Kaduna. Although the government was able to drive to coup plotters away they succeeded in installing a Head of State from the Eastern Region. The coup was the spark that erupted into the Nigerian Civil War

 

 

Major General Johnson Thomas Umunnakwe Aguiyi-Ironsi (3 March 1924, Umuahia - 29 July 1966, Lalupon, Oyo State) was a Nigerian soldier. He served as the Head of State of Nigeria from 16 January 1966 until he was overthrown and killed on 29 July 1966 by a group of northern army officers who revolted against the government.

 

1970 Nigerian Civil War: After a 32-month fight for independence from Nigeria, Biafra surrenders.

 

 

 

1970 – Moammar Gadhafi is proclaimed premier of Libya.

 

 

1974 Dennis Rader aka the BTK Killer kills his first victims by binding, torturing and murdering Joseph, Joseph II, Josephine and Julie Otero in their house.

 

Dennis Lynn Rader (born March 9, 1945) is an American serial killer and mass murderer who murdered ten people in Sedgwick County (in and around Wichita, Kansas), between 1974 and 1991.

He is known as the BTK killer (or the BTK strangler). "BTK" stands for "Bind, Torture, Kill", which was his infamous signature. He sent letters describing the details of the killings to police and local news outlets during the time period in which the murders took place.

After a long hiatus in the 1990s through early 2000s, Rader resumed sending letters in 2004, leading to his 2005 arrest and subsequent conviction. He is serving 10 consecutive life sentences at El Dorado Correctional Facility in Kansas, with an earliest possible release date of February 26, 2180.

 

 

 

1975 – The Alvor Agreement is signed, ending the Angolan War of Independence and giving Angola independence from Portugal.

 

The Alvor Agreement, signed on January 15, 1975, granted Angola independence from Portugal on November 11, ending the war for independence while marking the transition to civil war. The agreement, signed by the People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), the National Liberation Front of Angola (FNLA), National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), and the Portuguese government, was never signed by the Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or the Eastern Revolt as the other parties excluded them from negotiations. The coalition government established by the Alvor Agreement soon fell as the various nationalist factions, each distrustful of the other and unwilling to share power, attempted to take control of the country by force.[1][2] The name of the agreement comes from the place where it was signed, the village of Alvor, located in the Portuguese southern region of Algarve.

 

 

Leftist military officers overthrew the Caetano government in Portugal in the Carnation Revolution on April 25, 1974. The MPLA, FNLA, and UNITA each negotiated peace agreements with the transitional Portuguese government and began to fight each other for control of Luanda and the country. Holden Roberto, Agostinho Neto, and Jonas Savimbi met in Bukavu, Zaire in July and agreed to negotiate with the Portuguese as one political entity. They met again in Mombasa, Kenya on January 5, 1975 and agreed to stop fighting each other, further outlining constitutional negotiations with the Portuguese. They met for a third time in Alvor, Portugal from January 10-15 and signed what became known as the Alvor Agreement.

 

1981 John Paul II receives a delegation from Solidarity (Polish trade union) at the Vatican led by Lech Walesa.

 

1991 – The United Nations deadline for the withdrawal of Iraqi forces from occupied Kuwait expires, preparing the way for the start of Operation Desert Storm.

 

 

1993 Salvatore Riina, the Mafia boss known as "The Beast", is arrested in Sicily, Italy after three decades as a fugitive.

 

 

 

14th

 
 

1639 – The "Fundamental Orders", the first written constitution that created a government, is adopted in Connecticut.

 

 

 

New London

 

The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut is a short document, but contains some principles that were later applied in creating the United States government. Government is based in the rights of an individual, and the orders spell out some of those rights, as well as how they are ensured by the government. It provides that all free men share in electing their magistrates, and uses secret, paper ballots. It states the powers of the government, and some limits within which that power is exercised.

In one sense, the Fundamental Orders were replaced by a Royal Charter in 1662, but the major outline of the charter was written in Connecticut and embodied the Orders' rights and mechanics. It was carried to England by Governor John Winthrop and basically approved by the British King, Charles II. The colonists generally viewed the charter as a continuation and surety for their Fundamental Orders. Later on, the Charter Oak got its name when that charter was taken from Jeremy Adams's tavern and supposedly hidden in an oak tree, rather than it be surrendered to the King James VII of Scotland agents.

Today, the individual rights in the Orders, with others added over the years, are still included as a "Declaration of Rights" in the first article of the current Connecticut Constitution, adopted in 1965.

 

 

1761 – The Third Battle of Panipat is fought in India between the Afghans under Ahmad Shah Durrani and the Marhatas.

 

 

The specific site of the battle itself is disputed by historians, but most consider it to have occurred somewhere near modern-day Kaalaa Aamb and Sanauli Road. The battle lasted for several days and involved over 125,000 troops. Protracted skirmishes occurred, with losses and gains on both sides. The forces led by Ahmad Shah Durrani came out victorious after destroying several Maratha flanks. The extent of the losses on both sides is heavily disputed by historians, but it is believed that between 60,000–70,000 were killed in fighting, while the numbers of injured and prisoners taken vary considerably. According to the single best eye-witness chronicle- the bakhar by Shuja-ud-Daulah's Diwan Kashi Raj, about 40,000 Maratha prisoners were slaughtered in cold blood the day after the battle Grant Duff includes an interview of a survivor of these massacres in his History of the Marathas and generally corroborates this number. Shejwalkar, whose monograph Panipat 1761 is often regarded as the single best secondary source on the battle, says that "not less than 100,000 Marathas (soldiers and non-combatants) perished during and after the battle."

 

1784 American Revolutionary War: Ratification Day, United States - Congress ratifies the Treaty of Paris with Great Britain.

 

 

1814 Treaty of Kiel: Frederick VI of Denmark cedes Norway to Sweden in return for Pomerania.

 

 

 

1822 Greek War of Independence: Acrocorinth is captured by Theodoros Kolokotronis and Demetrios Ypsilantis.

 

 

1907 – An earthquake in Kingston, Jamaica kills more than 1,000.

 

 

The 1907 Kingston earthquake which shook the capital of the island of Jamaica with a magnitude of 6.5 on the moment magnitude scale on Monday January 14th, at about 3:30 pm local time (21:36 UTC), was considered by many writers of that time one of the world's deadliest earthquakes recorded in history. Every building in Kingston was damaged by the earthquake and subsequent fires, which lasted for three hours before any efforts were made to check them, culminated in the death of 800 to 1,000 people, and left approximately 10,000 homeless and $25,000,000 in material damage.

Shortly after, a tsunami was reported on the north coast of Jamaica, with a maximum wave height of about 2 m (6–8 ft).

 

1943 World War II: Japan begins Operation Ke, the successful operation to evacuate its forces from Guadalcanal during the Guadalcanal Campaign.

 

 

1943 – World War II: Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill begin the Casablanca Conference to discuss strategy and study the next phase of the war.

 

 

 

1967 Counterculture of the 1960s: The Human Be-In, takes place in San Francisco, California's Golden Gate Park, launching the Summer of Love.

 

 

The Human Be-In focused the key ideas of the 1960s counterculture: personal empowerment, cultural and political decentralization, communal living, ecological awareness, higher consciousness (with the aid of psychedelic drugs), acceptance of illicit drug use, and radical liberal political consciousness. The hippie movement developed out of disaffected student communities around San Francisco State and Berkeley and in San Francisco's beat generation poets and jazz hipsters, who also combined a search for intuitive spontaneity with a rejection of "middle-class morality". Allen Ginsberg personified the transition between the beat and hippie generations.

The Human Be-In took its name from a chance remark by the artist Michael Bowen made at the Love Pageant Rally.  The playful name combined humanist values with the scores of sit-ins that had been reforming college and university practices and eroding the vestiges of entrenched segregation, starting with the lunch counter sit-ins of 1960 in Greensboro, North Carolina and Nashville, Tennessee. The first major teach-in had been organized by Students for a Democratic Society at the University of Michigan, 24–25 March 1965.

 

 

1973 Elvis Presley's concert Aloha from Hawaii is broadcast live via satellite, and sets the record as the most watched broadcast by an individual entertainer in television history.

 

 

"An American Trilogy"

 

 

ELVIS PRESLEY - American Trilogy Live (Aloha from Hawaii 1973

 

1975 – Teenage heiress Lesley Whittle is kidnapped by Donald Neilson, aka "the Black Panther".

 

 

The murder of Lesley Whittle occurred in January 1975 and dominated national headlines for 11 months. The investigation of her kidnap and murder involved over 400 officers from Shropshire, Staffordshire and West Midlands police force and the Metropolitan Police.

Whittle, aged 17, was kidnapped from her home in Highley, Shropshire, by Donald Neilson, who by that time had committed over 400 burglaries and three fatal shootings. He was known to the British press as the Black Panther, due to his wearing a black balaclava during his Post Office raids.

 

2005 – The Huygens probe lands on Saturn's moon Titan.

 

 

2010 Yemen declares an open war against the terrorist group al-Qaeda.

 

 

The Al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen refers to armed conflict between the Yemeni government with United States assistance, and al-Qaeda affiliated cells. The ongoing strife is often categorized as a sub-conflict in the greater Global War on Terror.

Government crackdown against al-Qaeda cells began in 2001, and reached an escalation point on January 14, 2010 when Yemen declared open war on al Qaeda. In addition to battling al Qaeda across several provinces, Yemen is also contending with Shia insurgency in the north and militant separatists in the south. Fighting with al-Qaeda escalated during the course of the 2011 Yemeni revolution, with Jihadists seizing most of the Abyan Governorate and declaring it an Emirate at the close of March. A second wave of violence occurred throughout early 2012, with militants claiming territory across the southwest amid heavy combat with government forces.

In May 2013, attackers blew up Yemen's main oil pipeline, halting the flow of crude oil.

 

2011 – The former president of Tunisia, Zine El Abidine Ben Ali fled his country to Saudi Arabia after a series of street demonstrations against his regime and corrupt policies, asking for freedom, rights and democracy, considered as the anniversary of the Tunisian Revolution and the birth of the Arab Spring.

 

 

 

13th

 
 

532 Nika riots in Constantinople.

 

On January 13, 532 a tense and angry populace arrived at the Hippodrome for the races. The Hippodrome was next to the palace complex and thus Justinian could watch from the safety of his box in the palace and preside over the races. From the start the crowd had been hurling insults at Justinian. By the end of the day, at race 22, the partisan chants had changed from "Blue" or "Green" to a unified Nίκα ("Nika", meaning "Win!" or "Conquer!"), and the crowds broke out and began to assault the palace. For the next five days the palace was under virtual siege. The fires that started during the tumult resulted in the destruction of much of the city, including the city's foremost church, the Hagia Sophia (which Justinian would later rebuild).

 

 

 

1435 Sicut Dudum, forbidding the enslavement of the Guanche natives in Canary Islands by the Spanish, is promulgated by Pope Eugene IV.

 

 

Christianity had gained many converts in the Canary Islands by the early 1430s; however, the ownership of the lands had been the subject of dispute between Portugal and the Kingdom of Castille. The lack of effective control had resulted in periodic raids on the islands to procure slaves. Pope Eugene IV was concerned that the enslavement of newly baptized Christians would impede the spread of Christianity and therefore issued the Papal Bull, "Creator Omnium", on 17 December 1434.

 

1547 Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey is sentenced to death.

 

 

 

Henry VIII, consumed by paranoia and increasing illness, became convinced that Surrey had planned to usurp the crown from his son Edward. The King had Surrey imprisoned - with his father - sentenced to death on 13 January 1547, and beheaded for treason on 19 January 1547 (his father survived impending execution only by it being set for the day after the king happened to die, though he remained imprisoned). Surrey's son Thomas became heir to the Dukedom of Norfolk instead, inheriting it on the 3rd Duke's death in 1554.

He is buried in a spectacular painted alabaster tomb in the church of St Michael the Archangel, Framlingham.

 

 

1666 – French traveller Jean-Baptiste Tavernier arrived Dhaka and met Shaista Khan.

 

 

Jean-Baptiste Tavernier in oriental costume, 1679

 

The second journey was followed by four others. In his third (1643–49) he went as far as Java, and returned by the Cape; but his relations with the Dutch proved not wholly satisfactory, and a long lawsuit on his return yielded but imperfect redress. During his last two voyages (1657–1662, 1664–1668) he did not proceed beyond India. The details of these voyages are often obscure; but they completed an extraordinary knowledge of the routes of overland Eastern trade, and brought the now famous merchant into close and friendly communication with the greatest Oriental potentates. They also secured for him a large fortune and great reputation at home. He was presented to Louis XIV, in whose service he had travelled sixty thousand leagues by land, received letters of nobility (on 16 February 1669), and in the following year purchased the barony of Aubonne, near Geneva. In 1662 he had married Madeleine Goisse, daughter of a Parisian jeweller.

 

1797 French Revolutionary Wars: A naval battle between a French ship of the line and two British frigates off the coast of Brittany ends with the French vessel running ashore, resulting in the death of over 900.

 

 

In February, the Battle of Cape St. Vincent saw the British block an attempt by a larger Spanish fleet to join the French at Brest.

Napoleon finally captured Mantua by siege, and, in the process, the Austrians surrendered eighteen thousand men. Archduke Charles of Austria was unable to prevent Napoleon from invading the Tyrol, and the Austrian government sued for peace in April, at the same time that a new French invasion of Germany, under the generals, Moreau and Hoche, began.

Austria signed the Treaty of Campo Formio in October, conceding Belgium to France and recognizing French control of the Rhineland and much of Italy. The ancient republic of Venice was partitioned between Austria and France. This ended the War of the First Coalition, although Great Britain remained a belligerent

 

1842 – Dr. William Brydon, an assistant surgeon in the British East India Company Army during the First Anglo-Afghan War, becomes famous for being the sole survivor of an army of 4,500 men and 12,000 camp followers when he reaches the safety of a garrison in Jalalabad, Afghanistan.

 

 

1847 – The Treaty of Cahuenga ends the Mexican–American War in California.

 

 

The Treaty of Cahuenga, also called the "Capitulation of Cahuenga," ended the fighting of the Mexican-American War in Alta California in 1847. It was not a formal treaty between nations but an informal agreement between rival military forces in which the Californios gave up fighting. The treaty was drafted in English and Spanish by José Antonio Carrillo, approved by American Lieutenant-Colonel John C. Frémont and Mexican Governor Andrés Pico on January 13, 1847 at Campo de Cahuenga in what is now North Hollywood, Los Angeles, California.

 

The treaty called for the Californios to give up their artillery, and provided that all prisoners from both sides be immediately freed. Those Californios who promised not to again take up arms during the war, and to obey the laws and regulations of the United States, were allowed to peaceably return to their homes and ranchos. They were to be allowed the same rights and privileges as were allowed to citizens of the United States, and were not to be compelled to take an oath of allegiance until a treaty of peace was signed between the United States and Mexico, and were given the privilege of leaving the country if they wished to do so.

 

1898 Émile Zola's J'accuse exposes the Dreyfus affair.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Émile Édouard Charles Antoine Zola (French: [e.mil zɔ.la]; 2 April 1840 – 29 September 1902) was a French writer, the most important exemplar of the literary school of naturalism and an important contributor to the development of theatrical naturalism. He was a major figure in the political liberalization of France and in the exoneration of the falsely accused and convicted army officer Alfred Dreyfus, which is encapsulated in the renowned newspaper headline J'accuse. Zola was nominated for the first and second Nobel Prize in Literature in 1901 and 1902.

 

1908 – The Rhoads Opera House fire in Boyertown, Pennsylvania kills 171 people.

 

 

The Rhoads Opera House Fire occurred on January 13, 1908 in Boyertown, Pennsylvania. The opera house caught fire during a church-sponsored stage play. The fire started when a kerosene lamp was knocked over, lighting gasoline from a stereoscopic machine. The stage and auditorium were located on the 2nd floor and all auxiliary exits were either unmarked or locked. One fire escape was available but unable to be accessed through a locked window above a 3 foot sill. 171 people perished when the exit was crowded against to escape the fire. Entire families were wiped out.

 

1915 – An earthquake in Avezzano, Italy kills 29,800.

 

 

The earthquake took place at around 8:00 local time affecting thousands of people throughout central and southern Italy; the shaking was even felt in Rome. The town of Avezzano was literally toppled from the shaking and only one high-rise building survived. 96 percent of its population was eliminated almost simultaneously, the worst casualty zone. Several other settlements were demolished in the worst of the earthquake. This damage was attributed to the length of the shock, over 1 minute, and the enormous amount of power released during the tremor. Compound motion of the fault was also a likely contributor to the earthquake's destruction. The structure of the housing also contributed to the collapse; many homes had been built from simple rocks of varying size and were not reinforced by mortar or even wood.

 

Damage of the earthquake was distributed throughout central and southern Italy. St John's Lateran reported one fallen statue in addition to cracks in the Column of Marcus Aurelius; Rome experienced other minor damages. In fact, damage from the earthquake was diverse; either the location was destroyed or experienced little to no damage.

 

Survivors were pulled out slowly from the ruins of earthquake-stricken zones. One man survived in a barn for a period of 25 days living solely off of grains and water. After a short time the searchers ran out of space to dispose of the debris as it was too overwhelming in mass, forcing the workers to give up. As E.V. Robinson later described, the remaining "work of excavation seemed to go on in an unsystematic and half hearted way".

 

 

1935 – A plebiscite in Saarland shows that 90.3% of those voting wish to join Nazi Germany.

 

 

The Territory of the Saar Basin (French: Le Territoire du Bassin de la Sarre; German: Saarbeckengebiet ), also referred as the Saar or Saargebiet, was a region of Germany occupied and governed by the United Kingdom and France from 1920 to 1935 under a League of Nations mandate. Initially, the occupation was under the auspices of the Treaty of Versailles. Its population in 1933 was 812,000, and its capital was Saarbrücken. The Territory closely corresponds with the modern German state of Saarland, but was slightly smaller in area. After a plebiscite was held in 1935, it was restored to Germany.

 

 

1939 – The Black Friday bush fires burn 20,000 square kilometers of land in Australia, claiming the lives of 71 people.

 

 

The Black Friday fires of 13 January 1939, in Victoria, Australia, are considered one of the worst natural bushfires (wildfires) in the world. Almost 20,000 km² (4,942,000 acres, 2,000,000 ha) of land was burnt, 71 people died, several towns were entirely destroyed and the Royal Commission that resulted from it led to major changes in forest management. Over 1,300 homes and 69 sawmills were burnt and a total of 3,700 buildings were destroyed. It was calculated that three quarters of the State of Victoria was directly or indirectly affected by the disaster. The Royal Commission into the fires was to note, "it appeared the whole State was alight on Friday, 13 January 1939".

 

1953 – An article appears in Pravda accusing some of the most prestigious and prominent doctors, mostly Jews, in the Soviet Union of taking part in a vast plot to poison members of the top Soviet political and military leadership.

 

The Doctors' plot (Russian: дело врачей [delo vrachey, "doctors' affair"], врачи-вредители [vrachy-vreditely, "doctors-saboteurs"], or врачи-убийцы [vrachi-ubiytsy "doctors-killers"]) is considered to be the most dramatic anti-Jewish episode in the Soviet Union during Joseph Stalin's regime in 1952–53, when a group of prominent Moscow doctors, predominantly Jews, was accused of being conspiratorial assassins of Soviet leaders. This was later accompanied by publications of anti-Semitic character in the media, which talked about the threats of Zionism and condemned people with Jewish names. Many doctors, officials and others, both Jews and non-Jews, were promptly dismissed from their jobs and arrested. A few weeks after the death of Stalin, the new Soviet leadership stated a lack of evidence and the case was dropped. Soon after, the case was declared to have been fabricated.

 

 

 

1958 – The Moroccan Army of Liberation ambushes a Spanish patrol in the Battle of Edchera.

 

 

 

 

In January 1958, Morocco redoubled its commitment to the Spanish campaign, reorganizing all army units in Spanish territory as the "Saharan Liberation Army".

On January 12, a division of the Saharan Liberation Army attacked the Spanish garrison at El Aaiún. Beaten back and forced into retreat by the Spaniards, the army turned its efforts to the southeast. Another opportunity presented itself the next day at Edchera, where two companies of the 13th Legionary battalion were conducting a reconnaissance mission. Slipping unseen into the large dunes near the Spanish positions, the Moroccans opened fire.

Ambushed, the Legionaries fought to maintain cohesion, driving off attacks with mortar and small arms fire. Notable fighting was seen by the 1st platoon, which stubbornly denied ground to the Moroccans until heavy losses forced it to withdraw. Bloody attacks continued until nightfall, and were fiercely resisted by the Spanish, who inflicted heavy casualties. By nightfall, the Moroccans were too scattered and depleted of men to continue their assault, and fled into the darkness.

 

 

1964 – Anti-Muslim riots break out in Calcutta, resulting in 100 deaths.

 

1964 – Karol Wojtyla, the future Pope John Paul II, is appointed archbishop of Kraków, Poland.

 

 

 

1968 Johnny Cash performs live at Folsom State Prison

 

 

At Folsom Prison is a live album and 27th overall album by Johnny Cash, released on Columbia Records in May 1968. Since his 1955 song "Folsom Prison Blues", Cash had been interested in performing at a prison. His idea was put on hold until 1967, when personnel changes at Columbia Records put Bob Johnston in charge of producing Cash's material. Cash had recently controlled his drug abuse problems, and was looking to turn his career around after several years of limited commercial success. Backed with June Carter, Carl Perkins and the Tennessee Three, Cash performed two shows at Folsom State Prison in California on January 13, 1968. The resulting album consisted of fifteen tracks from the first show and two tracks from the second.

 

Side 1  
No. Title Writer(s) Length  
1. "Folsom Prison Blues"   Johnny Cash  
2. "Dark as a Dungeon"   Merle Travis  
3. "I Still Miss Someone"   J. Cash, Roy Cash Jr.  
4. "Cocaine Blues"   T.J. Arnall  
5. "25 Minutes to Go"   Shel Silverstein  
6. "Orange Blossom Special"   Ervin T. Rouse  
7. "The Long Black Veil"   Marijohn Wilkin, Danny Dill  
Side 2  
No. Title Writer(s) Length  
1. "Send a Picture of Mother"   Cash  
2. "The Wall"   Harlan Howard  
3. "Dirty Old Egg-Suckin' Dog"   Jack H. Clement  
4. "Flushed From the Bathroom of Your Heart"   Clement  
5. "Jackson" (with June Carter) Billy Edd Wheeler, Jerry Leiber (as Gaby Rodgers)  
6. "Give My Love to Rose" (with June Carter) Cash  
7. "I Got Stripes"   Cash, Charlie Williams  
8. "Green, Green Grass of Home"   Curly Putman  
9. "Greystone Chapel"  

 

 

1972 – Prime Minister Kofi Abrefa Busia and President Edward Akufo-Addo of Ghana are ousted in a bloodless military coup by Colonel Ignatius Kutu Acheampong.

 

 

1982 – Shortly after takeoff, Air Florida Flight 90, a Boeing 737 jet crashes into Washington, D.C.'s 14th Street Bridge and falls into the Potomac River, killing 78 including four motorists.

 

 

1986 – A month-long violent struggle begins in Aden, South Yemen between supporters of Ali Nasir Muhammad and Abdul Fattah Ismail, resulting in thousands of casualties.

 

 

1991 – Soviet Union troops attack Lithuanian independence supporters in Vilnius, killing 14 people and wounding 1000.

 

 

2001 – An earthquake hits El Salvador, killing more than 800.

 

 

2012 – The passenger cruise ship Costa Concordia sinks off the coast of Italy. There are 31 confirmed deaths with one still missing, Russel Rebello, amongst the 4232 passengers and crew.

 

 
 

12th

 
 

1539 – Treaty of Toledo signed by King Francis I of France and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.

 

The Treaty of Alcáçovas (also known as Treaty or Peace of Alcáçovas-Toledo) was signed on 4 September 1479 between the Catholic Monarchs of Castile and Aragon on one side and Afonso V and his son, Prince John of Portugal, on the other side. It put an end to the War of the Castilian Succession, which ended with a victory of the Catholic Monarchs on land and a Portuguese victory on the sea. The four peace treaties signed at Alcáçovas reflected that outcome: Isabella was recognized as Queen of Castile while Portugal reached hegemony in the Atlantic Ocean.

The treaty intended to regulate:

  • The renunciation of Afonso V and Catholic Monarchs to the Castilian throne and Portuguese throne, respectively
  • The division of the Atlantic Ocean and overseas territories in two zones of influence
  • The destiny of Juana de Trastámara
  • The contract of marriage between Isabella, the eldest daughter of the Catholic Monarchs, with Afonso, heir of Prince John. This was known as Tercerias de Moura, and included the payment to Portugal of a war compensation by the Catholic Monarchs in the form of marriage dowry.
  • The pardon of the Castilian supporters of Juana

 

 

 

 

Aside from his military endeavors, Charles is best known for his role in opposing the Protestant Reformation. Several German princes abandoned the Catholic Church and formed the Schmalkaldic League in order to challenge Charles' authority with military force. Unwilling to allow the wars of religion to come to his other domains, Charles pushed for the convocation of the Council of Trent, which began the Counter-Reformation. The Society of Jesus was established by St. Ignatius of Loyola during Charles' reign in order to peacefully and intellectually combat Protestantism, and continental Spain was spared from religious conflict largely by Charles' nonviolent measures.

 

 

Charles V (German: Karl V.; Spanish: Carlos I; Croatian: Karlo V; Dutch: Karel V; Italian: Carlo V; Czech: Karel V.; French: Charles Quint; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and, as Charles I, of the Spanish Empire from 1516 until his voluntary retirement and abdication in favor of his younger brother Ferdinand I as Holy Roman Emperor and his son Philip II as King of Spain in 1556.

Charles was the heir of three of Europe's leading dynasties—the House of Habsburg of the Habsburg Monarchy; the House of Valois-Burgundy of the Burgundian Netherlands; and the House of Trastámara of the Crowns of Castile and Aragon—he ruled over extensive domains in Central, Western, and Southern Europe; and the Spanish colonies in the Americas and Asia. As Charles was the first king to rule Castile, León, and Aragon simultaneously in his own right, he became the first King of Spain.[3] In 1519, Charles became Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria. From that point forward, his empire spanned nearly four million square kilometers across Europe, the Far East, and the Americas.

 

 

1554 Bayinnaung, who would go on to assemble the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia, is crowned King of Burma.

 

 

Bayinnaung then proceeded to complete the conquest of northernmost central Burma up to Pagan (Bagan) by mid-September 1551. He appointed his uncle Min Sithu governor. He then marched to Ava, hoping to take advantage of the civil war between King Mobye Narapati and Sithu Kyawhtin, governor of Sagaing. But he was forced to withdraw speedily as Pegu forces marched toward Toungoo.

 

 

 

 

1777 Mission Santa Clara de Asís is founded in what is now Santa Clara, California.

 

 

Mission Santa Clara de Asís is a Spanish mission founded by the Franciscan order in the present-day city of Santa Clara, California. The mission, the eighth Spanish mission built in California, was founded on January 12, 1777 and named for Saint Clare of Assisi, the foundress of the order of the Poor Clares. It is the namesake of both the city and county of Santa Clara, as well as Santa Clara University, which was built around the mission. This is the first California Mission to be named in honor of a woman and the only one located on a university campus.

 

 

1848 – The Palermo rising takes place in Sicily against the Bourbon Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.

 

 

The Sicilian revolution of independence of 1848 occurred in a year replete with revolutions and popular revolts. It commenced on 12 January 1848, and therefore was one of the first of the numerous revolutions to occur that year. Three revolutions had previously occurred on the island of Sicily starting from 1800 against Bourbon rule: this final one resulted in an independent state surviving for 16 months. The constitution that survived the 16 months was quite advanced for its time in liberal democratic terms, as was the proposal of an Italian confederation of states. It was in effect a curtain raiser to the end of the Bourbon kingdom of the Two Sicilies which was started by Giuseppe Garibaldi's Expedition of the Thousand in 1860 and culminated with the Siege of Gaeta of 1860-1861.

 

 

 

1872 Yohannes IV is crowned Emperor of Ethiopia in Axum, the first imperial coronation in that city in over 200 years.

 

 

Yohannes IV (Ge'ez: ዮሐንስ ፬ኛ Yōḥānnis ዮሓንስ, Amharic: Yōḥānnis, also known by the English equivalent "John", 11 July 1837 – 10 March 1889[1]), born Lij Kassay Mercha Ge'ez, was Emperor of Ethiopia from 1872 until his death

 

History of Ethiopia

 

 

The Kingdom of Aksum had its own written language, Ge'ez, and developed a distinctive architecture exemplified by giant obelisks, the oldest of which (though much smaller) date from 5000–2000 BC. The kingdom was at its height under King Ezana, baptized as Abreha, in the 4th century (which was also when it officially embraced Christianity).

 

The Ethiopian Orthodox Church claims that the Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion in Axum houses the Biblical Ark of the Covenant, in which lie the Tablets of Law upon which the Ten Commandments are inscribed.[4] The historical records and Ethiopian traditions suggest that it was from Axum that Makeda, the Queen of Sheba, journeyed to visit King Solomon in Jerusalem. She had a son, Menelik, fathered by Solomon. He grew up in Ethiopia but traveled to Jerusalem as a young man to visit his father's homeland. He lived several years in Jerusalem before returning to his country with the Ark of the Covenant.

 

 According to the Ethiopian Church and Ethiopian tradition, the Ark still exists in Axum. This same church was the site where Ethiopian emperors were crowned for centuries until the reign of Fasilides, then again beginning with Yohannes IV until the end of the empire. Axum is considered to be the holiest city in Ethiopia and is an important destination of pilgrimages.[4][6] Significant religious festivals are the Timkat festival (known as Epiphany in western Christianity) on 19 January (20 January in leap years) and the Festival of Maryam Zion on November 24.

 

Emperor Yohannes also convened a general council of the Ethiopian Church at Boru Meda later in 1878, which brought an end to the ongoing theological dispute in the local church; Christians, Muslims and pagans were given respectively two, three and five years to conform to the council's decisions. Non-Christians were forbidden from participating in the government unless they converted and were baptised; the Muslims were given three months, while the pagans had to become Christians immediately. "Having concluded that Wollo was worth a mass," as Harold Marcus wryly puts it, his retainer Ras Mohammed of Wollo became Ras (later Negus) Mikael of Wollo, and the Emperor stood as his godfather at his baptism. The new convert was given Menelik of Shewa's other daughter, Shewarega Menelik, as his wife. Yohannes went one step further, and pressured Menelik to expel of all the Roman Catholic missionaries from Shewa.[3]

However this time, instead of a single Archbishop, he requested that Patriarch Cyril send four to serve the large number of Christians in Ethiopia, who arrived in 1881. They were led by Abuna Petros as Archbishop, Abuna Matewos for Shewa, Abuna Luqas for Gojjam and Abuna Markos for Gondar. Abuna Markos died shortly after arriving, so his diocese was included with that of Abuna Atnatewos. It was the first time that the Coptic Patriarch of Alexandria had appointed four Bishops for Ethiopia.

 

1899 – 13 crew members and 5 apprentices are rescued from the stricken schooner Forest Hall by the Lynmouth Lifeboat when the former flounders off the coast of Devon.

 

 

The Lynmouth Flood Memorial Hall which is the same shape and in the same location as the former lifeboat station

 

Lynmouth is on the north coast of Devon facing the Bristol Channel. In the nineteenth century this was a busy waterway carrying ships to ports such as Cardiff and Bristol. A lifeboat station was established in the town on 20 January 1869, five months after the nearby wreck of the sailing vessel Home. The lifeboat was kept in a shed on the beach until a purpose-built boat house was built at the harbour. This was rebuilt in 1898 and enlarged in 1906-7.

 

 

1906 – Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman's cabinet (which included amongst its members H. H. Asquith, David Lloyd George, and Winston Churchill) embarks on sweeping social reforms after a Liberal landslide in the British general election.

 

 

1915 – The Rocky Mountain National Park is formed by an act of U.S. Congress.

 

 

1959 – The Caves of Nerja are rediscovered in Spain.

 

The Caves of Nerja (Spanish: Cueva de Nerja) are a series of caverns close to the town of Nerja in the Province of Málaga, Spain. Stretching for almost 5 kilometres (3.1 mi), the caverns are one of Spain's major tourist attractions. Concerts are regularly held in one of the chambers, which forms a natural amphitheatre.

 

The caves were re-discovered in modern times on 12 January 1959 by five friends, who entered through a narrow sinkhole known as "La Mina". This forms one of the two natural entrances to the cave system. A third entrance was created in 1960 to allow easy access for tourists. The cave is divided into two main parts known as Nerja I and Nerja II. Nerja I includes the Show Galleries which are open to the public, with relatively easy access via a flight of stairs and concreted pathways to allow tourists to move about in the cavern without difficulty. Nerja II, which is not open to the public, comprises the Upper Gallery discovered in 1960 and the New Gallery discovered in 1969.

In February 2012 it was announced that possibly Neanderthal cave paintings have been discovered in the Caves of Nerja.[1]

 

 

 

A skeleton found in the caves, now displayed near the entrance.

 

1962 Vietnam War: Operation Chopper, the first American combat mission in the war, takes place.

 

1964 – Rebels in Zanzibar begin a revolt known as the Zanzibar Revolution and proclaim a republic.

 

 

The Zanzibar Revolution by local African revolutionaries in 1964 overthrew the Sultan of Zanzibar and his mainly Arab government. An ethnically diverse state consisting of a number of islands off the east coast of Tanganyika, Zanzibar had been granted independence by Britain in 1963. Thereafter a series of parliamentary elections resulted in the Arab minority retaining the hold on power it had inherited from Zanzibar's former existence as an overseas territory of Oman.

 

1967 – Dr. James Bedford becomes the first person to be cryonically preserved with intent of future resuscitation.

 

 

 

Cryonics (from Greek κρύος kryos- meaning icy cold) is the low-temperature preservation of humans who cannot be sustained by contemporary medicine, with the hope that healing and resuscitation may be possible in the future.

 

1970 Biafra capitulates, ending the Nigerian Civil War.

 

 

Biafra, officially the Republic of Biafra, was a secessionist state in south-eastern Nigeria that existed from 30 May 1967 to 15 January 1970, taking its name from the Bight of Biafra (the Atlantic bay to its south). The inhabitants were mostly the Igbo people who led the secession due to economic, ethnic, cultural and religious tensions among the various peoples of Nigeria. The creation of the new state that was pushing for recognition was among the causes of the Nigerian Civil War, also known as the Nigerian-Biafran War.

 

The state was formally recognised by Gabon, Haiti, Côte d'Ivoire, Tanzania and Zambia. Other nations which did not give official recognition but which did provide support and assistance to Biafra included Israel, France, Portugal, Rhodesia, South Africa and Vatican City. Biafra also received aid from non-state actors, including Joint Church Aid, Holy Ghost Fathers of Ireland, Caritas International, MarkPress and U.S. Catholic Relief Services.

After two-and-a-half years of war, during which a million civilians had died in fighting and from famine, Biafran forces agreed to a ceasefire with the Nigerian Federal Military Government (FMG), and Biafra was reintegrated into Nigeria.

 

1976 – The United Nations Security Council votes 11-1 to allow the Palestine Liberation Organization to participate in a Security Council debate (without voting rights).

 

1991 Gulf War: An act of the U.S. Congress authorizes the use of military force to drive Iraq out of Kuwait.

 

 

1998 – Nineteen European nations agree to forbid human cloning.

 

2005 Deep Impact launches from Cape Canaveral on a Delta II rocket.

 

 

2006 A stampede during the Stoning of the Devil ritual on the last day at the Hajj in Mina, Saudi Arabia, kills at least 362 Muslim pilgrims.

 

 

 

2007 – Comet C/2006 P1 (McNaught) reaches perihelion becoming the brightest comet in more than 40 years.

 

 

2010 – The 2010 Haiti earthquake occurs killing an estimated 316,000 and destroying the majority of the capital Port-au-Prince.

 

 

 

11th

 

 

1693 A powerful earthquake destroys parts of Sicily and Malta.

 

The 1693 Sicily earthquake refers to a powerful earthquake that struck parts of southern Italy near Sicily, Calabria and Malta on January 11, 1693, at around 9 pm local time. This earthquake was preceded by a damaging foreshock on January 9. It had an estimated magnitude of 7.4 on the moment magnitude scale, the most powerful in Italian history, and a maximum intensity of XI (extreme) on the Mercalli intensity scale, destroying at least 70 towns and cities, seriously affecting an area of 5,600 square kilometres (2,200 sq mi) and causing the death of about 60,000 people. The earthquake was followed by tsunamis that devastated the coastal villages on the Ionian Sea and in the Straits of Messina. Almost two thirds of the entire population of Catania were killed. The epicentre of the disaster was probably close to the coast, possibly offshore, although the exact position remains unknown. The extent and degree of destruction caused by the earthquake resulted in extensive rebuilding of the towns and cities of southeastern Sicily, particularly the Val di Noto, in a homogeneous late Baroque style, described as "the culmination and final flowering of Baroque art in Europe".

According to a contemporary account of the earthquake by Vincentius Bonajutus, published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, "It was in this country impossible to keep upon our legs, or in one place on the dancing Earth; nay, those that lay along on the ground, were tossed from side to side, as if on a rolling billow."

 

 

 

1879 – The Anglo-Zulu War begins.

 

 

The Anglo-Zulu War was fought in 1879 between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom. Following a campaign by which Lord Carnarvon had successfully brought about federation in Canada, it was thought that similar combined military and political campaigns might succeed with the African kingdoms, tribal areas and Boer republics in South Africa. In 1874, Sir Henry Bartle Frere was sent to South Africa as High Commissioner for the British Empire to bring such plans into being. Among the obstacles were the presence of the independent states of the South African Republic and the Kingdom of Zululand and its army. Frere, on his own initiative, without the approval of the British government and with the intent of instigating a war with the Zulu, had presented an ultimatum on 11 December 1878, to the Zulu king Cetshwayo with which the Zulu king could not comply. Cetshwayo did not comply and Bartle Frere sent Lord Chelmsford to invade Zululand. The war is notable for several particularly bloody battles, including a stunning opening victory by the Zulu at Isandlwana, as well as for being a landmark in the timeline of imperialism in the region. The war eventually resulted in a British victory and the end of the Zulu nation's independence.

 

 

Photograph of Cetshwayo, c. 1875

 

1962 – An avalanche on Huascarán in Peru causes 4,000 deaths.

 

Huascarán (Spanish pronunciation: [waskaˈɾan]) or Nevado Huascarán is a mountain in the Peruvian province of Yungay, situated in the Cordillera Blanca range of the western Andes. The highest southern summit of Huascarán (Huascarán Sur) is the highest point in Peru, northern part of Andes (north of lake Ticicaca) and in all of the Earth's Tropics. Huascarán is the fourth highest mountain in the Western Hemisphere after Aconcagua, Ojos del Salado, and Monte Pissis. The mountain was named after Huáscar, a 16th-century Inca chieftain who was the Sapa Inca of the Inca empire.

 

 
 

8th

 

 

1981 – A local farmer reports a UFO sighting in Trans-en-Provence, France, claimed to be "perhaps the most completely and carefully documented sighting of all time".

 

 

 

The Trans-en-Provence Case is one of the rare cases where a UFO is claimed to have left physical evidence, in the form of burnt residue from a field. The event took place on January 8, 1981, outside the town of Trans-en-Provence in the French département of Var. It was described in Popular Mechanics as "perhaps the most completely and carefully documented sighting of all time".

 

The case began on January 8, 1981 at 5pm. Renato Nicolaï, a fifty-five year-old farmer, heard a strange whistling sound while performing agricultural work on his property. He then saw a saucer-shaped object about eight feet in diameter land about 50 yards (46 m) away at a lower elevation.

According to the witness, "The device had the shape of two saucers, one inverted on top of the other. It must have measured about 1.5 meters in height. It was the color of lead. This device had a ridge all the way around its circumference. Under the machine I saw two kinds of pieces as it was lifting off. They could be reactors or feet. There were also two other circles which looked like trapdoors. The two reactors, or feet, extended about 20 cm below the body of the machine."

Nicolaï claimed the object took off almost immediately, rising above the treeline and departing to the north east. It left burn marks on the ground where it had sat.

 

The local gendarmerie were notified of the event the following day by Mr. Nicolaï directly on the advice of his neighbor's wife, Mrs Morin. The gendarmerie proceeded to interview Mr. Nicolaï, take photos of the scene, and collect soil and plant samples from the field. The case was later sent to GEIPAN—or GEPAN (Groupe d'Étude des Phénomènes Aérospatiaux Non-identifiés) as it was known at that time—for review.

 

 

2009 – A 6.1-magnitude earthquake in northern Costa Rica kills 15 people and injures 32.

 

 

 

7th

 

1948 Kentucky Air National Guard pilot Thomas Mantell crashes while in pursuit of a supposed UFO.

 

The Mantell UFO incident was among the most publicized early UFO reports. The incident resulted in the crash and death of 25-year-old Kentucky Air National Guard pilot, Captain Thomas F. Mantell, on 7 January 1948, while in pursuit of a UFO.

 

Historian David Michael Jacobs argues the Mantell case marked a sharp shift in both public and governmental perceptions of UFOs. Previously, mass media often treated UFO reports with a whimsical or glib attitude reserved for silly season news. Following Mantell’s death, however, Jacobs notes "the fact that a person had died in an encounter with an alleged flying saucer dramatically increased public concern about the phenomenon. Now a dramatic new prospect entered thought about UFOs: they might be not only extraterrestrial but potentially hostile as well."

 

 

 

The Mantell Crash was quickly investigated by Project Sign, the Air Force's new research group which had been created to study UFO incidents. Though Project Sign's staff never came to a conclusion, other Air Force investigators ruled that Mantell had misidentified the planet Venus, and, wrongly believing that he could close in to get a better look, had passed out from the lack of oxygen at high altitude.

However, this conclusion was later changed, because although Venus was roughly in the same position as the UFO, astronomers working for Project Sign ruled that Venus would have been nearly invisible to observers at that time of day. The cause of Mantell's crash remains officially listed as undetermined by the Air Force.

 

1973 Mark Essex fatally shoots 10 people and wounds 13 others at Howard Johnson's Hotel in New Orleans, Louisiana, before being shot to death by police officers.

 

 

Mark James Robert Essex (August 12, 1949[ – January 7, 1973) was an American spree killer who killed nine people, including five policemen, and wounded 13 others in New Orleans on December 31, 1972 and January 7, 1973.

 

Black Panthers

 

1979 Third Indochina War Cambodian–Vietnamese War: Phnom Penh falls to the advancing Vietnamese troops, driving out Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge.

 

 

Although the Vietnamese Communists and the Khmer Rouge had previously cooperated, the relationship deteriorated when Khmer Rouge leader Pol Pot came to power and established Democratic Kampuchea. After the 1977 Khmer Rouge incursion against the Vietnamese provinces of An Giang, Châu Đốc and Kiên Giang (especially Phu Quoc island) numerous clashes along the border between Vietnam and Cambodia, and encouragement from Khmer Rouge defectors, Vietnam invaded Cambodia in December 1978.

In order to occupy the territory of Cambodia, Vietnam decided to move main forces from the north to the south but still harry the border of China at the command of Soviets. This decision put Vietnam into a bi-directional war with Cambodia and China. When China started attacking the military troops in the north of Vietnam, the Vietnamese government had to move their main forces south to defend their homeland. The Soviets announced that they were supporting the Vietnamese against Cambodian massacres. They sent heavy transport planes to help Vietnam move their main forces.

In late 1978, the Vietnamese military rushed to Phnom Penh quickly and ended the Khmer Rouge regime. However, the main forces continued to occupy Cambodia two years to help the new government stabilize

 

 

1993 – The Fourth Republic of Ghana is inaugurated with Jerry Rawlings as President.

 

 

 

2010 – Muslim gunmen in Egypt open fire on a crowd of Coptic Christians, killing eight of them and one Muslim bystander.

 

 

Modern persecution
of
Coptic Christians

 

Bishop Kyrillos (Cyril), the Coptic Orthodox bishop of Nag Hammadi, had warned the Egyptian police that there have been threats in the days leading up to the Christmas Eve service. For this reason, he decided to end his mass one hour earlier than normal. He told the Associated Press that, for days, he had expected something to happen on Christmas Eve. He said he left the church minutes before the attack, and had to take the back door when a suspicious driving car swerved near him. Seconds later he heard the mayhem, lots of machine-gun shots.

 

As the Christian worshipers were leaving the Nag Hammadi Cathedral after the Christmas Eve service, a car pulled up and gunfire was sprayed into the crowd. As a result, eight Copts, all aged between 15 and 23, were killed. Six died immediately, while two more died the following day because of severe injuries. In addition one Muslim bystander was also killed in the attack.  Nine other Copts were confirmed wounded, and two Muslims were reportedly wounded in the attack.

In addition, two Coptic women died when a Muslim mob set the houses of Christians on fire in nearby villages.

 

 

6th

 

1839 – The most damaging storm in 300 years sweeps across Ireland, damaging or destroying more than 20% of the houses in Dublin.

 

The Night of the Big Wind became part of Irish folk tradition. Irish folklore held that Judgement Day would occur on the Feast of the Epiphany, 6 January. Such a severe storm led many to believe that the end of the world was at hand.

When the British state pension system was introduced in 1909, one of the questions asked of those applicants in Ireland who lacked documentation was whether they could remember the storm of 1839.

A popular story holds that the storm inspired the Director of Armagh Observatory, the Reverend Romney Robinson, to develop the cup-anemometer, which remains the commonly used wind measuring device as of 2013

 

 

 

1900 Second Boer War: Having already sieged the fortress at Ladysmith, Boer forces attack it, but are driven back by British defenders.

 

The Second Boer War (Dutch: Tweede Boerenoorlog, Afrikaans: Tweede Vryheidsoorlog or Tweede Boereoorlog) was fought from 11 October 1899 until 31 May 1902 between the British Empire and the Afrikaans-speaking Boer settlers of two independent Boer republics, the South African Republic (Transvaal Republic) and the Orange Free State. It ended with a British victory and the annexation of both republics by the British Empire; both would eventually be incorporated into the Union of South Africa, a dominion of the British Empire, in 1910.

 

The conflict is commonly referred to as The Boer War but is also known as the South African War outside South Africa, the Anglo-Boer War among most South Africans, and in Afrikaans as the Anglo-Boereoorlog or Tweede Vryheidsoorlog ("Second War of Liberation" or lit. "Second Freedom War") or the Engelse oorlog (English War).

 

The Second Boer War and the earlier, much less well known, First Boer War (December 1880 to March 1881) are collectively known as the Boer Wars.

 

 

 

Boer Commandos at Spioenkop

 

 

 

Lizzie van Zyl, visited by Emily Hobhouse in a British concentration camp

 

 

British casualties lie dead on the battlefield after the Battle of Spion Kop, 24 Jan. 1900

 

 

Emily Hobhouse campaigned for improvement to the appalling conditions of the concentration camps. She helped to alter public opinion and to force the government to improve conditions in the camps, resulting in the Fawcett Commission.

 

Born in St Ives, near Liskeard in Cornwall, she was the daughter of Caroline (née Trelawny) and Reginald Hobhouse, an Anglican rector and the first Archdeacon of Bodmin. She was the sister of Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse, a peace activist and proponent of social liberalism.  She was a second cousin of the important British peace activist Stephen Henry Hobhouse and was a major influence on him.

 

Her mother died when she was 20, and she spent the next fourteen years looking after her father who was in poor health. When her father died in 1895 she went to Minnesota to perform welfare work amongst Cornish mineworkers living there, the trip having been organised by the wife of the Archbishop of Canterbury. There she became engaged to John Carr Jackson and the couple bought a ranch in Mexico but this did not prosper and the engagement was broken off. She returned to England in 1898 after losing most of her money in a speculative venture. Her wedding veil (that she never wore) hangs in the head office of the "Oranje Vrouevereniging" (Orange Women's Society) in Bloemfontein, the first women's welfare organisation in the Orange Free State, as a symbol of her commitment to the uplifting of women.

 

 

 

5th

 

 

John Edward Redmond (1 September 1856 – 6 March 1918) was an Irish nationalist politician, barrister, MP in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party from 1900 to 1918. He was a moderate, constitutional and conciliatory politician who attained the twin dominant objectives of his political life, party unity and finally in September 1914 achieving the promise of Irish Home Rule under an Act which granted an interim form of self-government to Ireland. However, implementation of the Act was suspended by the intervention of World War I, and ultimately made untenable after the Conscription Crisis of 1918.

He was the elder brother of Willie Redmond and father of William Archer Redmond, both of whom were to serve as MPs in his party.

 

John Redmond satirised by the suffragette movement in 1913. Redmond had said he would never support female suffrage under any circumstances.

Video Paul McCartney

 

1913 First Balkan War: During the Battle of Lemnos, Greek admiral Pavlos Kountouriotis forces the Turkish fleet to retreat to its base within the Dardanelles, from which it did not venture for the rest of the war.

 

 

 

 

1974 – An earthquake in Lima, Peru, kills six people, and damages hundreds of houses.

 

 

 

4th

 

1490 Anne of Brittany announces that all those who would ally with the King of France will be considered guilty of the crime of Lese-majesty.

 

 

 

BULL FAR.S

 

Atlas (mythology)

 

 

In Greek mythology, the Titans (Greek: ΤιτάνTi-tan; plural: ΤιτᾶνεςTi-tânes) were a primeval race of powerful deities, descendants of Gaia (Earth) and Uranus (Sky), that ruled during the legendary Golden Age. They were immortal giants of incredible strength and were also the first pantheon of Greek gods and goddesses.

 

In the first generation of twelve Titans, the males were Oceanus, Hyperion, Coeus, Cronus, Crius, and Iapetus and the females—the Titanesses—were Mnemosyne, Tethys, Theia, Phoebe, Rhea, and Themis. The second generation of Titans consisted of Hyperion's children Eos, Helios, and Selene; Coeus's daughters Leto and Asteria; Iapetus's children Atlas, Prometheus, Epimetheus, and Menoetius; Oceanus's daughter Metis; and Crius' sons Astraeus, Pallas, and Perses.

The Titans were overthrown by a race of younger gods, the Olympians, in the Titanomachy ("War of the Titans"). This represented a mythological paradigm shift that the Greeks may have borrowed from the Ancient Near East.

 

 

 

1970 – A magnitude 7.7 earthquake strikes Tonghai County, China, killing at least 15,000 people.

 

.

 

 

3rd

 

 

1911 – A magnitude 7.7 earthquake destroys the city of Almaty in Russian Turkestan.

 

 

The 1911 Kebin earthquake or 1911 Chon-Kemin earthquake, struck Russian Turkestan on 3 January. Registered at a 7.7 magnitude, it destroyed more than 770 buildings (which was almost all of the city) in Almaty, Kazakhstan, and resulted in extensive (125 miles (201 km)[2]) surface faulting in the valleys of Chon–Kemin, Chilik and Chon-Aksu

 

 

 

2nd

 

 

1942 – The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) convicts 33 members of a German spy ring headed by Fritz Joubert Duquesne in the largest espionage case in United States history—the Duquesne Spy Ring.

 

 

Frederick "Fritz" Joubert Duquesne (/dˈkn/; 21 September 1877 – 24 May 1956), sometimes Du Quesne, was a South African Boer soldier, prisoner of war, big-game hunter, journalist, war correspondent, stockbroker, saboteur, spy, and adventurer whose hatred for the British (due to their treatment of Boer women and children) caused him to volunteer to spy for Germany during both World Wars. As a Boer spy he was known as the "Black Panther", but he is also known as "the man who killed Kitchener", since he claimed to have sabotaged and sunk HMS Hampshire, on which Lord Kitchener was en route to Russia in 1916, although forensics of the ship do not support this claim.

As a German spy, he went by the code name DUNN. In 1942, he and 32 other members of the Duquesne Spy Ring were convicted in the largest espionage conviction in the history of the United States.

 

Gold mystery

 

 

Some of the largest gold mines in the world were within Boer territory. Prior to the Second Boer war, much of this gold was sent by rail through the neutral Portuguese harbor of Lourenço Marques (now Maputo), Mozambique to pay for arms and munitions. Apparently, in September and October 1900, some of this gold was shipped to the Netherlands for Boer exiles fleeing the Transvaal, including President Paul Kruger. Duquesne took command of one large shipment of gold that was to be sent by wagon to Lourenço Marques; the gold never made it to its destination. While in the bushveld of Mozambique, a violent disagreement broke out among the Boers. When the struggle ended, only two wounded Boers and Duquesne, and the tottys (native porters), remained alive. Duquesne ordered the tottys to hide the gold in the Caves of Leopards for safekeeping, to burn the wagons, and to kill the two wounded Boers. He gave the tottys all the oxen, except for one which he rode away. What happened to the gold remains a mystery.

 

Duquesne was also a confidence trickster and may have started this "gold mystery" rumour for his personal reasons. The gold records of the Transvaal Republic Mint, as well as the relevant records of the gold mining companies then licenced by the Kruger government for tax purposes, both of which have been exhaustively examined by adventurers seeking validation of the "missing Kruger millions", show no "missing" ox-wagons full of gold. In any event, during the period claimed for this "journey," the Transvaal Republic was bankrupt and Kruger was departing for Holland to [unsuccessfully] raise funds with which to prosecute the war. Duquesne juxtaposed and used these events to identify as a trusted member of the Transvaal Republic political core, which was far from the truth.

 

 

1st

 

1980 – Witnesses report the first of several sightings of unexplained lights near RAF Woodbridge, in Rendlesham Forest, Suffolk, England, United Kingdom, an incident called "Britain's Roswell".

 

 

 

Catering to enthusiasts of the 1980 Rendlesham Forest incident, there is a special UFO trail.

 

^ "UFO files: Rendlesham Forest incident remains Britain’s most tantalising sighting". The Telegraph. June 21, 2013. Retrieved July 13, 2013.

 

 

   
 

 

 

 

 

1948 1948 Arab-Israeli War: Haifa, a major port of Israel, is captured from Arab forces.

 

 

 

 

 

 

PRICE R499.00

 

 

 
  • Witness the rebirth of Israel as a nation

  • Watch modern-day prophecy fulfilled

Israel: A Nation is Born is a five-part video documentary series presented by former Israeli Foreign Minister Abba Eban. It chronicles his recollections of, and his part in, the creation of the State of Israel in 1948, the subsequent conflicts, including the 1967 Six Day War and the 1973 Yom Kippur War; the Egyptian--Israeli peace treaty and the events of the last decade.

Part one portrays the rise of Zionism and President Truman’s mounting pressure for a Jewish State. 

Part two includes the proclamation of Israeli Statehood on May 14, 1948 ad follows the invasion of the newborn State by its Arab neighbors, and the development of the State of Israel in the early 1950’s.

In part three Abba Eban explains how Israel ended its isolation, culminating in the combined Anglo-French-Israeli Sinai Campaign of 1956 and his personal involvement in bringing Adolf Eichmann to trial in Israel.

Part four starts with events surrounding the Six Day Ware of 1967. Eban leads diplomatic efforts at the United Nations resulting in resolution 242. 

Part five opens with the 1973 surprise attack by Egypt and Syria also known as the Yom Kippur War. Abba Eban describes his personal communications with King Hussein and other Arab leaders and outlines the beginning of a new peace process through the Madrid Conference and beyond.

5 DVD discs - 270 minutes

 

 

 

 

1 Calling me Home

 

 

Barry McGuire Callin Me Home Live Version

 

 Barry McGuire,

 

 

 

The Beautiful Side of Evil -

Johanna Michaelsen

 


1.06.47

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 
World War II

 
Adolf Hitler salutes his troops as they march towards Poland 1 September
1939: Germany invades Poland
 

German forces attack Poland across all frontiers and its planes bomb Polish cities, including the capital, Warsaw - Britain and France prepare to declare war.
 


 
Neville Chamberlain in recording studio 3 September
1939: Britain and France declare war on Germany
Britain and France are at war with Germany following the invasion of Poland two days ago.
 

 
Winston Churchill (c), Air Minister Sir Kingsley Wood, (l), Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden (r) 10 May
1940: Churchill takes helm as Germans advance
German forces invade the Low Countries by air and land, while in London, Chamberlain is replaced by Churchill.
 

 
Troops board ship at Dunkirk 4 June
1940: Dunkirk rescue is over - Churchill defiant
As the last Allied soldier leaves Dunkirk, the British Prime Minister vows his forces "shall never surrender".
 

 
German soldiers parade through the Place de la Concorde 14 June
1940: German troops enter Paris
German troops march into Paris forcing French and allied troops to retreat.
 

 
World War II
10 Jul 1940: Luftwaffe launches Battle of Britain

 
07 Sep 1940: London blitzed by German bombers

 
15 Sep 1940: Victory for RAF in Battle of Britain

 
15 Nov 1940: Germans bomb Coventry to destruction

 
22 Jun 1941: Hitler invades the Soviet Union

 
14 Aug 1941: Secret meetings seal US-Britain alliance

 
07 Dec 1941: Japanese planes bomb Pearl Harbor

 
11 Dec 1941: Germany and Italy declare war on US

 
15 Feb 1942: Singapore forced to surrender

 
15 Apr 1942: Malta gets George Cross for bravery

 
07 Jun 1942: Japanese beaten in Battle of Midway

 
19 Aug 1942: Allies launch daring raid on Dieppe

 
04 Nov 1942: Rommel goes on the run at El Alamein

 
01 Dec 1942: Beveridge lays welfare foundations

 
17 Dec 1942: Britain condemns massacre of Jews

 
02 Feb 1943: Germans surrender at Stalingrad

 
16 May 1943: Germans crush Jewish uprising

 
17 May 1943: RAF raid smashes German dams

 
10 Jul 1943: Western Allies invade Sicily

 
25 Jul 1943: Italian dictator Mussolini quits

 
03 Sep 1943: Allied troops invade mainland Italy

 
08 Sep 1943: Italy's surrender announced

 
01 Dec 1943: Allies united after Tehran conference

 
27 Jan 1944: Leningrad siege ends after 900 days

 
18 May 1944: Monte Cassino falls to the Allies

 
05 Jun 1944: Celebrations as Rome is liberated

 
06 Jun 1944: D-Day marks start of Europe invasion

 
20 Jul 1944: Hitler survives assassination attempt

 
01 Aug 1944: Uprising to free Warsaw begins

 
25 Aug 1944: Paris is liberated as Germans surrender

 
17 Sep 1944: Airborne invasion of Holland begins

 
26 Sep 1944: Airborne troops retreat from Arnhem

 
03 Oct 1944: Poles surrender after Warsaw uprising

 
17 Dec 1944: Germany counter-attacks in Ardennes

 
27 Jan 1945: Auschwitz death camp liberated

 
07 Feb 1945: Black Sea talks plan defeat of Germany

 
14 Feb 1945: Thousands of bombs destroy Dresden

 
23 Feb 1945: US flag raised over Iwo Jima

 
15 Apr 1945: British troops liberate Bergen-Belsen

 
21 Apr 1945: Red Army enters outskirts of Berlin

 
27 Apr 1945: Russians and Americans link at Elbe

 
28 Apr 1945: Italian partisans kill Mussolini

 
01 May 1945: Germany announces Hitler is dead

 
07 May 1945: Germany signs unconditional surrender

 
08 May 1945: Rejoicing at end of war in Europe

 
21 Jun 1945: US troops take Okinawa

 
16 Jul 1945: Allied leaders gather at Potsdam

 
26 Jul 1945: Churchill loses general election

 
06 Aug 1945: US drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima

 
09 Aug 1945: Atom bomb hits Nagasaki

 
15 Aug 1945: Allied nations celebrate VJ Day

 
02 Sep 1945: Japan signs unconditional surrender

 
24 Oct 1945: United Nations Organisation is born

 
20 Nov 1945: Nuremberg trial of Nazis begins

 

 

Genocide Under the Nazis

Genocide Under the Nazis (The Holocaust)

Genocide Under the Nazis (The Holocaust)

Why did Nazi Germany kill millions who did not conform to its ideas of racial-biological 'purity'?

Descent into Genocide

Genocide Under the Nazis Timeline

Genocide Under the Nazis Timeline

This unique timeline allows you to judge if you too would have accepted the drip-drip of events that led to murder on an unimaginable scale.

BBC Archive: Witnessing The Holocaust

 

Who Were the Guilty?

Who Were the Guilty?

Who Were the Guilty?

Relatively few of those involved in the genocides of World War Two ever faced justice, but the question of guilt remains. By Omer Bartov.

 

 

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